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American superiority. The author is particularly impressed by the large and increasing use of machinery in the United States and the decreasing importance of manual labor. It is this fact, together with the readiness of the American manufacturer to spend money for improvements and his open-mindedness to all new ideas that have especially impressed the correspondent. Chapter XIV contains a general discussion of American advantages in transportation in particular the superiority of our street-railway service, and Chapters XV and XVI present numerous illustrations of the hindrances to British trade which are presented by the attitude of English trade-unions, a comparison with American freedom from this disability being inferentially made.

MR. WILLIAM RAYMOND BAIRD'S two-volume work, “Principles of American Law.” may be said to have an ancillary use.' Mr. Baird's effort is directed toward reaching the demands of those who have not the opportunities for law-school training. In fifty-two lectures he presents the principles underlying nearly every legal relation. The work is well adapted to the “home student.” While a course of this kind would not have the depth of bearing of one given under personal instruction, by earnestness of application the student is often enabled to overcome this disadvantage. The Correspondence School has a deserving place in our educational system.

“THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, ”? by Mr. C. Beard, with preface by Professor York Powell, of Oxford, gives to the laborer, in book of pocket size, information and ideas well worthy of his consideration. In fact it is a work full of suggestion to the mature student of history as well. The topics discussed are the following: England in 1760; The Mechanical Revolution and its Economic Effects; the Breaking up of the Old Order ; Revolt against Laissez Faire and Beginning of Organization ; The Industrial Problem from the Standpoint of Mechanics and Social Needs.

M. VICTOR BÉRARD's vigorous and sincere books concerning Turkey and Greece have given him an unquestionable right to be heard on problems of international policy. His new work 3 on the growth and economic causes of English “imperialism ” will therefore be widely read. The causes which have transformed the England of Gladstone into the England of Joseph Chamberlain, and given rise to the predominance of a “Greater Britain ” policy, are carefully investigated and traced in their development. Sir Charles Dilke's dream of thirty years ago has become the ambition of the nation; imperialism has its poets, its historians and its statesmen (Kipling, Seeley, Froude, Chamberlain).

1 Pp. Vol. I, 475, Vol. II, 376. Price, $3.00. Springfield, Mass.: Home Correspondence School, 1900.

2 Pp. 105. Price, 40 cents. New York: Macmillan Company, 1901. (London : Swan Sonnenschein & Co.)

8 L'Angleterre et l'Impérialisme. By Victor BÉRARD. Pp. vi, 381. Price, 48. Paris; Colin, 1900.

In the final paragraph of his book M. Bérard in a rhetorical peroration, such as delights his countrymen, declares that “the England of 1830 has perhaps given all that England could give. Surveying the commercial, as well as the political, literary and artistic history of the last four or five centuries from an elevated point of view, it would seem that every human community, fashioned by the thousand outer and inner influences of race, temperament, environment and, above all, education, sooner or later produces a sum of qualities which, favored by circumstances and the state of foreign countries, blossom forth and give a leading position to Spain, or France, or England, or Germany. Later, when these circumstances change or disappear, this or that fundamental quality becomes a radical defect. Spanish absolutism, which extended its Catholic royalty over all the Peninsula, then to two-thirds of Christian Europe and to two-thirds of America, suddenly disappeared with the Armada, in the glow of inquisition fires and under the stultifying discipline of monks. French despotism takes its place. By the power of the Bourbon sceptre and Cartesian philosophy it extends its political, intellectual and commercial dominion throughout almost all Europe; and then suddenly succumbs, after the military conquest of Europe, in the prodigious rise of Napoleonic authority. English empiricism then succeeds to its position, and little by little trausforms the United Kingdom and the two halves of the earth; everything bows before its triumph; the nations of the universe, dazzled by sixty years of a reign without reverses, glorify the invincible superiority of Anglo-Saxon strength. . . Then a band, with bullets and stones, demolish this royal apotheosis. And from a new direction, humanity perceives the advent of a new grandeur. In a century of labor and of study, German ratiovalism has germed, grown and spread forth its branches, and at the end of each branch we now behold its fruits appearing. British supremacy may patch the rents in its imperial garment and for a moment still impress us. But humanity has lost confidence, and turns aside from this fallen glory. To the sound of cannons and of trumpets, in hymns and in toasts, the Germany of Kant, of Bismarck and of Wagner, rational Germany, powerful and creative, salutes the new century." I Contributed by Dr. C. W. A. Veditz, Philadelphia.


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“ CHRISTIAN MARRIAGE,' as the author says, “is in effect a new book with a changed name.” It is concerned almost wholly with the ceremony of marriage. It is an exposition of the ritual of the Protestant Episcopal Church, or the “ American Church,” as he calls it, which is given in full together with the rituals of the English, the Roman Catholic, the Greek and Jewish churches. These take up more than half the book. Ten short chapters treat of the connection of the ceremony with religion; general characteristics and changes of the accepted form; analysis of the ceremony; the idea of publicity; of the symbols, or silent ceremony; of the audible stipulations and vows, and so on. A great deal of archeological and ecclesiastical lore is brought out, making a useful compendium on its specific subject.

The defects of the book are in the limitations which an ecclesiastical position of the strictest kind imposes upon the writer. While not forgetful of the threefold aspect of marriage as related to nature, the state and the church, the author does not appear able to see either the sociological or political aspects of the subject-at least, not in the way of one trained in either of these sciences. Take a marked example. Of Woolsey's “Divorce and Divorce Legislation ” he says: “I read his pages with every favoring prejudice. The result was twofold. First I felt an inexpressible disgust for the loathsome stuff raked together from every cranny, etc.

Then came over me the indelible wonder what result beyond the gratification of a prurient curiosity-what real good . a Christian man could imagine would accrue to Christian people, in their hearts or lives, from reading that unholy history." Yet Dr. Bingham considers the right of the state alone, “if she will, to use that dreadful word "-Divorce. For broader, many will say juster, views readers will turn to the fresher chapters in recent books, by Professor Shailer Mathews on the “Social Teaching of Jesus," and Professor F. G. Peabody on "Jesus and the Social Question."

THE NEW EDITION of Böhm-Bawerk's critical history of the theories of economic interest, 8 undoubtedly the best book we have on the subject, is a somewhat changed and considerably enlarged volume. The changes are confined to a few improvements in the literary expression of the author's thought and the correction of a few

Christian Marriage : The Ceremony, History and Significance, etc. By the Rev. J. Foote BINGHAM, D. D., Litt. D. Pp. 341. Price, $2.00. New York : E. P. Dut. ton & Co.

2 Contributed by Rev. Samuel W. Dike. : Capital und Capitalzins. I Abth.: Geschichte und Kritik der Capitalzinstheorien. By E. VON BÖHM-BAWERK. Second Edition. Pp. xxxv, 702. Price, 14 m. Ionsbruck, Verlag der Wagnerschen Universitäts-Buchhandlung, 1900.

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The additions, however, have increased the size of the book by more than one third. In the first place, the account given of older authors is made more complete. The most important new feature of this sort concerns the Canadian, John Rae. On the other hand the first edition published in 1884, had to be brought up to date. The study of the interest problem has occupied so many writers during the past fifteen years that even a general survey of their work involved a serious increase in the size of the book. These newer doctrines are discussed in an appendix covering nearly a hundred pages, and treating at some length of Marshall's, Macvane's and Carver's “abstinence" theories, of Stolzmann's “labor” theory and of Dietzel's "exploitation " theory. Though the final volumes of Karl Marx's “ Capital” were published since the appearance of BöhmBawerk's first edition, the discussion of the socialistic economist's complete doctrine is not given in the appendix, but in the body of the book under the head of “exploitation” theories. The corresponding chapter has therefore undergone a serious augmentation, especially the sub-section devoted to Böhm-Bawerk's criticism of Marx and his disciples.

In his preface, the eminent Austrian economist replies to the objections which General Francis Walker and Professor Alfred Marshall have made to his treatment of his predecessors. Though one of the ostensible points of difference between these two authors and BöhmBawerk lies in their opinion that his critique depended upon blunders of expression and not upon a generous interpretation of the opinion of the writers discussed in his “ History and Critique,” the real, fundamental question, says Böhm-Bawerk, is this: Have Marshall and Walker, or has he (the author) the correct idea of the essential nature of the problem of interest and its true solution ?

Beside the appendix the most important addition to the book is contained in the fifty pages treating of John Rae, concerning whom Mixter has asserted that he "anticipated Böhm-Bawerk's theory of interest, in the substance of its leading features and in many of its details, and even to a great extent in the exact form of its expression. He did more; he expanded that theory on some sides in which it was lacking, he avoided its greatest errors.' It will be remembered that Böhm-Bawerk attaches fundamental importance, in the explanation of interest, to the influence of time upon our estimation of the value of goods,—the fact that postponed consumption involves a remuneration for postponement. In this point he acknowledges Rae's priority. But Böhm-Bawerk coördinates with this psychological moment facts concerning progress in the technique of production which give present goods a higher value than future goods because they permit us to engage in more roundabout, longer, though technically more remunerative methods of production. It is in the development of this half of the theory that Böhm-Bawerk claims to differ from Rae; in this half of his doctrine, and in spite of many original details, Rae is a partisan of the old "productiveness” theory, like Thünen, whom indeed he closely resembles in the nature of his doctrine, in his trend of thought and in the striking independence of his reasoning uninfluenced by contemporaneous literature.'

Sir John BOURINOT's works on Canada have long been standards not only in their literary style and attractiveness, but in the substantial qualities of accuracy and breadth of view which they possess. The latest contribution from his pen is “ Canada Under British Rule.": After an introductory chapter on the French Régime, there follows a summary of the beginnings of British rule down to the passage of the Quebec Act in 1774 and the foundation of Nova Scotia. This is largely taken up with a discussion of the early relations between the French and English after the conquest. Interesting chapters on the American Revolution in its relations to Canada and on the early development of representative institutions bring the narrative down to the war of 1812, which is discussed in Chapter V. The periods of rebellion in Lower and Upper Canada are taken up in detail and a résumé of social and economic conditions in 1838 is given. The most interesting and valuable part of the book is that which deals with the union of the Upper and Lower Provinces and the establishment of responsible government after Lord Durham's celebrated report. The history of the repeated struggles for responsible government, the dullness and even stupidity of British governors and secretaries of state, show how costly is the present structure of English colonial government and how prone are the home authorities to ignore or misunderstand colonial conditions.

Two chapters are devoted to a separate treatment of the growth of federation. An excellent statement of the present social aud political conditions of Canada is included. A separate chapter is also devoted to Canada's increasingly important relations with the United States. The appendices contain a highly interesting comparison between the federal constitutions of Canada and Australia, also valuable bibliographical notes. There are several maps.

The author displays throughout a clear understanding of the relative importance attaching to the conflicting forces in Canadian politics, 1 Contributed by C. W. A. Veditz, Ph. D.

Cambridge Historical Series. Pp. 346. Price, $1.50. New York: The Macmillan. Company, 1900.

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