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were generously applied towards the reduction of the public expcnces, or, in rewarding the merits and services of eminent characters. But to return to the question: it is to gratify all the above classes, with the last exception; it is to humour and administer to tbe spleen and malice of clumsy, baffled, and dis. appointed, ministers, against a successful loe, who has by their means alone been elevated to his present height of glory and pre-eminence; it is to satisfy their unquenchable thirst after power and patronage, that we are still pursuing a hopeless and indefinite contest, and that we are bleeding at every pore.

2. What huve been the motives and object-- of those persons who are the proniouers and abettors of this war?

Their motives and objects are to enrich themselves and their adherents at the public expence; to accumulate all the wealth, and consequently the power, of the country into their own hands; and by the continuance of a war of unexampled expenditure, and which has created taxes to an amount unknown in any other time or country, to extinguish the middle classes of society, and to depress that spirit of inriependance which, by constitutional exertiuns, could alone defeat their purposes.

3. How are we to account for the apparent apathy and indifference of the great mass-of the people to the destructive, impoverishing, and truly calamitous, effects of this long-protracted war? The answer is variously—as 1. From the gross and general corruption of the times. 2. From the selfishness of the commercial part of the community, which, whilst it maintains by means of war carried on at the expence of others, a proud preeminence in wealth, feels not for the distresses of those who are ruined by the war and its unjust and unequal pressure.

3. From the monopoly of wealth in the hands of a few persons, and the contequent interest which those persons have, and the unfortunate power they possess, of governing and deluding others.

4. From the interest which the numerous classes of individuals adverted to in the answer to question 1, have in the prosecution and continuance nf the war.

5. From the great mass of the people themselves being driven from necessity to get money by every means in their power, whether honest or otherwise; from the consequent destruction of the moral principle, as well as of the means, and even time, to occupy themselves in

the concerns of the state, or in sober reflection on the miseries that await thein: and fourthly, though not lastly, by any means, from the terror that almost every honest individual feels of the consequences to his interest, from any ruistauce to the principles of those on whom they may have dependance. Liverpool, Aor. 8, 1810. Z.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

IN the Life of Mr. Beddocs, lately published by me, an accidental error has been detected, which I should be happy to avail myself of the medium of your Magazine to correct.

From the account given at page 389, it would appear as if Dr. Craufuird bad) expressed a wish that further advice should be called in, when the alarming change had already taken place, which so shortly preceded Dr. Beddoes's dissolution. The fact however is, as I have since been informed, that this wish was expressed not by Dr. Craufuird, but by some members of the family, and, though complied with on his part, was accompanied by a remark that it must necessarily be useless. J. E. Stock. Bristol, Dec. 19,1810.

For the Monthly Magazine.

On Continental Substitutes to re-.

medy the Scarcity O/scgar.

By a German.

THE still-repeated attempts of i ha people of the Continent to find out some tolerable substitute for West India sugar, evidently proves that those already discovered, are nut fully satisfactory, and that all the improvements and refinements of art and science have not been able to supply the obvious deficiency of this almost indispensable article to the comfort of life, to which the greatest part of Europe is condemned, by the stubbornness of a tyrannic usurper. The endeavours of Dr. Achard to procure it from turnips, &o. are toe old and too well-known to need to be mentioned. Two other experiments seem about to share the same fate.

I. M. Parmenticr's Syrup of Grapes. —This syrup was at first so much approved of in the south of France, that in the autumn of 1808 nearly 200,000 cwt. were made, each valued at 100 franks, and it was called Sirop de Parvtentier, to declare the common sentiments of gratitude entertained towards its inventor. In the mouth of December, J 1*07,

1807, M. Foaques, Chimiste Manufac. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,

turier, as lie styles himself, published the Sib,

result of his enquiries into the nature of TN the Monthly Magazine of last

this kind of syrup obtained from grr.pes J. month, I observe a claim to the iu«

growing near Paris, and in the beginning vention of the means of relieving ships in

*>f tire last year, the following remarks: distress by firing a shot fastened to a

1. That"+ hundred weight of the must rope, made by Mr.Carey. I think it but

of these grapes evaporated at the heat of justice to others to mention, that near

SO degrees of M. Reaumur's thermo- twenty years ago, I remember the same

meter, produces 125 pounds of syrup, without any art or extraneous addition, congealing into crystals of a spherical shape; and these being dried on linen cloths, through which all the more fluid moisture passes, a quantity weighing about 75 pounds is left.

2. That there remains, Rfter the crys

mode was suggested by Mr. Edward Brim, a brazier, of Portsea; and the experiment was actually tried, as I understand, in the presence of two naval olhcers of the first eminence. A similar experiment was tried here about fifteen years ago, b^y n Serjeant Bell, of the Artillery. How far Mr. Carey, or Captain

tals are pressed out with proper force, Manby, is entitled to the merit of the dis

60 pounds,

3. That after having been purified and refined, it yields 40 pounds of beautiful cassonade sugar.

4. That, should this be again refined and clarified, so as to possess a whiteness equal to French Orleans sugar, it may be formed into loaves like the West India eugnr, but at a reduction of the quantity to 1<> pounds.

5. That it is in thjs shape so compact and firm in all its parts, as to be able to bear exportation.

6. That a single pound evaporated to sugar lumps, leaves only 10 or 11 ounces.

II. The "Reverend Mr. Schregel'sSugar from the Stalks of Turkey Wheat.—Se

covery, may therefore be very fairly questioned." "W. N.

Fortsca, Jan. 14, 1811.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

IN reply to Whistensis, on the game of Whist, I should conceive when A. A. win two double games, and B. B. on* single, A.A. hare gained/our points: for this reason, viz. A. A.'s two double games constitute a rubber, or fire points; but B.B. having won a single game, deduct it from A. A.'s score, which leaves four points.

If A.A. win two doubles, and B.B.

veral years ago, Mr. Schregel, Pastor of one double, three points are in favor of

Schwedt, tried to extract a syrup from the stalks of Turkey wheat, and the experiments made on a small quantity were ▼ery successful. He sowed a whole acre, Magdeburgb measure, (about 1£ acre English) with five metzen, (somewhat jnore than $ of a bushel) of this'grain, which produced about one zcispel, (or 57j- London bushels,) in grain, and about -250 pounds of leaves, at the same time that four horse-waggon loads of turnips grew in the intermediate spaces. The heads, after the grain is taken off, are a very profitable fuel, and yield ashes, of which one-fourth part is pot

A.A.: likewise, when A.A. win one double and one single, and B.B. one single, A.A. gain three points: when A.A. win one double and one single, and B.B. one double, A.A. gain two: when A.A. win two singles, and B.B. another single, A.A. gain two: when A.A. get two doubles, and B.B. none, A.A. must gain a bumper, which consists of five points; when A.A. get two singles, and B.B. none, A.A. gain three: and, in the instance of A.A. winning two singles, and B.B. one double, A.A. consequently gain only one point thereby.

A.A. and B.B.

ash. Mr. Schregel made n report TM""

on this.subject to the king of Prussia, To the Editor of'the Monthly Magazine. offering to publish instructions relative Sir,

to the best mode of cultivation, and to explain the means by which the whole mij;ht be turned to the greatest advantage. His majesty commanded his privy foiiiisellor, Mr. Thatr, to examine the

YOUR Yorkshire correspondent of last month, 'A Constant Reader," desires I would give him information on the following points: 'The species of grapes formerly raised in the vineyardi facts more closely, and to report ac- of this country; and whether there le any •oidingly. treatise extant in our language, winch

describes

describes tlie method of training the vine, adopter! in the wine countries;" by which expression (wine) 1 apprehend Ins question to extend to the process of making the wine, that precious liquor being naturally the object of the vine culture.

As to the species of grapes formerly in use, I know of no means by. which such information can be obtained, since, not* withstanding our press is overladen with tracts on the subject of almost every article of culture, it is remarkably short on that of the grape. Perhaps some light might be obtained from the compilations of Barnuby Goge, Gervase Markham, and others of their time; and since, from Bradley and Laurence, and from the county histories of those districts more peculiarly adapted by soil and climate to the vine culture. Specchley's Culture of the Vine, is tlie only treatise of the present time, which has reached my knowledge, and with his book I have yet proceeded no farther than the title-page, so cannot asceitain whether it will furnish the desired information. With respect to my own opinion, formed ou probability nnd some enquiry, the sons of grapes used in «ur vineyards of old in Gloucestershire, Kent, Surry, Kssex, and other counties, were the white nnd black, now found among the middling and lower housekeepers of those parts; the same •arieties, in all probability, which are also found in Yorkshire.

The method of training the vine in the wine countries, 1 apprehend, is of little consequence to us, whose climate will not admit its adoption. In consequence, we may always find the necessity of adhering to" our established plan, of confining the out-door culture to our building", unless indeed it might be extended by the mode of sheltered espalier*, of which! ptrrpose to make experiment. Mr. Gibbs, seedsman to the Board of Agriculture, 1 observed, several years since, had some vines at Brompton, trained to stakes ; but as I have not seen them of late, I conclude, although I am not certain, that they did not succeed. However, granting the shelter of a wall is absolutely necessary to the vine in this country, there are very many inhabitants of both town and country, so well provided in that respect, as to be able to raise grapes enough to furnish their own table with wine. In the metropolis even, where, in some parts grapes both black and white, succeed well,« hat an immensity might be grown! But the object is

.to make the wine, after we have provided? the ;:"apes: that is to say, real wine, and not that wretched Sugared and babyslipslop, which passes muster under the denomination of home-made wine; arul winch, were it capable of) making nn Atincreon drunk, it would be rather with eructation than inspiration. Colonel Thornton's late Tour in France, and the Histories of the Cape of Good Hope, .1 think, give some account both of training the vine,, in those parts, and the process of wine-making. Tlie chief difference, as I understand, between their winemanufacture and ours, and one reason of their high superiority, is the total absence of water in thetr process, their wine being the pure fermented juice of the grape, with little or no additional ingredient but brandy; and in the reil wines of Portugal, a certain root, both: for strength and colour sake.

The pure grape-juice of this country, however, it is said on experience, will make nothing but vinegar, it turning sour in a very short time; in course, that our wine-makers are compelled to tlie common process of boiling, and usin;; water and sugar. This arises, we may suppose, from the inferior quality of our grapes, which should yet be a motive to us not to lower that quality still farther by the addition of water; and I have this year made tlie experiment, providing, as far as my small skill will admit, to counteract that acidity which I really found to result, as I had been previously informed. Any farther information on this, or other subjects, in my power to communicate, shall always be most heartily at the service of the Monthly Magazine. Middlesex, Dec. 16. L.

lo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

MIGHT not debtors, and those who are put in prison, but not to be huiii,-, as in America, be made to work to support themselves? Alight not much useful labour, in this way, be performed in the Fleet, the King's Bench, and other prisons in England, as well as Scotland and Ireland. Besides helping to support themselves, and forming a fund, on their release from prison, would not this keep many of them from idle pernicious habits, often the chief cause of their becoming prisoners at all. The making a prisoner work, and live soberly, would naturally tend to reform him from luxurious such acknowledged beauty as the Leasowes, is, in my opinion, no light offence. Such situations become in some sort a national concern, nnd the character of Englishmen is involved in the disgrace. What, shall it be said, that, at the com

wrious habits; for, wh«re sobriety and Ye waten murmer not; ye groves your utility end, luxury begins. shade

Wulthamstow, James Hall. Withhold; and let the summer sun's hot ray

Dec. 15,1810. Scorch him in punishment for such foul i wrong.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. I cannet conclude upon this subject without observing, that to neglect a plan of

HAVING, during an excursion last summer through some of the nun It-western counties, paid a visit to Hagley and the Leasowes, and having visited Hagley first, I was much struck with the vast difference between the ap.

pearance of that and the Leasowcs. Of mencement of the nineteenth century, liagley, my opinion can be conveyed in few words; it is elegance itself: and the very great neatness in which it is kept, does great credit to Lord Lyttelton. As for the Leasowes, it is in-complete ruin, as far as neglect can make it so. But I must say, that there exists yet a certain romantic air, not dependant upon order or neatness, which struck me very forcibly indeed, and sufficient to make it now well worth the attention of all lovers of picturesque beauty. The ascent by Miss Dolman's Urn is beautifuk, and, in my opinion, equals any description by poets or painters. Had there been an

our taste lor the elegant and the beautiful, is gone; that what has been nursed with so much care, is neither regretted* nor disapproved, in being Suffered to go to ruin! Forbid it genius! Forbid it men of taste! Forbid it rnhabitant of the Leaeowes! whoever thou art; and let not the next summer pass without some attempt to renew the former beauty and elegance of the domains of the admired Shenstone.

Whilst upon the subject of poetry and poetic ground, I may be permitted to fill up the corner of the sheet by a close translation of those beautiful lines of

Album in the house, I am not sure that I Catullus, quoted a few Magazines past,

might not have offended hospitality by the following lines:

Rude truth, ingenuous, must the minstrel

sing, Who midst these wilds hath wandered with

regret; Behold! o'er ruins wave our Shenstone's

groves, And the long grass round many a poet's urn, Rankles and rots; where erst the classic teat Which Lyttelton or Thomson deign'd to

grace, Lies down the gross-fed ox, or roving sheep Herd and intrude ; no welcome visitants, Save to the wight whom Fate hath o'er these

shades Unseemly plac'd; the waters roll reproof, And many a spring a gurgling censure

heaves. Spirit of Shenstone, ne'er forgive the wrong, The foul offence against the laws of Taste '. And ye, O sylvan shades! who even now, Amid the ruin rudely scattered round, Inspire the song of other days, and wake Such belter feeling, which even Shenstone's

self Might envy the possession; mirk the steps Of that unseemly wight, whose foul neglect Your very roots shall tell; O let him hear Nor linnet, nor the thrush, nor nightingale, Amongst your quivering leaves; but in their

stead Let the owl's daily and nocturnal hoot for ever round his dwelling si ill be heard j MosiatY Mao. No, 209,

in your Lyceum of Ancient Literature, beginning " Utflos inseptissecretus," &c. Some copies, I observe, have " Nullo convulsut aratro;" your's is, "Nullo contusui aratro," in the next line. Perhaps the difference is not very material; however, I prefer convulsut.

As springs the flower in gardens fene'd around,

Unknown to beasts, no plough disturbs the ground;

Soft airs improve it; sun and showers conspire.

Of youths and maidens many the desire;

The same when clopp'd, its beauties all decay'd,

No more's desir'd by any youth or maid;

So, while the virgin yet untouch'd remains,

She's dear to friends, belov'd of all tha swains;

But when deflower'd, her charms no more appear,

Or sweet to youth, or to the maidens dear. Jan. 2, 1811. Somersetiensis.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

1HAVE but just seen the remark of Londintnsis, p. 41 i. >le calls no names, and I will reply with the respect which he seems to merit. I beg him to recollect tha Marine Society, the deci. C siuu

sion of Mr.' Maltlms on the question of War, and of llie Bishop of Landufr', in ^ply to Payne. I apprehend tbat there is less vice in a tine-nf-battlc ship than a manufactory; and if 150,000 persons are at once thrown out of employ, burglaries, &c. may be expected: I have seen numbers of invalided soldiers, improved characters. As to Brilanicus, who, in his heavy, dry, obtuse baiting, has railed at tne, and contradicted all the great writers on law and political economy, though I put my name, and wrote with temper and good intention, he will of course sing out,

Rule BriUMii, Britaria rule the waves,
For Briortt never shall be slaves.

([ presume he will leave out a t, because lie has left out an »,) which I shall applaud greatly with Shakespeare's owl, echoing

Tu-whit, tu-whoo, a mrrry note;

a degree of spirits, at which this hardworking writer will be surprised.

T. D. Fosbrooke.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

1HEH.E present you with a subject of some importance to all Europe, and to I he history of the world. I send it without comparing its contents with the properties of things relating to it. I must'acknowledge, that in my first attempting the following investigation, I had some apprehensions of failure, from the consideration of the unsuccessful labours of the learned of every age, on the same subject. But when I reflected, that, of the import of old names, scarcely one in five hundred had been rightly rendered; and that among the attempts rif the learned, the names which have been explained in your Magazine had been as much mist ikon as to import, as the names Cilia: and Cymbri: when, in fine, I have abundantly shewn, that the meaning of old names is no mystery; that they were contrived in a very early age of the world, and formed with great art, whilst mankind used the same tonus tor the same features of Nature; and tbat at this day these terms, or their roots, are to be found m the Celtic language: I say, when 1 considered these things, I saw no more reason for relinquishing my enquiries on the words Ceihrand CtyOT&n',tlianI had during my investigation of the word Calethnii, who were the ancient Highlanders; but

of whom learned men had been as much mistaken, as they now are concerning the C'clta: and the Cimbri.

"The best author on the subject of the Celtes," says General Vallancey, "is Monsieur Brigande, who, in 1762, published a small pamphlet, addressed to the learned academies of Europe, under the title of Dissertation sur les Celtes Brigantes; printed at Breghente dans le Tirol."

The following letter is also on the Celtes, which I address to those who will carefully examine the subject.

It is granted by historians, that fathers, and heads of families, were the first sovereigns, and that the patriarchal was the most ancient form of government. Hence mankind must have originally migrated in families; and time and necessity only, from the great number of these, formed nations. The first inhabitants coming in families, brought no national name; nor were any denominations first given to places, but such as their natural situations implied. In time, however, tribes became numerous, and more general communication with each other became necessary; and now denominations of villages and districts were regulated, and more distinct appellations were given them.

In Britain there were few inland provinces, and the maritime districts took synonymous names, expressive of their situations on the sea, in the same manner as towns on streams, from the water which flowed by them. But provinces in kingdoms took also names from their hills, tram streams, and other features; and, as lands were to be portioned and distinguished by names, for knowing one part from another, so also would the different districts of kingdoms be distinguished, in which these portions were situated. Hence then were kingdoms very early divided into portions, and soon after into provinces. But kingdoms were not only divided thus, but continents must also have been thus divided into nations and kingdoms: and, as to the people of provinces would be given a provincial name, so also to the inhabitants of kingdoms would be given a national name, corresponding with their natural boundaries ami situations.

These principles, Mr. Editor, cannot reasonably be controverted. The word Celtes has been supposed to be a name. given in the earliest ages to the descendants of Corner ; and it hath always been understood that his progeny peopled,

nearly

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