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sent themselves under a view entirely tion of insulated facts. For, were this new. A revolution in many parts of doctrine true, uncertainty must attend chemical philosophy is at hand, and per. all the operations of chemistry, and the haps it will be found that the progress of powers and laws of chemical affinity knowledge is not sufficiently' adyanced could never admit of being numerically to expect the permanent establishment expressed, or bycome the subject of cal. of any systein of chemistry, which, like culation. 'Dr. Davy stated, that, in all that of astronomy, will derive additional the cases where two substances were condrination from the observations of separated from their combinations by a each succeeding age... We ought not, third, having a weaker affinity, the expe however, to soffer the brilliancy of Dr. riment had not been accurately made, Davy's discoveries to impose upon our The sulphat of barytes, pr barytes judginent; it is desirable that his con, united with the sulphuric acid, for wbich clusions should be examined with the it has a greater affinity than any known same freedom, and the same candour, substance, had been separated from its with which he has opposed preceding combination ty potass; but Dr. D. as theories. It is our intention in the fol. serted, that when this had been done, iç lowing Numbers of our Magazine, to pre- had been done by double affinity; the tent oor readers with a general view of carbonio acid of the potass uniting with his experiments and discoveries, that the barytes, and the sulphuric with the bear immediately upon received systems potass. When pure potass was used, of philosophy, in which we shall include and the experiment was made in vacuo, those he is announcing in his present no decomposition of the sulphat of dectares at the Royal Institution. We barytes was effected, whateyer propor, shall in this Number advert to some new tion of potass might be used in the ex. opinions, which, if established, are of periments. In all the other cases which cousiderable importance in practical he bad repeated, the decomposition of chemistry, and other branches of natural the substances having more powerful philosophy. In his second lecture he affinities by weaker ones, had been cases stated, that he had by decisive experi- of double affinity in some instances, the ments proved the doctrines of Berthollet water of sulution had itself formed a part respecting chemical affinity to be erro. of one of the new compounds." Deous, Bergman, and foriner chemists, Every practical chemist will be des who had treated on this subject, had sirous to see a full detail of these expealways supposed that two substances riments, by Dr. Davy, He will also be which combine with a powerful chemical anxious to kņow how Dr. Davy will er. affinity for each other, could not be plain those cases of double elective separated from this combination by a affinities, in which the quantities em third substance, which had a weaker ployed appear materially to affect the nibnity to either of then, whatever quan, results. It is stated by Dr. Henry, that, tity of the third substance be employed if one part of common salt be mixed in in the experiment. This was the uni. a inortac with half its weight of red oxyd Versally-established opinion, till the con of lead, and made into a paste with lebrated Berthollet, by a variety of ex- water, no decomposition takes place after periments, which were adinitted as con. twenty-four hours. Increase the weight clusive, made it appear that the most of the oxyd of lead to three or four times powerful combinations might be decom that of the salt, and a decomposition of pounded by substances with weaker the salt will be effected. Before it can chemical affinities. This doctrine is pe adinitted that the quantity, or mass, advanced in his “ Chemical Statics,"), and has no effect on chemical affinities, it bis " Researches respecting Chemnical remains to be proved, tbat in cases of Affinity," and this law established: double, as well as of single, elective afüs "In comparing the affinities of 'iwo bo pities, the increase of quantity has no dies for a third, a weaker afanity in one effect on the result, farther than satura, of the two, will be compensated by ina' ting a grenter or smaller quantity of one creasing the quantity." It was much of the substances decompounded. easier to admit the authority of Bershol. "The peculiar views of Dr. Davy re, let, sbau to repeat and varv his expe- specting animal heat, will be the subject Piments; bis doctrine was gerierally re. of future remark. In the present Nuine ceived, and cheinistry was degraded from her, we shall notice those opinions on Ile rank of a science, to a inere collec- this subject, which he delivered this year
in his third lecture at the Royal Institu. principle, that evaporation of every kind tion; becanse, we conceive they are not pruduces cold. M. De Laroche the supported by the experiments which Younger, published some experiments, have been made in this country, and made in common with Mr. Berger, in those very recently made in France, re- which, these two philosophers observed lating to respiration and animal heat. a very sensible augmentation of heat Dr. Davy stated, that he believed ani in animals exposed to a bigb ternpera. mal heat was not produced by the ab- ture, in atmospheres of sufficient humi: sorption of uxygen, in the act of respira- dity to prevent the transpiration of tion, as Crawford had supposed; but, moisture both from the skin and the that it was the result of all the changes lungs. Ile stated, that animals, under and organic actions which were taking such circumstances, increase in beat to a place in living animal bodies. He said certain point, beyond the medium degree that Mr. Brudie had lately exhibited of their own natural temperature, and some experiments before the Royal Som the temperature of the room in which 'ciety, in which the nerbes connected they are inclosed, because the heat prowith respiration, had been destroyed, duced by their respiration, is added to and life and circulation continued, but that of the atmosphere which surrounds unattended with the production of ani- them. He has thus refuted a chimerical mal heat. Whence he inferred, that the property attributed to the vital princiservous system was more necessary to .ple, and has proved that the illusion its production than the sanguineous, or arises solely from the cause suspected than respiration and circulation. Of the by Franklin.” manner in which these experiments M. Depuytren, a little time since, made were conducted, we were not informed; experiments, which appear, in some de. bot, from what we have since learn- gree, to sanction the conclusions of Dr. ed, we believe, that air was forced by Davy, froin similar experiments of Mr. a pair of bellows into the lungs of a Brodie, which we have stated. These rabbit, after the nerves connected with experiments consisted in cutting the the lungs had been cut. This experiment eighteenth pair of nerves which go to the appears to us to have been improperly larynx, the lungs, the beart, and the conducted, if it were intended to decide stomach. As soon as the section was the cause of animal heat. A current of made, the animal began to languish and air blown into the lungs, miglit itself die, and the blood ceased to acquire the lower the temperature of the body. The arterial quality in its passage through the experiments of the French 'philosophers lungs, alihougla the necessary functions appear less liable to objection, as a pas. of respiration were not deranged in a gage was opened to the lungs, in order to degree proportionate to such an effect. admit access of air atier the section of Mr. Blainville lias taken up the subject, the nerves had been made. The respi. and opposed the conclusions of Mr. Due ration which had been suspended, re puytren; he has observed, after the secsumed its action, accompanied with the tion of the same pair of nerves, derange. usual change of the venous into arterial ments in the functions of the stomach, blood. These experiments we shall state which have contributed as much to the here, as we believe no account of the death of the animal, as the derange. has yet been published in this country. ments of the pulmonary functions. He We shall introduce them with observing has even decided, after these experiments, that Dr. Davy gave an account of the that there is no interruption in the experiments of Dr. Fordyce and others, change of the venous into arterial blond. in which animals had been copfined in M. Dumnas, prosessor at Montpellier, rooms heated to more than 212 degrees, having opened a passage for the air to and, after reinaining a considerable time, the lungs of those animals, which bad the temperature of the blood was not suffered the operation, of cutting the raised more than two degrees. This ef- nerves, has seen that respiration re fect Dr. Davy attributed to the force of sumes its action upon the blood. It is the vital principle controling the agency proved by a variety of other experiments, of material elements.
(of which an account is given in the re. “Dr. Franklin suspected that the ex. port of the National Institute,) that, when planation of this fact must be sought in this operation is performed, and there is the increased perspiration which the beat venous blood, the animal has experi. occasions, it being an acknowledged enced suržucation from a sudden coor:
utriction of the larynx, and this effect was firmly convinced. A very short time takes place soonest in young animals. previous to his death, he wrote a friend The effect of the operation is tu prevent of ours in Yorkshire, expressing his firm the access of air to the lungs'; but, when belief, that before the expiration of ten another passage is opened, respiration is years, the fact would be fully establishcarried on, and the change of venous ed, and the illusions, respecting many into arterial blood takes place, in the parts of the new theory of ehemistry, same manner as before the section of the be completely destroyed by future disco. nerves.
veries. The voltaic battery, made use of It was announced by Dr. Davy, that in these experiments, is the most power he had, by the action of the volcaic ful instrument of the kind which has yee battery, produced hydrogen, or inflamma been constructed. The striking distance ble air, from carbon, and some of the of the discharge was more than one inch metals; and he believed, that future diso in vacuo. All the metals which were coveries would prove that hydrogen form- "acted on by it, immediately fused; oil, ed a constitueiit part of all infiammable water, and spirit of wine, were rapidly substances. He exhibited the fusion of decomposed, and vivid sparks given ouc platina in vacuo, by a powerful voltaic pile from the wires, which were immersed of 2000 plates, which is the first time the in the fluids, and connected with the experiment had been shewn. During two extremities of the plates.. Dr. Davy the fusion, intense light and heat were informed us, that be believed the full produced, and very vivid scintillation's shock from it would occasion instanta were emnitted from the platina, which, nenus death. He once, by accident, reDr. Davy supposed, were occasioned by ceived a shock from a thousand plates, the separation of an elastic gas, probably but, the discharge being made upon the hydrogen. The fact of the separations dry cuticle of the hand, which is an im, ei hydrogen from carbon and the inetals, perfect conductor, the force of the shock is highly important: if Dr, Davy's con- was much weakened; and, though it was clusion be established, it will lead to the extremely painful, he did not receive any revival of that part of the phlogistic permanent injury. On examining his system, which considered bydrogen as hands, he found the skin burned in that the base of metals and other inflamınable part where the discharge had been sustances. Of this opinion Dr. Priestley made.
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL.
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.
THE Emperor Napoleon, in order to pieces of that art, and we learn that the I give its proper weight to the French works of the French painters are equally language, and to simplify the acquirement transcendant. As one instance of Na. of useful knowledge, bas ordered that all poleon's patronage of engraving, he lately exercises and theses in the universities placed 1,200,000 francs at the disposal throughout France, shall be performed of the proprietors of the magnificent se and written in French; and that a ries of engravings called the Musée Nam knowledge of Latin and Greek shall, in poleon, to enable then to finish it in the no department of his government, be style in which it has been commenced. deemed a qualification for degrees, li is nut a little singular that inen of. ranks, or offices, either political, inedie letters, chemists, and mathematicians, cal, legal, or clerical. The prescriptions are preferreet and employed, in every deof physicians are to be in French, and the pariment of the French government; service of the church is no longer to be and that the Institute, and every thing perforined except in the vernacular tongue. appertaining to art and science, is des .: By an English artist just arrived from scribed as being eminently distinguished Paris, it appears, that the arts of paint and encouraged ; at the same time, that ing, sculpture, and engraving, are care an inquisitorial police strikes terror into mert to the highest point of perfection in every family, and a general distrust and trat capital. We bave indeed seen some want of confidence paralyses every pri. French engravings recently imported by vare energy of the people; and con. Colnaghi and Molteoo, which are mastera mercial credit and trade are exeq in a
worse state in France than they are in 1810; containing an account of the nat *England. .
nufactures, commerce, productions, &c. The known taste and love of letters with biographical anecdotes, and a view possessed by the Prince Regent of Eng of Spain under tbe Mabommedai domnis land will, we are confident, create an ho- nion. nourable rivalry in this species of pas - Dr. MILLAR, lecturer on Materia tronage, shoold it so happen that his Medica, in the University of Glasgow, Royal Highness continues to wield cbe bas in the press Disquisitions on the power with which, with so much satisfac. History of Medicine; exhibiting a view tion to the country, tie has lately been of pbysic as observed to exist during invested. The letter of Mr. HAYTÉP remote periodo, aod among nations not will explain his Royal Highness's atten, far, advanced in refinement. . ţion to one of the most interesting bites Mr. HAMILTON BRUCE is preparing, fary topics of this age; 'and we venture from authentic sources, an elaborate works to inform the public, that the period giving a detailed account of all the Scor. will be Augustan, in regard to arts and dish families of note, froin the peopling letters,' whenever it may so happen of Scotland by the Scythians to che pre. that bis Royal Highness shall be perma- sent era ; also a copious account of the nently clothed with the executive author different Scottish manarchs, and their rity of the realm. We hail the period existing posterity. when the governments of England, as The Rev. Johnson GRANT, will spee: well those of France and America, shall dily publish the first volume of a unite in exciting a literary and scientibo Sinamary of the History of the English competition among their subjects; and Church, and of the Sects which have hope to survive that iran age, in which, separated from it, from the earliest pe muhappily, the only competition has been riods to the Reign of James the First.. in cutting of throats, and in arts of inu- .M. WILSON has in the press, and tuat înjury and destruction.,
nearly ready for delivery, a second edi. . In the course of ehe ensuing month, tion of the Analysis of Country Dancing the new edition of the Rev. Mr. Disa with numerous additions and improves Din's Bibliomania, which is now entitled ments; consisting of a great number of
Bibliographical Romance, will niake new figures, with some entire new reels, its appearance. It is in six partsand a plan for composing to any tune and will contain upwards of 600 pages; one thousand different figures; together being a review of our most eininent with the complete Etiquette of the Ball. scholars and book-collectors from king Room; embellished with nearly 260 enAlfred to the late Mr. Gough; with an gravings on wood, by BERRYMANA account of their libraries. In the course T he first volume of the Transactions of the volume, there is a copious list, of the Geological Society, in quarto, : with particular notices, of the most vae with many plates, is in the press, and luable Foreign Catalogues ; including the will be ready for poblication in the month public 'ones of our own country. of May next.
We are requested to correct a state : The Rev. Dr. T.D. WHITAKER, the ident which appeared in our last, re- historian of Whalley and Craven, an erspecting the publication of Mr. DIBDIN'S roneous report of whose death has been English De Bure. This work will noc circulated in some of the provincial pabe published these two years. At the pers, has in the press a new edition of same time we are requested to state, that the Vision of Piers Plowman, printed the gecond volume of the new edition of from MSS. of higher antiquity than any Ames's Typographical Antiquities is als that have yet been collated, and forining ready gone to press.
a text almost entirely different from that Sir John Carr has in forwardness for of Crowley, together with a prefatory publication Descriptive Sketches of the dissertation, parapbrases, glossary, and South-east Parts of Spain, and of the notes. i Island of Majorca, Minorca, Sardinia, Dr. JosePH READE, of Cork, has in Sicily, and Malta, during a tour in those the press Critical and Practical Observa. countries in 1809 and 1810; accompa- rions on the Diseases of the Inner Core nied by engravings of views taken on the ner of the Human Eye, with a new arspot.
rangement and method of cure. • Mr. W. JacoB has in the press, in a Mr. BENJAMIN GIBSON, vice-president quarto volugre, with plates, Travels in of the Literary and Philosnphical Society Spain, in Letters writteu in 1809 and of Manchester, and surgeon to the Man
chester Infirmary, will shortly publish The Provost and Senior Fellows of Practical Observations on the Formation Trinity College, Dublin, have conferred of an Artificial Pupil in several deranged an honorary degree of LL.D. on ProStates of the Eye; to which are annexed fessor Dryy, in testimony of their admi. Remarks on the Extraction of soft Cata-, ration of the extraordinary discoveries racts, and those of the membraneous made by him in his Electro-chemical Kind, through a Puncture of the Cornea, · Philosophy, and communicated in lois late The work will be illustrated by plates. course of lectures at the Dublin Society.
A Report of the Speeches of the late The Directors of the British Institution Mr. Fox in the House of Commons, from for promoting the Fine Arts in the United his entrance iuto parliament in 1768 to Kingdom, have given notice, that the the close of the session of 1806, is pre- three following premiums are proposed paring.
to be given for Pictures, by Artists of, or The Rev. JOHN MITFORD will soon resident in, the United Kingdom, painted publish " Agnes, the Indian Captive;" in the present year, and sent to the Bri: with other poems.
tish Gallery on or before the 4th of Ja. A volume of Latin and English Poems, nuary next : 1st. For the best Picture by Mr. E. B. IMPEY, is in the press, in Historical or Poetical Composition,
The number of Provincial Banks in Three Hundred Guineas.-2d. For the this couniry decreased froin about 280, next best Picture in Historical or Poeris in the beginning of 1799, to about 230, cal Composicion, Two Hundred Guineas. in the beginning of 1797. Since that-3d, For the next best Picture in Hisp period the increase has been truly asto- torical or Poetical Composition, Que nishing. It appears that in 1810 the Hundred Guineas. The Directors retotal number of Banks in Great Britain serve to themselves the power of withwas 796, viz.
holding eiuier of the premiums, if they In London, Westminster, and South-7 think proper. A picture's being painted
wark, incladingebe Bank of England by commission, will not exclude it from In the rest of England - - - 613 coinpetition for the previoins. Any pic. In Wales - -
ture painted for such premium, may (if In Berwick-on-Tweed In the Isle of Man
otherwise worthy) be exhibited for sale
at the Gallery next winter, for the bein Guernsey - In Jersey
nefit of the Artist. : - la Scolland
The magnificent collection of curious
productions of nature and art deposited 796 in the llunterian Museum at Glasgow,
last year received considerable additions Mir. Tuomas Bixcham, of Woodseats, by valuable donations, of which the fol. near Shetfield, has invented an improved lowing may be mentioned : method of making reaping-hooks, which T hree different specimens of Calcspar. is not only at ended with greater facility from the Cave of Strathaird, Isle of Skye, by and expedition in the manufacture, but, The Rev. Dr. MiLeod, Kilmarnock, John as the improved blades are made of cast Locke, Esq. and Hector M‘Lean, student. steel, they must be far preferable for Three polished specimens of Portsoy Serpensbarpness of the edge and durability, tine, by John Mavos, Esq. London.-Speci. The process is as follows: When the mens of Pyrope, or Portsay Serpentine, and steel comes fron; the furvace, it is rolled of Petrified Wood, froun Loch Leagh, by Pro. in a rolling-inill into sheets of proper fessor Muirhead. The Fish Callionymus dimensions. Out of these the blades are Lyra, by John Jos. Dillon, Esq. barrister at cut according to sizes, and the river.
law. A farge specimen of Petrihed Wood,
by Mr. Dinwiddie, of Germistaune.-An anholes pressed out in the fly. Pieces of
cient Urn found in a Cairn, by William Cochiron are then slit for the back, and bent to fit the blades, and the holes are bored
Tane, Esq. of Ladyland.-Twenty-one rough
Garnets from the East Indies, by Major James in them by an upright drill, after which Campbell...-Specimens of the only two Methe back and blade are riveted together, teor Scones that are known to have fallen in These hooks may be made with or with. Britain, viz. one in Yorkshire, 13th Decemour teeth, to suit purchasers; and, noe ber, 1795; another, at Possil, near Glasgow, withstanding the superior quality of tbe 5th April, 1804 ; by Miss Crawford, of Pos. cast-steel blades, they will be afforded, sil.--Thirty-four Silver Medallions of the froni the expeditious inode of manufac present Royal Family of Spain, executed in turc, at nearly as low a price as the old Mexico and the Philippine Iohasids, presented ones.
by a citizen of Glasgow. MONTHLY Mac. No. 210.