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The book abounds in similar sketches, many of them told in the language of contemporaries and giving, at a glance, a clear-cut idea of the social life of different periods. A praiseworthy innovation is the use of copious illustrations from contemporary and modern sources, which, in connection with the numerous maps and diagrams, supplement the text in a very satisfactory way. The author has considerately refrained from scientifically punishing his readers by an overuse of footnotes, although even his moderation can be accounted
“The Expansion of the American People" is a book which is unique of its kind and which sets a high standard for those who come after.
EDWARD SHERWOOD MEADE. University of Pennsylvania.
Studien zur Geschichte der Englischen Lohnarbeiter. By GustAF F.
Steffen. Erster Band, erster Teil. Pp. 176. Price, 4 mk. Stutt
gart: Hobbing und Büchle, 1900. Die Wohnungsinspektion und ihre Ausgestaltung durch das Reich.
By HANS FREIHERRN VON DER GOLTZ. Pp. xii, 104. Price, 1.5 mk. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1900.
The economic history of England has been a favorite subject of investigation, almost as much so on the part of Continental writers as Englishmen themselves. The latest contribution to this subject is a two-volume work by a Swedish writer, G. F. Steffen, of which the book under review forms one-third of the first volume. A ten-years' residence in England, during which period he published three popularly written books on English conditions, constitutes the basis of the author's claim for a hearing. In the preparation of the present volume he has made liberal use of such works as Rogers, Tooke, Cunningham, Ashley and Maine, as well as the parliamentary blue-books. Mr. Steffen pays most attention to the changes which have taken place in the standard of life of the English laborers, and promises to show how these are connected with the legal and social status of the workers. More than half of the present volume is, however, devoted to a theoretical discussion of method and definition of terms. The historical part takes the reader—if he gets that far—to about the middle of the fourteenth century, and is devoted to a description of industrial conditions under feudalism. While written with the painstaking industry of a German, it is unfortunately characterized also by tiresome prolixity and a minute discussion of details that might well have been relegated to footnotes or omitted altogether. Of the present section of the work the best part is that dealing with wages
and prices, and the discussion of the purchasing power of labor during the fourteenth century. Perhaps the future portions of the work may prove more interesting, but, compared with such a work as Held's unfinished contribution to English economic and industrial history, the advance volume of Mr. Steffen's book would hardly induce perusal of the remainder.
In May, 1898, there was organized in Frankfurt a. M. a Union for Imperial Housing Legislation,” with the purpose of bettering the housing conditions of the laboring classes by means of legislation, imperial if possible. During the year following its organization the members published a program and a number of brochures, armed with which they appeared at the eleventh evangelical-social congress at Carlsruhe. Here they were urged to prepare detailed and accurate information as to the conditions and needs, and accordingly undertook the publication of a series of nine monographs on various phases of the housing problem. Of this series the first number is that on “Housing Inspection.” The author, a member of the city council of Strassburg, advocates compulsory inspection under imperial law as the best solution of the problem. At present mandatory inspection exists only in Hesse and Hamburg. In Baden, Prussia, Württemberg and Saxony satisfactory laws have been enacted, but as their execution is entirely permissive they are but little enforced. Special dwellinghouse inspectors are to be found only in Hamburg. Granted that further legislation compelling inspection is desirable, it can be had only in one of three ways: by imperial law, by state statute or by municipal ordinance. Of these the author does not mention the last possibility. The second he rejects as insufficient, in spite of the fact that thirty-two out of forty-three cities which answered his request for their views on this point favored state rather than imperial legislation. He then justifies at some length his position in favor of an imperial law, and sketches the main points which would have to be covered. In an appendix is given the draft of a proposed imperial bill, together with extracts from a number of existing state laws on building inspection.
The monograph, though brief and narrow in scope, is good. The author does not claim that he has indicated the final solution of the problem. His is rather the negative remedy. In addition to legislation there is needed the positive relief which can be afforded only by the construction of a sufficient number of improved houses. These are conclusions which can be applied to the United States as well as to Germany.
ERNEST L. BOGART. Oberlin College.
Le Catholicisme Social. By Max TURMAN. Pp. 334. Price, 6 fr.
Paris: Felix Alcan, 1901.
The book of Professor Turman describes the origin, growth and partial success of an important movement inaugurated in Germany by the Catholic Bishop, Baron von Ketteler, and sanctioned as to its main features by Leo XIII. in his encyclical on the condition of workmen (May 15, 1891). The movement did not remain confined to one country, it spread in all directions until it has become truly international. In England, the organization was under the guidance of Messrs. Hughes, Charles Kingsley and Dennison Maurice. These gentlemen were commonly called Christian Socialists. In Germany an organization was begun by Drs. Todd and Stöcker: the members were called Evangelical Socialists, but their efforts were not very successful, owing probably to the fact that their aims as well as their principles were not sufficiently definite. Those who followed the leadership of Bishop von Ketteler, by forming an alliance with the centre party, gained a considerable influence, and obtained legislation which was very favorable to the workingmen. In France, the organization was thoroughly and frankly Roman Catholic, but this decided attitude did not prevent its members from combining with men of other denominations, or even with infidels, when the common purpose was to obtain legislation which promoted the good of workmen without conflicting with justice or with religion. In the congress of Zurich (August, 1897), ninety-eight Catholic delegates sat side by side with one hundred and sixty-five socialists. But it would be a great error to consider the Catholicisme Social as a sort of mild socialism. The members of that organization are not Agrarian socialists, for they hold that the exclusive ownership of parcels of land, either in commonalty or in severalty is perfectly legitimate, and they say emphatically that the state must protect the landowners just as strongly as the owners of any other kind of property. Moreover they advise, when practicable, and when it can be done without interfering with vested rights, the division of land into small lots or holdings to be distributed among workmen and become family homesteads, which should be entailed if possible, and remain free from legal seizure, so that the family should always have a home. The permanence of the family relations is one of the chief purposes which they keep in view. They are not socialists of the school of Karl Marx or Lassalle, for they tell the workmen very plainly not only that labor has its rights and workmen must not be treated as machines, and that their labor is not a mere commodity, but also that capital has its rights which must be respected.
However, they would make the laws against usury more stringent, check speculation, and prohibit the exchange of commodities which have merely a speculative value. With the so-called professional socialists they have this in common: they believe that the functions of the state are not merely negative, and that laissez faire is not the last word of political economy. They strongly advocate co-operation, profit sharing, conciliation and arbitration. They think that their plans, in order to be successful, need international action, and a vigorous campaign of education carried on in every civilized country, simultaneously if possible. Whether their plans shall ultimately succeed is the secret of the future, but that their ideals are noble and that their plans deserve the attention of social philosophers and political economists will be readily admitted by all those who read with attention the work of Professor Turman. Should it be translated, a careful analytical index and alphabetical index should be added on account of the multitude and diversity of the documents which are quoted, many of which are not easily found elsewhere.
BOOKS RECEIVED FROM FEBRUARY 1, 1901, TO APRIL I,
Allen, W. S., Street Railways. Development of Street Railways in the Common.
wealth of Massachusetts. Boston. American Church Almanac and Year Book, 1901. New York: James Pott & Co.,
$0.25. American Engineering Competition. Harpers. $1.00. Andrews, E. B., Institutes of Economics. (New Ed.) New York : Silver, Burdett
& Co. $1.30. Andrews, I. W., Manual of the, Constitution of the United States. New York:
American Book Company. $1.00. Baird, W. R., The Principles of American Law. (2 vols.) Springfield, Mass.:
Home Correspondence School. $3.00. Balch, T. W., Eméric Crucé. Philadelphia : Allen, Lane & Scott. Beard, Chas., The Industrial Revolution. Macmillan Company. $0.40. Bingham, Rev. J. F., Christian Marriage. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. $2.00. Boutmy, Émile, Essai d'une Psychologie politique du Peuple Anglais au XIX®
siècle. Paris : Armand Colin. 4 fr. Boutmy, Émile, Taine, Scherer, Laboulaye. Colin. 2 fr. Bowley, A. L., Elements of Statistics. London: P. S. King & Son.
Ios. 6d. Brough, C. H., History of Banking in Mississippi. Publications of Mississippi
Historical Society. Callahan, J. M., American Relations in the Pacific and the Far East. Baltimore :
Johns Hopkins University Press. Cary, M. B., The Connecticut Constitution. New Haven : Tuttle, More house &
Taylor Co. $1.25. Chang Chih-Tung, China's Only Hope. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company.
$0.75. Choate, J. H., Abraham Lincoln. Crowell. $0.35. Courtney, L., The Working Constitution of the United Kingdom. Macmillan.
$2.00. Dellenbaugh. F. S., The North Americans of Yesterday. Putnams. $4.00. Desmond, H. J., Mooted Questions of History. Boston : Marlier & Co. $0.75. Dietzel, Heinrich, Weltwirtschaft und Volkswirtschaft. Dresden: Zabu &
Jaensch. 4 m. DuBois, C. G., The Condition of the Mission Indians of Southern California.
Philadelphia : Indian Rights Association. Eberstadt, R., Der Ursprung des Zunstwesens und die Alteren Handwerkerver
bände des Mittelalters. Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot. 5 m. Eddy, A. J., The Law of Combinations. (2 vols.) Chicago : Callaghan & Co. $12.00. Farrelly, M. J., The Settlement after the War in South Africa. Macmillan. $1.50. Fish, D., Lincoln Literature. Minneapolis : Public Library Board. $3.25. Flandrau, C. E., History of Minnesota. St. Paul: E. W. Porter. $1.75. George, H., Our Land and Land Policy. New York: Doubleday & McClure. $2.50. Gide, C., and Bardoux, J., La Fondation Universitaire de Belleville. Paris : Felix
Alcan. 1.50 fr. v. Goltz, H. F., Die Wohnungsinspektion und ihre Ausgestaltung durch das Reich. Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 1.50 m.