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• For the Monthly Magazine. . winter; therefore, they sing no hymns; . ERITICAL REMARKS ON SHAKESPEARE.
on SILAKESPEARE. therefore, the moon, provoked by this
omission, alters the seasons;"--that is, MIDSUMMER Night's DREAM.
the alteration of the seasons produces Act I. Scene 1.
the alteration of the seasons. This is My gracious duke,
clearly erroneous. This man hath witched the bosom of my child;
“ The honey-bags steal from the humble Thou, thou, Lysander, thou hast given her
And for wax-tapets crop their waten thighs,
And light them at the fiery glow-wurni's D Y rhimes, seem to be meant some
Act III. Scene 1. D kind of metrical charıns, and not
“I know not," says Dr. Johnson,“ how merely love-verses, which Lysander is afterwards charged with singing by moon
Shakespeare, who conimonly derived his
knowledge of nature from his own obserlight at Hermia's window. So Rosalind,
siz vation, happened to place the glow. jn As You Like It, Act iii. Scene 6. “I was never so be-rhimed since Pytha.
worm's light in his eyes, which is only in
his tail." But is it not evident that goras's time, when I was an Irish rat, which I hardly remember.”
Shakespeare purposely sacrificed, in this
instance, physical accuracy of descrip. The human mortals want their winter here, tion to poetical effect? Who would ad
Act II. Scene 2. .
vise, or could approve of, any alteration? 'Shakespeare, without question, wrote,” And what poor duty cannot do, says Dr. Warburton, “ winter heryed," Noble respect takes it in might, not merit. . that is, praised or celebrated. The word
Act V. Scene 1. is to be found in Spenser's Calendar.
The meaning is, that a generous mind Sir Thomas Hanmer, with far superior
takes the laborious effort, or endeavour, judgment, proposes to read “ winter
to please in lieu of merit. Dr. Jobsson cheer.” And Dr. Johnson, yet more
i proposes to read, “ takes not in might but happily, “ wonted year;" though he still
merit.” This is plausible, but it is not thinks Titania's account confused and in
Shakespearian phraseology. consequential; and, therefore, in imita. tion of Scaliger's experiment upon the
This drama exhibits an extraordinary Gallus of Virgil, he ventures upon a
mixture of humour and invention, of
poetry and pathos, of negligence and transposition of the lines, containing, it
absurdity. We may conjecture, from must be allowed, much display of inge.
the uitle of Midsummer Night's Dream, nuity. There is, however, no occasion
bestowed upon it by the author, that for carrying critical temerity so far. Ti
Shakespeare himself was not insensible of tania enumerates the various calamities
its wild and fantastical complexion. Yet with which the earth was afflicted, in
it contains scenes of distinguished excelconsequence of the quarrel subsisting he. tween her and Oberon; and apparently
lence, and many passages which the incloses the account with observing, that
spiration of the highest genius only could
dictate. " the human mortals want their wonted year." She immediately adds, not by
MERCIANT OF VENICE, way of consequence, but as resurning the
Act IV. Scene 1. subject :
-For Affections, “No night is now with hymn or carol blest, Masters of passion, sway it to the mood Therefore the Moon, the governess of floods,
con, the governess of Aoods, of what it likes or loaths. Pale in her anger washes all the air,
This passage has been deemed very diffi. And through this distemperature we see
cult, and it has given rise to numerous The seasons alter," &c.
alterations and conjectures. Mr. Ma. That is, we are perpetually disturbed with loue's is the last and best. He undere thy brawls; therefore, our hymns and stands, by affection, the disposition of the carols are neglected: therefore, the moon, mind; and, by passion, corporal sensation: the governess of floods, is offended : there that is, the inclivations of the mind go. fore, no longer adored, and pale in her vern the acts of the body. A similar anger, she washes all the air: therefore, distinction prevails in a passage in All's the seasons alter, &c. llere is surely a Well that Ends Well. regular series of deductions. Dr. J.
Come, come, disclose supposes the devotion of the human, nut The state of your affections; for your pas. of the fairy, race, to suffer interruption;
sions and his construction is, “Men find no Have to the full appeached."
It seems extraordinary that the character « Where violent sorrow seems a modern of Shylock should ever have been re. ecstacy." The meaning is, That the jus. garded as allied to comedy. Yet we tice has collected a great number of comknow, that, before Macklin appeared, it mon-place maximns, which he is forward was represented, or rather mis-repre- and eager to apply to every slight and sented, by Hippesley, the Shuter of his trivial occasion. time, in a style of merriment. And very Blow, blow, thou winter wind; recently, Mr. Cooke, who is an excellent Thou art not so unkind comedian, but whose powers in tragedy As man's ingratitude ; are very limited, has attempted to intro- Thy tooth is not so keen, duce something of comic effect into his Because thou art not seen, performance of this character, which Altho' thy breath be rude. 1b. ib. cannot be approved by those who rea Various attempts have been made to care nemher the deeply-tragic colouring of rect the fifth line of this stanza, but with Macklin.
very ill success. Dr. Warburton would Look how the floor of heaven
fain persuade us to read, “thou art not Is chick enlayed with pattens of bright sheen;" that is, shining or smiling. Sir gold;
Thomas Hanmer, by a dangerous and There's not the smallest orb which thou be- unwarrantable license, changes the whole hold'st,
line to “ thou causest not that teen.'' But in his motion like an angel sings, Dr. Farmer proposes, “because the Still quiring to the young-eyed cheru. beart's not seen." And Mr. Musgrave, bims :
“ because thou art fore-seen." Alter Such harmony is in immortal souls ; But whilst this muddy vesture of decay
all, perhaps, the only alteration necessary
may be teen for seen, and the sense will Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it.
Act V. Scene 1.
thenbe, “Because, though thou art pain,
· thou art not sorrow; though thou art a Dr. Warburton changes, erroneously be.
sharp and bitter evil, still thou art a nayond a doubt, souls to sounds. Dr. John.
tural and not a mental one." son rightly explains the passage, by inter
- Will you sterner be preting harmony to be the power of perceiving harmony; as music in the soul is
Than he that dies and lives by bloody drops ?
Act III. Scene 5. the quality of being moved with concord
After several learned notes on this pas. of sweet sounds. But he alters, without necessity, and by a deviation from the
sage, and proposals of amendment, wo
· have a common sense explanation of it in true meaning, “ immortal souls" to "the, immortal soul. The purport of the pas.
three lines by Mr. Tollet, viz. “ He who
lives and dies by bloody drops, continues sage is, “ Such power of deriving bliss
to the end of life in the office of an exefrom harmony resides in the immortal
cutioner.” So, Act v. Scene 2, of this souls of men, as well as in angels and
play, we read, 'cherubims; but we cannot exercise it in
is Here will I live and die a shepherd.” the present inferior state of existence,
Many will swoon when they do look.09 As You LIKE IT.-Act II. Scene 7.
blood, And then the Justice
There is more in it-cousin ! Ganimede ! In fair round beily with good capon lin'd, * With eyes severe and beard of formal cut,
Art IV. Scene 3.
“Celia, in her first fright,” says Dr. Full of wise saws and modern instances, Johnson, “ forgets Rosalind's character And so he plays his part.'
and disguise, and calls out, Cousin ! Dr. Warburton observes, that Shakes. Then recollects herself, and says, Ganipeare uses modern in the double sense, mede!" And, in her fright too, it may be that the Greeks used xavyos both for recens remarked, she is very near blubhing the and absurdus. But modern is not used secret of Rosalind's love for Orlando, by Shakespeare either for recens or “ There is more in it." These are gem absurdus, but for slight or trivial; as in nuine touches of nature. this very play, Act iv. Scene 1: " And This is a very interesting and beautiful betray ihemselves to every modern cen. comedy. The pastoral and forest scesure." So in King John, “And scorns a pery, connected with the Fable, gives it a modern invocation." And in All's Well wild and romantic air. The characters that Ends Well, "Her insuit coming are natural, and delineated with skill and with her modern grace;" and in Mac- felicity. Tlint of the melancholy Jaques, buth (to quote no farther examples,) is altogether original, and exhibits
MUNTILY Mau, No. 210.
quisite touches of Shakespeare's creative titious; but Dr. Warburton truly pró. pencil,
nounces it “to be throughout written in
the very spirit of Shakespeare," who in TAMING OF THE SHREW. this simple and pleasing drama, “warDr. Farmer has, without any external bles his native wood-notes wild," in a proof, and in contradiction to the strong. strain which no other writer could erer est internal evidence, pronounced successfully emulate. The conduct of Shakespeare's property in this excellent the fable is indeed extravagant; but the draina to be extremely disputable. The inspiration of genius pervades the whole, truth is, that a play under the same name, and incongruity and impropriety vanish and founded upon the saine story, had before it. The story of this play is taken appeared, A.D. 1607; and it cannot be from a novel written by R. Green, enti. denied that this play was closely imie tled, The pleasant Ilistory of Dorastas tated by Shakespeare, in respect boib to and Fawnia; but the parts of Antigonus, character and incident. Bui the general Paulina, and Autolycus, are, as Mr. Steccomposition of the old play is very mean, vens informs us, of Shakespeare's own and i he dialogue was almost entirely new- invention. It has been very justly rewritten by the great poet. Who can marked by Mr. Horace Walpole, that the doubt that the following passages, characters of Leontes and Hermione amungst many others, are the genuine bear an allusion to those of Henry VIII. production of Shakespeare's magic pen; and Anne Boleyn. The subject could O Tranio, while idly I stood looking on, not be treated on the stage without a veil, I found the effect of love in idleness; * and the poet has discovered great address I burn, I pine, I perish, Tranio;
in his mode of managing it. The task -O! yes, I saw sweet beauty in her face: was by no means easy to vindicate the • Tranio, I saw ber coral lips to move,
innocence of the queen, without making And with her breath she did perfume the the character of the king too odious; and air;
it must be acknowledged, that Leontes, Sacred and sweet was all I saw in her.
rash, credulous, and passionate, as he is, Act I. Scene 1.
exhibits much too favorable a portrait of It is the mind that makes the body rich;
the merciless tyrant he is supposed to And as the sun breaks thro' the darkest represent. So honour peereth in the meanest habit;
You may ride us, What is the jay more precious than the With one soft touch a thousand furlongs, - lark,
ere Because his feathers are more beautiful? With spur we heap an acre, but to the goal. Act IV. Scene 4. .
Act I, Scene 2. The principal merit of this play, how. . That is,” says Dr. Warburton, " good ever, does not consist in the poetry, but usage will win us to any thing; but with in the freedom and vigour with which it ill we stop short even there where both
is throughout embued and animated. our interest and inclination would other. All the parts of the induction are exquie wise have carried us." This is indeed
sitely humorous. There is a passage in assigning that sense to the words which the old play, of such superior excellence, suits the generalienor of the passage; but that we cannot hesitate to ascribe it to how the words themselves will admit of Shakespeare, to whose revisal, as theatri- such a construction, the learned come
cal manager, it was not improbably sube mentator has not attempted to explain. • Initted previous to its appearance on the “But to the goal" must mean, except to stage.
thie goal; which is directly contrary to the Tair lovely lady, bright and crystalline, conclusion we are led to expect. The Beauteous and stately as the eye-trained true reading seems to be " be it to the bird,
goal;" that is, with ill usage we make no As glorious as the morning wash'd with exertions, though we should be within dew!
reach of the goal. Within whose eyes she takes her dawning
What were more holy beams, And golden summer siceps upon thy cheeks! Than to rejoice the former queen is well?
1 What holier than, for royal'y's repair, Winter's Tale ,
For present comfort, and for future good,
To bless the bej of majesty again, This plav is strangely supposed by With a sweet fellow to it? equic of the commentators to be surrepe:
det v. Scene 1.
115 Dr. Warburton changes the structure of Lightning
Gooroo the second line in the following manner:
Asap «« than to rejoice the former queen! This
Арес will." And Dr. Johnson so far counte
Ayer nances this strange alteration, as to say,
Earth or Land Tara " it is plausible, and such as we may wish
Laout the author had chosen." "Wliat, (says
Oombang Dion,) were more holy in the present
Poolore state of things, than, instead of repining to Point of Land Oojongtana rejoice that the former queen is released Sea Shore
Daray Pantyes from her troubles! Instead of wishing Sand
Looloo her sainted spirit again to possess her
Soong-ey corpse," as it is subsequently expressed,
Danore what can be holier than, for royalty's re
Batoo Corang pair, to fill up the vacancy in the bed of
Baloo majesty with a partner worthy of it.
Goonong When the sense is so plain, why indulge
Bookit this propensity to innovation or amend.
Poon Batang VOCABULARY of MALAY WORDS, as spoken Fruit
Booa on the WEST COAST of SUMATRA.
Yanis or Potatoes Oobee
Garment or Coat
Beedoo, Sampan :
Oar or Paddle
Black or dark blue E'tam
For the Monthly Magazine. :
BERNARDIN DE SAINT-PIERRE...
I found in vself in company with a number of travellers of various nations, in the post-coach which travels between Riga and Breslaw, We were seated two and two upon wooden benches, with our trunks at our feet, and the open sky above our heads. The vehicle travelled night and day, thus exposing us to all the inclemencies of the weather; and, to add to our misfortunes, the inns on the route could supply us with no refreshments, except black bread, malt spirits, and coffee. Such is the manner of travelling in Russia, Prussia, Poland, and most of the countries in the north of Europe; and after having thus traversed several immense forests of fir and birch trees, and passed over extensive plains without number, we entered among the huge mountains covered to their tops with beech and oak trees, which separate Poland from Silesia.
Although my travelling companions understood French, a language nowa-days universal in Europe, they spoke very little. One morning at day-break, we found ourselves on a hill in the neighbourhood of a castle built in a most delightful situation. A number of streams meandered through long avenues of linden trees, and formed at the bottom several sınall islands, planted with or chards in the midst of luxuriant mes. dows. Lower down, as far as the eye could reach, we perceived the rich plains of Silesia, covered with excellent crops, villages, and pleasure-houses. These plains were watered by the Oder, which in its windings resembled a rich girdle of azure and silver.
“Oh, what a charming view !” exclaimed an Italian painter who was going to Dresden; “it reminds me of the Milanese.": An astronomer of the academy of Berlin replied: “Here are de lighitul plains, we might here trace a long base, and these steeples would make a fine series of triangles." An Austrian baron, smiling disdainfully, then addressed the geometrician, “You must know, this estate is the noblest in all Germany; all these steeples you see, are dependant upon it." "That being the