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Goodhue, W. F., Municipal Improvements. New York: John Wiley & Sons. $1.75 Griffis, W. E., Verbeck of Japan. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, $1.50. Griffith, W., History of Kansas City. Kansas City, Mo.: Hudson-Kimberly

Publishing Company. $1.50. Guiraud, P., La Main-d'Euvre, Industrielle dans l'Ancienne Grèce. Alcan. 7 fr. Gunton, G., and Robbins, H., Outlines of Social Economics. Appleton. $0.75. Gunton, G., Trusts and the Public. Appleton. $1.00. Hartman, L. B., The Republic of America. New York: Abbey Press. $0.50. How to Read the War News from China. London: T. Fisher Unwin. Justi, H., Plans of Conciliatiou and Arbitration. Read at Conference on Industrial

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cember 17 and 18, 1900. Kloti, E., Die Proportionalwahl in der Schweiz. Bern: Schmid & Francke. 6m. Lange, A. F., and De Garmo, C., Herbart's Outlines of Educational Doctrine.

Macmillan. $1.25. Latimer, Mrs. E. M., The Last Years of the Nineteenth century. MeClurg. $2.50. Lea, H. C., The Moriscos of Spain. Philadelphia : Lea Bros. & Co. $2.25. Lefèvre, A., Les Gaulois, Origines et Croyances. Paris : Schleicher Frères. 2 fr. Leroy-Beaulieu, P., The Awakening of the East. McClure, Phillips & Co. $1.50. Levasseur, E., The American Workman. Baltimore : Johns Hopkius Press. $3.00. Lincoln, Abraham : His Book. McClure, Phillips & Co. $1.00. Little, Mrs. A., Intimate China. J. B. Lippincott Company. Loeb, I., The Legal Property Relations of Married Parties. Columbia University

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York: Henry Holt & Co. $1.25. Martin, W. A. P., The Siege in Peking. F. H. Revell Company. $1.00. Mathews, S., The French Revolution. Longmans, Green & Co. $1.25. McCrackau, W. D., The Rise of the Swiss Republic. 2d Ed. Henry Holt & Co.

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1900, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Philadelphia : National Municipal League. Randolph, C. F., The Law and Policy of Annexation. Longmaus, Green & Co. $3.00.

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Riis, J. A., A Ten Years' War. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.
Rullkoetter, W., The Legal Protection of Woman Among the Ancient Germans.

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Sharpless, I., Two Centuries of Pennsylvania History. J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25.
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Shuey, E. L., Factory People and their Employers. New York : Lentilhon & Co.

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NOTES.

1. MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT.

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AMERICAN CITIES. City Government in Arkansas. Municipal corporations in Arkansas are divided into cities of the first and second classes, and incorporated towns. Cities of the first class are required to have, according to the federal census or a state census, a population in excess of 5,000. Cities of the second class have a population lying between 2,500 and 5,000. On satisfactory evidence with reference to the possession of the required population a board composed of the Governor, Attorney-General, and Secretary of State may raise an incorporated town to the rank of a city of the second class, and a city of the second class to the rank of a city of the first class. The constitution gives the legislature power to pass laws restricting the power of taxation, assessment, borrowing money, and contracting debts, in the case of cities, with a view to preventing the abuse of these powers. Under this provision they are prohibited from levying a tax exceeding in any one year five mills on the dollar on the assessed valuation ; cities are, however, permitted to levy an additional five mills when this is necessary to pay off indebtedness existing before the constitution of 1874 was adopted. The chief difference between a city of the second class and a city of the first class, as regards governmental organization, is that the latter distinguishes three departments of government, while the former gives executive power and judicial power to the mayor. All contracts and purchases on behalf of the city are, in the case of cities of the first class, made by a Board of Public Affairs. This is composed of the mayor and two citizens chosen by the council. This board has no power to bind the city to any obligation in excess of $50.00 unless the consent of the council has first been obtained. The ultimate control over the charters of the cities is in the hands of the legislature, which may amend the charter of the city, enlarge or diminish its powers, extend or limit its boundaries, divide the same or abolish it altogether without the consent of the inhabitants of the territory. (Eagle v. Beard, 33 Ark. 497.)

Cities are empowered to provide for waterworks, street railways, and lighting facilities. In this connection franchises may be granted to private companies. Provision is also made for city ownership. When it is decided to create such utilities under city management, a 1 Contributed by Professor Simon J. McLean, University of Arkansas.

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board of three commissioners known as the Improvement District Board is created by the city council. This board has general control. It may borrow money in anticipation of the sums to be raised by taxation for the completion of these works; and money may also be borrowed on the security of the plants themselves. By a law of 1893 it is provided that when waterworks, gasworks, or electric-light works have been completed by such a board, then the city shall have full power to operate and maintain them. In the policy pursued by the cities toward these utilities so far private ownership has been favored. Franchises, varying from ten years in the case of an electric-light plant to fifty years in the case of a street railway, have been granted, the city receiving no bonus for the franchise and no right to participate in the profits. In a number of cases the waterworks have been operated by the cities, and quite successfully. The city of Little Rock has for a number of years bad a very efficient electric-light plant under city ownership. At present the question of city ownership of street railways is attracting attention. It is an issue in the pending election in Little Rock. A bill has been introduced in the legislature empowering cities to own and operate street railways. There is a growing feeling in favor of municipal ownership. A recent letter from the mayor of one of the smaller cities, dealing with this matter, contained the statement “We want to own the whole thing.”

New York.—The past four months have seen many interesting changes affecting local government and public affairs in the city of New York. Investigating committees, reform movements, legislation and decisions of the courts have combined to make a bewildering complication of events.

Investigating Committees. Late in 1900 two investigating committees came into existence, as the result of disclosures of intolerably vicious conditions in various parts of the city, particularly in the thickly populated lower part of the east side of the Borough of Manhattan. One of these committees, consisting of fifteen members, was appointed under resolution of a meeting of citizens held in the rooms of the Chamber of Commerce. The committee organized in December, with Mr. William H. Baldwin, Jr., as chairman. The other committee was appointed under resolution of the executive committee of Tammany Hall, with Mr. Lewis Nixon as chairman, the four other members being faithful Tammany men. This committee was commonly called the Tammany Purity Committee. It did a large amount of talking, furnished the evidence upon which the successful raid of one pool-room was made, issued a report of no importance and disbanded. The Committee of Fifteen has continued to work, with the avowed pur

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pose of showing that the criminal practices of pool-room keepers and gambling-house keepers, which have been carried on almost openly and with little intervention, can be stopped, and that the failure of the police to do their duty in these matters is the result of corruption. The only publicity given to the work of the committee is that which results from its raids upon pool-rooms and gambling-houses. The committee has made a number of such raids upon warrants, and the keepers of gambling-houses and pool-rooms have been so alarmed that they have ceased to attempt to do business.

Charter Revision. The Charter Revision Commission made its final report to the governor on the first of December, as required by the law creating the commission. The work of the commission is generally regarded as excellent, particularly in view of the insufficient time allowed. The amendments proposed are now before the legislature. Many organizations of citizens urge the enactment of the revision as a whole. It will probably be passed with certain changes. The amendments would (1) give to the mayor full power of removal throughout his term; (2) provide an indefinite term for appointive officials; (3) make the municipal legislature a single chamber, while recognizing and developing the board of estimate and appointment as an “upper house" with fiscal control and having initiative power; (4) increase the control of department finances by the comptroller; (5) give a single head to the police department and separate from it the bureau of elections. The revision would abolish the present central board of public improvements, which has been a body of small value, and would readjust the administrative powers and duties of the city government in a common-sense manner well designed to bring the things to be done and the machinery for doing them into working relations such as the present charter has failed to develop. In the same way, the provisions as to the borough presidents, officers who have done practically nothing, and the local boards of improvements, which have existed only as a useless complication in the municipal machinery, would give to these officers and boards real power and duties of a definite and useful character.

The present charter is very largely a body of ordinances and petty regulations. The revision would continue in force sections of this nature, only until the municipal assembly should adopt appropriate ordinances in their place. The result would be to destroy, in large part, the excuse for "charter tinkering.” Perhaps the weakest part of the revision is in the provisions as to the board of aldermen. This large body would

1 Since this note was written the amendments, substantially as here outlined, have been passed, signed by the Governor, and vetoed by the Mayor of New York City, and passed again over his veto.-ED.

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