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consideration," says' sir William Jones, such a nature, as to require that I should

" that the profession of literature, by far expatiate a little on the history of the * the most laborious of any, leads to no periods which have been most celebrated Teal benefit or true glory whatsoever for producing examples of literary emie Poetry, science, letters, when they are nence. Indeed, without an acquaintance not made the sole business of life, may with the historical events of the age in become its ornaments in prosperity, and which any great writer fourished, and its most pleasing consolation in a change without a knowledge of what peculiar of fortune; buc if a man addicts himself advantages be enjoyed, or of what pe. entirely to learning, and hopes by that culiar disadvantages he laboured under, either to raise a family, or to acquire we are destitute of a grent additional what so many wish for and so few ever source of pleasure. For instance, there obtain an honourable retirement in his are few so totally devoid of taste, as to decliving age, he will find, when it is too be unable to relish the great and natural late, that he has mistaken his path; that beauties of Homer, although they be iga other labours, other studies, are neces. norant of his life, and of the circumsary; and that unless he can assert his scauces of the times in which he lived. own independence in active life, it will But how greatly inust their surprise, avail him little to be favoured by the pleasure, and adiniration, increase, when learned, esteemed by the eminent, or they are informed that the author of recommended even by kings." A dise poems, which evince a most luxuriant quisition of this kind resembles an exten- imagination combined with the greatest Sive territory, in which are scattered in knowledge of nature, and most extensive profusion all the beauties of nature, acquaintance with the manners of inanwhose extent deters the dull and indo. kind, lived at a barbarous period, when lent from entering it ; while the pleasant his native country, Greece, was torn by objects which is presents to view, fully internal commotions; and that he was a repay the active and persevering for their wanderer, and blind during a great part labour.

of his life. • The delights and advantages resulting This undertaking requires neither any from literary acquisitions are universally peculiar effusions of fancy, nor any re. acknowledged. There are few su igno- markable felicity of diction. It huwever rant as to be unable to extol them, and requires a considerable degree of dilifew so uncultivated as not to wish for gence, in order to collect sufficient lie their enjoyment. They are the general terary facts and biographical anecdotes; topics of discourse, the general sulyjects some judgment will also be necessary of declamation. This general confession to select and arrange the materials, when of the utility of literature, renders edu- obtained. If, therefore, my readers will cation more general; education promotes allow me the credit of possessing these the diffusion of knowledge and learning; two qualifications, I shall consider the which contributes to general happiness, time and trouble fully repaid. by affording a source of useful occupation. In the execution of this plan, I shall and racional entertainment.

probably introduce critiques on the It is delightful to observe, in the ocaan works of different authors, and compaof time, some few who have been able to risons of the respective merits of many, elevate themselves above the undistin- who have excelled in the branches of guished mass with which it is covered, literature which they made the subject without possessing any previous advan- of their contemplation, and who are supe tages superior to those of their fellow. posed to resemble one another in many combatants; and when they sank, have respects. Neither shall I confine mye left a mark which not even succeeding self wholly to an account of the state storms could eradicate. Those were the of literature; but I shall take frequent men who have soared above the common opportunities of mentioning the prevails race of mortals, and to whose elevation ,ing habits and customs, together with we look up with awe and admiration, the progress of laws, arts, and sciences,

I shall now endeavour to give an ac- , in the countries of which I may happen count of the progress of literature from to treat, particularly in Greece and the earliest periods to the appihilation of Rome, many of whose laws, &c. we the Roman empire, which, together with have adopted. the destruction of the Alexandrian lie A n account of the Greek and Roman brary, occasioned the suspension of li- writers must necessarily engage the teratur., arts, and sciences.

greatest part of my altention, since in The task which I now undertake is of them alone we are indebted for our MONTHLY Mao, No. 210.

knowledge knowledge, however little, concerning period with those whose names ļ bare the preceding ages; with the exception mentioned. A knowledge, however lit. of the Jewish writers, who have related dle, of the following writers, who flou. no more concerning the history of other rished in the Roman Augustan äge, is countries thao was absolutely necessary also necessary to those who world be from its counection with that of their esteemed men of learning : viz. Catule own. Hence, I shall enlarge upon the Jos, Lucretius, Terence, Virgil, Horace, two great literary ages among the an. Tibullus, Propertius, Ovid, Phadrus,. cients; the former of which, named the Cæsar, Cicero, Livy, Sallust, Varro, ang Grecian Age, commenced about the time Vitruvius. of the Peloponnesian war (a period no Such being the importance of an aco less celebrated for its warriors, than for quaintance with these two literary pes its writers and artists,) and terminated riods, I shall expatiate to a considerin the time of Alexander the Great: and able length on the principal writers in the latter of which included the reigns them, and afterwards proceed to state of Julius and Augustus Cæsars; and, like the chief causes of the decline of literthe former age, was distinguished also ature among the ancients. I shall by its generals and conquerors. In each conclude with the devastation of the Roof these periods, the poet and historian man empire, by barbarians, and the do concurred in rendering immortal the struction of the Alexandrian library, by victorious general, or the object of po- Omar. (To be continued.) - ,pular approbation. The historian exerted all his faculties, and employed all the For the Monthly Magazine. arts of eloquence and high-colouring, in JOURNAL of a recent VOYAGE to CADIZ.. order to magnify the prowess, or exag- V OU have seen how we have hiç

erate the achievements, of him whose I therto been deceived on the actions he adinired, or whose favour he state of affairs with the enemy; if the wished to conciliate; while the poet, Spanish cause do not end in the pres actuated by the same motives, rendered tended deliverance of the country, I do barnony of numbers and poetical li pot think it will be the fault of the peocense, subservient to the saine design, ple, but of their leaders; for there must The greatness of their subjects, their de- be a radical defect somewhere; and if sire of superiority over each other, and the old system of keeping the people in perhaps the peculiar advantages of the ignorance be pursued by the Junta and periods at which they flourished, were the priests, what benefit will the country most probably the chief cause of the ani. obtain should they even succeed in rem mation which those writers in general pelling the French? Ferdiband IV. is possessed who flourished together at the now idolized; he is the watch-word for above-mentioned ages; and which rere the priests, and it is those who frighten ders their perusal such an infinite source the peasants into the belief, that without of pleasure to every one who possesses supporting his cause they shall all be a refined taste and cultivated imagina. slaves. The latter have done their durs tion. On this account, all who have in the field wherever they could neet any pretensions to the characters of the enemy with advantage; but they lovers of literature, are supposed to have have too often been led by traitors; or, it at least a competent knowledge of the they are unsuccessful, the failure is improductions of the best orators, poets, puted to treachery; and it is inuch historians, philosophers, &c.

questioned, whether the Junta is not comFor instance, it is necessary not to be posed of as many members as defective totally ignorant of the works, beauties, in patriotism, as it is of those who renlly or at least subjects, of Herodotus, Thu- may maintain the cause they espouse. cydides, and Zenophon, among the his. They are without energy in their mea. * torians; Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, sures, for they are superannuated old among the philosophers; Demosthenes, men; they are without firmness in their Æschines, and Isocrates, among the decisions, for they are too weak as a orators; Pindar, Æschilus, Euripides, body to enforce them; and they are diSophocles, Aristophanes, Menander, vided in their councils, because one half Anacreon, and Theocritus, among the of them dreads the effects if they should poets; all of whoin lived during the at last be unsuccessful in their pretended Grecian Age, I have here omitted many (I repeat this word) endeavours to save others, of whom we ought to know the country. something, such as Homer and Hesiod, Ic is but a few weeks since Case becauso wiey did not flourish at the same tagos was sent towards Madrid with

. : wenty

treenty thousand men; he met the enemy time so great, that they had assembled unexpectedly near Cuenca; his army re. in the streets, calling out for vengeance treated without scarcely firing a gun; on every Frenchınan they could find. they dispersed in the end, and left their This was on a Sunday; the governor arms and baggage to fall into the hands went to the theatre and informed the of the French. Castanos was accused audience that things were going on well: of treachery, he was sent to be tried at he was believed, their fury was allayed ; Seville, and the people were crying out and at midnight a file of soldiers entered that he should be punished. I cannot the houses of the foreigners, explained learn that his conduct is likely to be ex- the reason of their visit, and in this man. amined into, for he is a prisoner at large ner they arrested upwards of two huna at Seville, and walks whiere he pleases, dred persons. attended by a guard of honour,'*

The countenances of the inhabitants A friend of mine lately came from betray their fears of what will happen; thence, while the French army were at every man suspects his neighbour to be Truxilio, about one hundred and thirty an enemy; the first question in the miles off; he says, he never could morning is, for the news of the day; and have imagined that the inbabitants would the last at night, what report shall we have been so indifferent to their impend- have to-morrow? The streets are ing fate; and that if the enemy had ap. crowded with groupes of men, conceale peared before the place, their careless. ing their desponding looks with the ness was such, that they would rather cloak, and shrugging their shoulders in have yielded to him than have made any · terror; scarcely å smiling face is to be resistance; and that at this very time à seen,. The theatre, it is expected, will French Chargé d'Affairs was permitted be shut; and the governor has issued an to reside there, and received attention address to the people, recommending the from persons connected with the govern- utmost decoruin to be observed there, ment. It seems, that when treachery is even in dress and behaviour; as well as sounded in tbe army, it has its first rise the practice of religion and morality, on from the fountain-head; there is no all occasions. Card-parties are in many doubt now of Morla having given up families suspended, and have given place Madrid, of his wishing to sacrifice every to the making of cartridge-cases, and Spanish army z and by some unaccount. picking lint for the use of the army. able means the Junta and he have con. Certain it is, that the Andalusians trived to blind Mr. Frere, our ambassa- have great reason to dread the presence dor, so far as to make him, according to of the enemy. The short time that Dureport, recal the British army when on pont's army was in command of the proits retreat from the capital, at a moment vince, until its defeat last July, at the when the place had actually been taken battle of Baylen, has sufficiently shewn -by the French. But I am telling you them what is to be expected from their

bat you will be better informed of alo conquerors. The system of plunder that ready; for I dare say, that the facts are they exercised, almost surpasses belief. known in England, while we judge only The most costly and elegant articles of froin contradictory intelligence circu- gold and silver, and the most trivial Jated here.

. trinkets, were taken from the people; In the mean time, there is at length 'whatever had the appearance of being some shew made towards protecting this, valuable did not escape thein; even place; the fortifications are putting into plated buckles and buttons, and paltry a state of defence; the cannon are to be ornaments of dress, in abundance. The mounted on the ramparts, and additional plunder was publicly exposed for sale at forts coustructed. A number of foreigo- the custom-house, and the room ap. ers have been arrested; those who belong peared as if it contained the rummage to any country in alliance with France, of a score of pawn-broker's shops in St. bave had their property embargoed, Giles's. Among other articles were a their shops locked up, and their persons number of pewter-plates, which the arrested; no distinction was made be- owner it seemed had preserved in a tween such as have resided here all their bright polished state, to deceive the lives, and the more recent inhabitants.. eye, and looked like silver, and some Many of them, aware of the event, with large wedges of gold and silver mixed drew to Tangiers, and some are gone to together, by melting of articles which Gibraltar, Tbis measure of the gover- were probably too cumbrous for the nor's has proved to be a humane one; knapsack. for the age of the populace was at one. I have not heard of any singularly

atrociolin

baltle,"

atrocious acts committed by the French goes, and money, upwards of forty mil. soldiery on this occasion in Spain; but lions of dollars." Campany pleasantly I have been well assured, that the com- says, “ that it is time the people should missioners in Portugal who exainined the be undeceived, and be told of the de. plunder of Junot's army, found in the praved intentions of the atrocious Corknapsacks ficgers with rings on them. sican, who, under the title of an ally, had A friend of mine, who was at Lisbon left them without a shirt; and with that just at that time, tells me, that, while the of protector, would take away their skin, French were in the city, it was custo. which was all that reinained belonging mary for the officers to receive invita. to them," tions to dinner, and to card-parties, We may here sag with Addison : among the inhabitants; and that, on one with what a dreadful course he rushes on, of these occasions, the lady of the house From war to war. In vain has nature • had ventured, contrary to the advice of formed her friends, to decorate herself with Mountains and oceans to oppose his passage ; trinkets, &c.; in the course of the even. He bounds o'er all; victorious in his march; ing, the French general, who was pre- The Alps and Pyreneans sink before him; sent, was observed to notice them, and Thro' winds, and waves, and storms, he works

it was concluded that the lady would his way, • soon be obliged to part with them. On Impatient for the battle." the following morning a polite note was During this period, the French having Teceived froin the general, requiring the principal command of the country, their delivery to the bearer; which, of the people were treated as those of a necessity, the fair owner was compelled 'conquered nation, and not as allies, to comply with.

whose blood and treasure were approUntil the last summer, you may re- priated to them. The custom-houses collect, this place had been garrisoned a and public offices were filled by their considerable time by the French, as well appointments, and the courts of justioe as many other parts of Spain, under the were direoted by their will. An instance pretence of attacking Gibraltar. What- occurred which shews the authority of ever the grand motive might have been, the French influence; wherein the conthe government was so weak as not sul, Monsieur Roxant, the resident here, to be able to resist it; and the Prince seized, and procured to be condemned, à of Peace 60 base as to promote it. I Dutch merchantman, with its cargo, bedo not know that I can belter describe cause a mahogany table' was on board to you the yielding disposition of the of English manufacture; pretending, for Spanish cabinet to the will of the French this reason, that the cargo was, and must emperor, and the burdens and losses be, for British account. which it has sustained in consequence of 'The printers used to publish in praise it, than by quoting to you the words of of the French, they dared not do other. Don Antonio de Cainpany, secretary to wise ; and the battle of Trafalgar they the Academy of History, froin an excelwere forbidden to relate, with all its cirJent little pamphlet which he has lately cumstances, although it occurred within published, and dedicated to Lord Hol their sight and hearing; the shopkeepers land, entitled, the “ Centinel."

bent to the times, and for awhile every " To assist an intimate friend and thing was made French. A watch. ally, (Napoleon) or rather to obey him, maker, with more policy than prudence we have had our navy destroyed in less per baps, altered his sign, and signified than six years, by the loss of cight three that he had learnt his profession at deckers, twenty-six of the line, and as “ Paris;” but he has since changed this Inany frigates; our arsenals plundered to notice, and has actually written that he the amount of many millions, and the is a cratch-maker from * Madrid." Joss of twenty thousand sailors. Na The people have now changed their poleon forced from us the maintenance tone; á Frenchman scarcely exists in of troops in money, to the ainount of Cadiz, (the few that are permitted to twelve millions of dollars 2-year; and he remain dare not stir abroad, and they exacted them with the authority of a have the national lock and seals affixed sovereign; and, on the least delay of pay. to their doors). It is dangerous, and parInent, threatened us with conquest. - taking of treason, to speak the French His sovereigniy increased with his power, language, especially in the streets, or unour timidity with our weakness; and in guardedly ainong those by whom one is the three first months of the war with not known. England, the nation lost in ships, car. A few days since, a Frenchman was

shot shot in the street by a volunteer, because native language; they became greatly he refused to surrender himself, and distressed, and his friends have banda defied any one to come near him, by somely contributed to their relief; bac menacing them with his knife; on being it was with much caution that they ventold that if he did not yield he must take tured to assist the husband. The affair the consequences, le composedly folded has now nearly dwindled away, but it is his arms in derision, and ordered the inan not generally know what is hecome of to fire: he levelled his piece, and the the man. That such å trivial affair poor fellow instantly fell dead. Another should have agitated the city for days was stabbed while drinking at a winemay appear strange ; and it will the more shop, because he refused to join in a astonish you when I relate that this « Viva!” to Ferdinand. But the most re- young singer is only a beggar boy, and markable individual punishment that a the most deformed and ugly wretch that Frenchman has undergone, is in the can be seen. The mother mingled pal Case of one who was generally noticed rental affection with her vengeance, and and respected by several genteel famii. exclaimed, at the head of the inob lies; but who, unluckily for him, con- that her child should not be disgraced ceiving he was insulted by a boy who by a blow from a Frenchman without seemed to sing a Spanish national air her avenging it!" purposely to deride him, was so impru. , Caricatures, placards, &c. are now dent as to strike this boy in the street; exhibited in every direction, in ridicule the consequence was, that he was obliged of the French: the Spanish lion is made to fly; a hue and cry was immediately destroying the French eagle. Joseph raised against him; a mob assembled, Bonaparte is represented on his throne they sought hiin, and heard that he had in the character of a drunkard, (which gone to a friend's for protection; this by the bye, is the worst of any in the friend was threatened with the forfeiture eyes of a Spaniard, as intoxication is of his life if he did not discover him; the avoided and despised from the highest to Frenchman was taken, the governor in the lowest) and in his flight from Madrid terfered, and the man was sent to prison, he is on a restive horse, in the act of and ignominiously flogged several times; throwing him, while his crown falls from he was not allowed to see his family, and his head, and he exclaims, “Oh, Spain was nearly starved. The mob in a body has forsaken me because of my cursed could not forget the outrage; they wanted misdeeds !" . his life ; and it was with difficulty that the Among an innumerable quantity of prison could be guarded against them, squibs, is one which whimsically de. This man had a wife and children, de- scribes a military and political barometer pendant on his success in teaching his and thermometer as follows: The wbole nation of Spanish 7 The spirit at these degrees has burst the tube, and will ast

valour and heroism . S graduate at any point. Wickedness, fraud, and deceit, of the pre-lonehu Sumptuous Emperor of the French : Š One hundred degrees above 0.".

(This had rapidly risen to the highest degree, and begins to The fortune of Bonaparte 3 fall equally rapidly, and it is expecced to disappear without

l fixing at any degree.

hundre

SCARCE TRACTS, WITH EXTRACTS AND ANALYSES OF

SCARCE BOOKS.

It is proposed in future to devote a few Pages of the Monthly Magazine to the

Insertion of such Scarce Trects as are of an interesting Nature, with the Use of which se may be favoured by our Correspondents; and under the same Head to introduce also the Analyses of Scarce and Curious Books. .

WILLIAM PENN, and the TRIAL by JURY. Jainaica, during the protectorate of

IVIE great, singular, and intrepid, Croinwell, but also served with applause

1 Englishman, whom it is here pro. under the Duke of York. Having disposed to exhibit in a new point of view, tinguished himself in a sea-fight with the was born in London in the year 1644. Dutch, he was knighted, and adinited His father, who was an admiral of some into favoor, notwithstanding bis scal - bute, not only assisted in the capture of during the usurpation.

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