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and the only portions of the work which seem incomplete or faulty are those dealing with the economic development of Canada.

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M. BOUTMY'S NEW BOOK,' the fruit of long familiarity with Englishmen and English affairs, is a timely contribution to the study of English political life. The author's method of investigation is extremely thorough and careful, and is first applied to the determination of the influence of physical environment on the character of the race; he finds the manifestations of this influence in many of the various tendencies of the people. After the physical environment comes the human environment, and the traces left by invading foreign races, as well as the importance of ethnical phenomena which take place within the country. Finally, after having considered successively the moral and social traits of the people, their political ideas, the book terminates with some ingenious observations upon the relation between the two great factors of English life—the individual and the state.

“In spite of the enormous changes of character which have taken place in a century,” declares M. Boutmy, “the English people has remained, and always will remain, very individualistic; very little capable of sympathy and caring very little for that of others; very proud even in the humility of intense devoutness; very disdainful of other races and undisposed to mix with them; incapable of understanding the solidarity of the civilized world; apt to divide great questions—even to split them up-and indifferent to the idea of uniting them in the harmony of a vast synthesis; employing logic rather for a posteriori justification than to discover new horizons; more inclined to follow the metamorphoses of an illustrious statesman than to attach themselves to strict principles which would condemn him; free from all revolutionary spirit and nevertheless fertile in original personalities."

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THE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN POLITICS 3 is a serviceable handbook, containing information which can be found elsewhere only in out-of-the-way places. In addition to the usual historical material relating to famous measures, national movements, foreign relations and the rise and fall of parties, there are given accounts of the origin and meaning of political slang expressions, familiar names of persons and localities, famous phrases and the like. As a rule, material relating to the two last campaigns has not been included, the work not having been thoroughly revised since 1892.

1 Essai d'une Psychologie politique du peuple Anglais au xixème siècle. By M. ÉMILE BOUTMY. Pp. viii, 455. Price, 4 fr. Paris: Colin, 1901. 2 Contributed by C. W. A. Veditz, Ph. D.

3 Dictionary of American Politics. By EVERIT BROWN and ALBERT STRAUS. Pp. 596. Price, $1.00. New York: A. L. Burt, 1900.

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PROFESSOR BULLOCK'S “ Essays on the Monetary History of the United States,"l are three in number and of unequal length. The first which comprises about one-half the book is entitled “ Three Centuries of Cheap Money in the United States," while the other essays treat of the paper currencies of North Carolina and New Hampshire. These last are excellent bits of historical research, and deal with colonies the vagaries of whose paper issues have not heretofore received the special attention of historians. Excellent as they are, with a remarkable fulness of footnotes, which betrays the exact methods of a conscientious scholar, they offer little which calls for notice here, since in the mass of historic detail it is not so much the facts as the spirit of their interpretation which arrests the attention of the general reader.

It is the thesis of the preface and of the first essay which calls for especial mention. Professor Bullock sketches our monetary history in the light of the demand for cheap money. From the first landing of the colonists in the western world to the present day this demand has always been present. Overpowered and restrained at times, or, perhaps, Professor Bullock would say outgrown in certain sections it has appeared in new forms and in new regions. The colonial issues, the continental paper money, the unregulated issues of the state banks, the greenbacks of the civil war, and the demand for the coinage of silver are the successive manifestations of the same spirit. These are rapidly sketched in Professor Bullock's essay. The explanation of this constant feature of our monetary history the author finds in the necessities of new and frontier communities where capital is

As early as the colonial times it has been generally those regions where population was small and wealth scarce, which have pressed for these various forms of cheap money. With the progress of the century the focus of agitation has moved westward. With the growth of wealth and population it may reasonably be expected that this form of monetary heresy will gradually die out.

With this general thesis those who are familiar with the monetary history of the United States will fully agree and they must admire the skill with which it has been sustained. Should this preliminary sketch lead Professor Bullock to an extended treatment of the monetary history of the United States, the literature of economic history would be enriched, for the author has successfully correlated the

1 Essays on the Monetary History of the United States. By CHARLES J. BULLOCK. Pp. 292. Price, $1.25. New York: Macmillan, 1900.

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general aspects of our economic development with the story of our monetary vicissitudes."

MR. HENRY CLEWS' “The Wall Street Point of View'!? gives a rambling discussion of topics of financial and monetary interest. While there is little in it that is new, the fact that the author is a man of affairs gives to the work an interest that makes it well worth reading.

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IN THE GUISE of a little volume of “Notes de Voyage Belgium, M. Edouard Deiss gives the reader a comprehensive, vivid idea of the industrial condition of that little kingdom. The most interesting parts of the book are those which give an account of co-operative societies—especially the “Vooruit,”-of profit-sharing, popular banks, labor colonies, and higher education in Belgium.

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AN INTERESTING THOUGH unsystematic study of the influence of racial ideas and tendencies on modern political, economic, religious and ästhetic life, is begun in a recent book on the influence of the Celts in the modern European mixture of races. It is the first of a series of five volumes promised by the author, who accepts the principle laid down by Ernst Curtius, that every race is incapable of producing, unaided and alone, a higher civilization, and requires fructifying contact with other races. Aside, however, from the knotty problem of defining “. race” satisfactorily, the task of unraveling race influences and race characteristics is so arduous that most work of this sort must be considered rather in the light of suggestion and hypothesis than as a positive contribution to anthropology or sociology.

BY FAR THE BEST general treatise on the “ Law of Combinations," extant is that recently published by Callaghan & Co., of Chicago.5 Mr. Eddy, in two volumes, covers the field in both English and American law. Beginning with the law of monopoly, he carries the reader through the various phases of development, adhering to the historic order as far as compatible with topical treatment. The principal subjects discussed are: Monopolies; Efforts to Control the Market; Combinations and Conspiracies; Combinations of Labor; Illegal Combinations of Capital; Combinations in Restraint of Trade; The Federal Anti-Trust Law; and State Anti-Trust Laws. What the author suggests as a possible fault in method—that of giving laws and decisions “somewhat in detail”—adds materially to the value of a work on a subject which does not allow of a concise statement of settled principles.

i Contributed by Roland P. Falkner.
? Pp. 290. Price, $1.50. Boston: Silver, Burdett & Co., 1900.

3 Etudes sociales et industrielles sur la Belgique. (Notes de Voyage.) By EDOUARD DEISS. Pp. 328. Price 3 fr. 50. Paris : Guillaumin, 1900.

4 Das Keltentum in der Europäischen Blutmischung. Eine Kulturgeschichte der Rasseninstinkte. By HEINRICH DRIESMANS. Pp. 248. Price, m. Leipzig : Died. erichs, 1900. 6 By ARTHUR J. EDDY, Esq. 2 vols. Pp. 1,539. Price, $12.00.

LINCOLNIANA has had three notable additions. Mr. Daniel Fish, Secretary of the Public Library Board of Minneapolis, Minnesota, has recently brought out a 135-page bibliographical account of books and pamphlets relating to Abraham Lincoln, under the title “ Lincoln Literature.'') This is the most complete and reliable compilation of the kind extant. It will be invaluable to librarians and special students. “Abraham Lincoln: his Book," is a facsimile reproduction of Mr. Lincoln's pocket memorandum carried during the campaign of 1858. It claims for itself the novel distinction of being the only book which was the direct product of Mr. Lincoln's pen. Aside from antiquarian interest, it serves to throw light on the character and methods of its illustrious author. In the “ What is Worth While Series" appears Hon. Joseph H. Choate's November address before the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution. Being asked to deliver the inaugural address as the official representative of America, he chose the character of Abraham Lincoln as the “most American of all Americans.' It is a strong portrayal of a strong man. It is an inspiring tribute both to Lincoln and to America.

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THE AUTHOR OF “ The History of Minnesota, "' + who modestly sigos himself Judge Flandrau, has produced a form of historic information similar to that commonly found about the camp-fires of a G. A. R. Reunion. It is personal reminiscence, with a very strong emphasis thrown on the personal. It is the literary product of the hero worshiper, the hero being an old friend and acquaintance of the writer.

PROFESSOR FOLKMAR'S recent book is in the main an attempt to base ethics, as a science of provision and of human conduct, on sociology. An outline of its contents is contained in the department of Theoretical Sociology, in the present number of the ANNALS.

1 Price, $3.25. Published by the Board, Minneapolis, 1900. * Price, $1.00. New York: McClure, Phillips & Co., 1901. 3 Pp. 38 Price, 35 cents. New York: T. Y. Crowell & Co., 1901. 4 By C. E. FLANDRAU. Pp. viii, 408. Price, $1.75. St. Paul: E. W. Porter. 6 Leçons d'Anthropologie Philosophique. Ses applications à la morale positive. By Daniel FOLKMAR. Pp. xiv, 336. Price, 7 fr. 50. Paris, (Schleicher frères Bibliotheque des Sciences Sociologiques), 1900.

HENRY GEORGE, JR., has edited another volume of his father's works, under the title “Our Land and Land Policy."! The volume takes its title from the first essay contained. This essay was written in 1871, while Mr. George was still a newspaper correspondent. It is the precursor of his many other writings on social and economic subjects. A list of the other essays contained in the book is as follows: The Study of Political Economy; The American Republic; The Crime of Poverty; Land and Taxation; “Thou Shalt Not Steal;' To Work-ingmen; “Thy Kingdom Come ;” Justice the Object_Taxation the Means; Causes of Business Depression; and Peace by Standing Army. To those interested either in the historic development of Mr. George's thought, or in his final statements, the collection will be welcomed,

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THE OFFICIAL catalogue of the German exhibit at the Paris Exposition gives an excellent, readable account of the remarkable, one might almost say startling industrial and commercial progress of the Empire during the past decade. This catalogue, in its preface and in the introductory sketches of each section, gives the latest and most authentic information concerning the development and the present state of the various German trades and industries; it is therefore a hand-book which will have permanent value.

THE INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL progress of the Empire has been accompanied by the growth of political ambition and a movement in favor of a stronger navy. A recent law providing for the formidable augmentation of the German navy, when it was presented to the Reichstag, served as a signal for the publication of numerous pamphlets and volumes, urging all sorts of arguments for the passage of the proposed law. Most of these propagandist publications are due to specialists in economics and history, and present the problem in every conceivable manner and from every point of view.

The first of these brochures, from the pen of Dr. A. von Wenckstern, develops the argument that although present commercial relations between Europe, America and China are minimal, each succeed

1 Pp. 345. Price, $2.50. New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1901. 2 International Exposition, Paris, 1900. Official Catalogue. Exposition of the German Empire. Pp. 424. Published by the IMPERIAL COMMISSION. Berlin: 1900. (Stargardt).

8A. von Wenckstern, 1 pro cent. Die Schaffung und Erhaltung einer deutschen Schlachtflotte. Pp. 65. Price, i m. 40. Leipzig: Duncker und Humboldt, 1899.

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