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“Systems of Government applied to the Colony,"
“ Advantages Derived and Disadvantages Accruing from a Colonial Policy,”
“ Causes Leading to the Severance of Colonial Ties and the Establishment of Independent States,"
“Relations Existing Between the Former Parent State and the Liberated Colony after the Latter's Freedom has been Attained."
To render any system of colonization successful, the author declares that certain well-defined conditions must exist in the land to be colonized and in the parent state. “The region to be brought under control must ... be without a recognized method of rule or with an administration very imperfectly constituted ; its society must be more or less crude and uncultured, while its people must as a race be untrained in the higher type of civilization and inexperienced in manufactures, commerce and statecraft. Just as soon as the colonists approach a degree of culture similar to that of the mother country, the association between the two becomes irksome and difficult to sustain, unless, indeed, the latter practically renounces all participation and intervention in colonial affairs."
On the part of the mother country the following requisites are indispensable : The colonizing nation must be strong and highly developed socially, that is, it must be possessed of great wealth and det sity of population. There must be excessive competition, a surplus of labor, a certain degree of discontent in order to produce the necessary materials for colonization. Furthermore, a race without the naval and military spirit is ill fitted for colonization. In short, the mother country and the colony must be economic complements of each other. The main discussion of the subject is divided into three periods. The earliest attempts at colonization, including the Egyptian, Chaldean, Persian, Phoenician, Carthaginian, Greek and Roman systems, are first considered.
These chapters form Part I, under the heading, “ Antiquity.” The author then takes up, in Part II, “The Middle Ages,” including the establishing of trading posts along the Mediterranean, Amalfi, Pisa, Genoa, Florence and Venice. Part III contains a discussion of colonization in modern times beginning with the Portuguese, and including the Spanish, Dutch, French, English and minor systems of colonization. The English system occupies the entire second volume with the exception of two chapters. Under “Minor Colonization” the author includes the Scandinavian, German, Modern Italian, Belgian, Austro-Hungarian, Turkish and Chinese colonies. A good bibliog raphy is added, although this might perhaps have been dispensed with in view of the book list which has been issued by the Library of Congress.
The work contains an enormous amount of material, which has been well digested and arranged. By far the best portion is the second volume dealing with English colonization. The author has made a consistent, though not always successful, attempt to follow his outline. In many places he has necessarily given a history of migration, and from the vagueness of the term colony, the book has suffered somewhat in clearness. The question also arises whether the student who wishes to secure information on colonial subjects might not do so to greater advantage from works on individual colonies. The arrangement of material, however, is so systematic and convenient that the work will be desirable for general reference purposes.
JAMES T. YOUNG. University of Pennsylvania.
Law and Policy of Annexation. By CARMAN F. RANDOLPH. Pp.
226. Price, $3.00. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1901.
“The annexation of the Philippines is the immediate reason for this book, which, in dealing with the event itself, advocates withdrawal of our sovereignty from the islands, and suggests a method for its accomplishment.” This well expresses, in the author's language, the apparent purpose of the work. It presents a discussion of our title to the Philippines, the application of the Constitution to the islands and the mode of government, together with a consideration of the best way by which we may withdraw from the present predicament. The author advocates the establishment of a protectorate over the islands. A brief chapter on the status of Cuba and the text of important documents with reference to the acquisitions are added. Of course the treatment is not strictly confined to the Philippines, but reference is constantly made also to Puerto Rico.
The writer has selected a field of unusual interest at this time, but has given a comparatively brief résumé of an extensive subject, rather than a close and thorough investigation. Especially is this true in reference to a most important branch of the subject, the question of the application of the Constitution to our new possessions. The author holds to the view that the Constitution applies directly to the islands, and that its guaranties to life, liberty and property are there in force ex proprio vigore. He examines in brief the arguments against this view, but the treatment is popular rather than legal, and his apparent partisanship detracts somewhat from the force of his position.
The distinction is here, as elsewhere, not clearly enough drawn between two very different questions, viz., whether the Constitution contemplates the holding of subject territory; and second, whether it contemplates the governing of this territory without restriction, or intends that the constitutional restrictions upon the legislation of Congress should be equally applicable to legislation for the states and for other territory belonging to the United States. The application of the Constitution seems to be treated as a single ques. tion, and it is apparently taken for granted that it is inconsistent to assert that the power to govern subject territory is derived from the Coustitution, and that the limitations of the amendments are inapplicable; positions that are perfectly consistent and reconcilable.
The brief examination of the practicability of the application of the various provisions of the Constitution, and of the lack of necessity for departing from its guaranties, is one of the most convincing parts of the book and is, apart from moral and ethical considerations, a strong answer to those who support the opportunist policy of denying the application of constitutional limitations.
The book will no doubt command the attention of a large number of thoughtful persons who dissent from the present tendency of imperialism in expansion. Being popular in style the work will appeal more to the man of general education than to the lawyer or publicist.
HENRY WOLF BIKLÉ. Philadelphia.
Factory People and Their Employers. By E. L. Shuev, M. A.
Pp. 224. Price, 75 cents. New York: Lentilhon & Co., 1901.
In contrast with the numerous histories of strikes and other labor troubles which are constantly appearing is this very interesting little book, the aim of which is to give a brief account of the efforts that are being made by a great many factory owners to share profits by giving "personal advantages.” As the introduction of the book states, it deals not with motives, but with facts. These facts are very barely stated, leaving many points which the reader would like to have more fully elaborated. Mention is made of efforts of som
ome sort or other which have been made in about ninety large concerns in all parts of the country. The author shows that in the case of the factories under discussion, at least-and he sees no reason why the rule should not be a general one-improvements in working conditions, provisions for the personal comfort of employees, and for mental and physical training, have resulted in a better feeling of workers to employers, and in many cases in material increase of production. Particular stress is laid on the provision made in these factories for women workers, showing the possibility of making conditions such that, even in this work, they may retain the charm of their womanhood.
After treating the question from the point of view of the employer the author gives some examples of the measures which workmen, stimulated by the employers' efforts, have undertaken in their own behalf. These take the form of clubs, literary and musical societies, co-operative buying, building and loan associations, all conducted with great success. In recapitulation he shows that results have been most valuable to employer, employee and public; giving to the first an increase of production, to the second fuller and happier lives, and to the community at large better work and better citizens. To corroborate his statements concerning the advantage to every one of such humanitarian efforts, Mr. Shuey gives extracts from letters from the heads of such prominent companies as the National Cash Register Company, the H. J. Heintz Company, and the Cleveland Hardware Company. The last of these writes: "The money will come back in the shape of increased output and better work." Letters from labor organizations testify to their great appreciation of the efforts.
The book is well illustrated with photographs of factory club-houses, “rest-rooms,” dining-rooms, prize gardens, etc., which furnish a better idea than words could of the lines along which the factories discussed are working. While not so complete as might be desired, the book will be found of great value because it is the only place one can go for a general résumé of this phase of factory study. Philadelphia.
C. D. SCULLY.
The Expansion of the American People, Social and Territorial. By
EDWIN ERLE SPARKS. Pp. 450. Price, $2.00. Chicago: Scott, Foresman & Co., 1900.
The intention of this book, as expressed by the preface, has been “to collect the local history of the American people into one volume." In this task the author has attempted altogether too much for a small volume, but within the limits of possibility he has done his work well. He begins with the preparation of Europe for expansion in the fifteenth century, devotes one chapter to the efforts of Spain to establish herself in the western hemisphere, then takes up the development of the English colonies and later treats of the growth of the American nation. Thirty-three pages are devoted to the English colonies, including a study of their social and economic life and the struggle between the French and English for the Mississippi valley. The expansion of the United States is next considered in the following order: Kentucky and Tennessee, the Northwest territory, the Southern and Southwestern acquisitions of the United States, the relation of improvements in transportation to the development of the West and South, the acquisition of Oregon, Texas and California, the struggle for Kansas and Nebraska, and the expansion of the colonial system. Subordinate to these principal topics are chapters devoted to pioneer life on the frontier, the intellectual development of the people, American utopias and reformers, and the increase of American well-being. The chapters devoted to the three topics last mentioned, as well as those devoted to the colonial system, leave much to be desired, are not essential to the main theme, and might well have been omitted. It may also be fairly urged in criticism that the book lacks a certain coherence of development and closeness of connection which the reader would welcome in such a discussion. In his attempt to give a vivid picture of the social and economic life of the American people, the author has too often lost sight of the necessity for historical sequence. When this is said, however,—and the reviewer has no disposition to urge it as a serious defect,—the book is deserving of high praise for its accurate portrayal of scenes and incidents to which the American reader of history is too seldom introduced. The following quotation is a fair illustration of the excellence of the author's work. It describes the early settlers in the Ohio valley (pp. 137, 138):
“These seekers for fortune in a new land were of varying degrees of prosperity. The thrifty New Englander was present with his compactly arranged effects, his clean and neatly clad family and a certain stern austerity showing in every action. ... From the uplands of Pennsylvania or Virginia had come a family of Irish who were careless of manners, the children half clad, and the most prominent and disturbing bit of furniture a jug of home-distilled whisky. There was also the gaunt 'poor white' of Virginia or the Carolinas, with good blood in his veins, yet the victim of centuries of competition with slave labor. He had now ventured with his numerous household to a new home in the 'guv'ment’lands. He commonly had long, black hair, swore loudly, chewed tobacco and smoked, whilst his shrillvoiced help-meet confined herself to her pipe. Mingling with the crowd was the Yankee peddler, with his nasal voice and his eye keen for the chance of a gain. His tinware, Dutch ovens and wooden clocks were urged upon the immigrants as absolute necessities in the land to which they were bound. The 'speculator,' marked by his shrewd eye and prosperous dress, grew eloquent in his descriptions of the richness of the lands he offered for a song. • There was no limit of age to these birds of passage. Travelers have described overtaking old couples of sixty years bound into the West solely on this excuse: 'Well, our children were all grown up and married, and we had no ties, so we just packed up and followed the crowd.''