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labor leader, takes up the well-known thesis that economic progress is leading us surely and inevitably onward to industrial concentration and socialization (page 67). The threefold process of this socialization, according to the author, includes: the expropriation of trusts and industrial combinations, the penetration of the state into new fields of economic activity, and the growth of co-operative groups with or without state aid.

"LET THERE BE LIGHT" 1 is the motto of a small club of workingmen who have come together to discuss the remedy for the admittedly adverse conditions under which they labor. Their president gradually leads them to the conclusion that neither political nor economic reform, democracy nor socialism can bring relief. He turns then to the only effectual remedy-religion. Assuming God, whose existence is "made manifest in all creation,” he formulates a new religion based on the worship of this One God, to take the place of the present "polytheistic trinitarian idea of God.” The book is interesting, not because it seems to offer a practical solution of social injustices, but because of its earnestness and high purpose, and because of its appeal to the workingmen for a religious reform as the only basis for true economic reform.

THE FIFTH EDITION of Mahan's." Church History"3 will continue the usefulness of a text-book which for many years has been deservedly popular. Although warmly partisan on some subjects connected with the tenets of the Protestant Episcopal Church, it is in most respects scholarly and accurate. In its account of the attitude of the Roman Empire, however, it shows no acquaintance with the results of recent study. It is to be regretted that charity did not cause the erasure of certain slurs against heretics and pagans. But where a sectarian history is needed this is one of the best obtainable.*

THAT THE OLD style of "state" histories has passed away is evidenced by the appearance of another of the series of scholarly and exhaustive volumes on the history of South Carolina 6 by Edward McCrady, a member of the Charleston (S. C.) bar. The two preceding works of Mr. McCrady carried the colony to the Revolution. The new volume, “South Carolina in the Revolution,” (Macmillan), renews the story with the less understood beginnings of the civil revolution in that state. The spread of the contagion from the agitators to the people as a whole is clearly shown.

1 By DAVID LUBIN. Pp. 526. Price, $1.50. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1900. 2 Contributed by Mr. C. D. Scully, Philadelphia.

8 A Church History of the First Seven Centuries. By MILO MAHAN, D. D. Fifth Edition. Pp. xxxiv, 595. Price, $2.00. New York: E. and J. B. Young & Co., 1900. * Contributed by Dana C. Munro, of the University of Pennsylvania. 6 The History of South Carolina in the Revolution, 1775-80. By EDWARD MCCRADY, LL. D. Pp. xxxiii, 899. Price, $3.50. New York: Macmillan Company, 1901.

As is generally the case, Mr. McCrady takes "Revolution" to mean largely the war, and, therefore, after the year 1778, when the tide of war turned southward, the volume takes up in detail the various campaigns and battles. Those who enjoy military history will no doubt be delighted with the author's minute descriptions. Indeed, so carefully is this done that at the end of six hundred pages on the war itself the author is compelled for space to stop and announce another book as supplementary, although it is not so stated on the title-page. The recital closes with the end of the year 1780.

No undue laudation of his state and offensive comparisons with the other states mar the careful descriptions and calm statements of the author. As a military work it has not been equalled so far as South Carolina is concerned. Several plans of battles aid the descriptions."

THE GOVERNMENT OF MINNESOTA ? is an excellent description of the organization and practical workings of the state. After a short historical introduction the author takes up the central government, local government, elections, courts, finances, school system, charities and militia. The book is written in an easy, entertaining style and is particularly suited for use in colleges and high schools. The historical material which it contains is well arranged, but the portion dealing with the central offices of administration is too much curtailed. It may be hoped that future volumes of the series will remedy this defect.

THE LARGE VOLUME' which Alberto Morelli, Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Padua, has written on the development and nature of the institution of royalty, is probably the most comprehensive, general treatise of this sort on the subject. The greater part of the book is devoted to a discussion of such matters as succes. sion to the throne, regency, prerogatives, and ministers, and is essentially a continuation of the same author's study on “ La Funzione Legislativa." 1 Contributed by Edwin E. Sparks, University of Chicago. • By FRANK L. McVey, Ph. D. Handbooks of American Government. Edited by Lawrence B. Evans, Ph. D. Pp. 236. Price, 750. New York: Macmillan Company, 1901. sn Re. By ALBERTO MORELLI. Pp.763. Price. Io lire. Bologna : Zanichelli. IN HOMER MORRIS' revised edition of Andrews' “Manual of the Constitution of the United States," I the original design of the book has beeu observed. For fifty years previous to his death in 1888, Dr. Andrews was connected with Marietta College. He had been made president in 1855. In 1874, he published in condensed form what he found by experience in the class-room to be most useful in the study of civil government in the United States. He aimed at a clear exposition of the principles of the constitution with a summary of the laws in which they have been embodied. It is apparent that the inclusion of the more recent interpretations, enactments, and executive actions affecting political development cannot fail to increase the utility and popularity of such a standard text-book.

Chapter IV on the Constitution has been greatly enriched by new material relating to such important subjects as: The Gerrymander, Deadlocks, The Reed Rules, Income Tax, Revenue, Interstate Commerce, Arbitration of Labor Disputes, Trusts, Naturalization, State Insolvency Laws, Bankruptcy Act of 1898, Currency Legislation, Banks, Rural Free Delivery, The Philippine Insurrection, The Boxer Outbreak in China, The Acquisition of Territory by Treaty, and the Restrictions of the Suffrage.

The whole work has been brought up to date, numerous explanatory foot-notes have been added, obsolete paragraphs have been eliminated, the summaries of congressional legislation have been condensed, and the names of vice-presidents, cabinet officers, etc., listed in the appendix.

THE WRITINGS OF the Franco-Russian sociologist, M. Jacques Novi. cow,' are always interesting, often suggestive and sometimes important. But even the most ardent lover of universal peace will pause before reading over eight hundred closely printed pages in favor of a European federation; and the "deluded expansionist,” for whom M. Novicow has so much contempt, will probably get no farther than the introduction. The author has expanded what might have been said in two hundred pages into more than four times that space.

The economic considerations, however, which he brings to bear upon the question, form a strong argument. Though the earth, M. Novicow declares, possesses resources sufficient to procure well being for all mankind, yet we foolishly employ a great part of our time in despoiling and massacring one another, instead of exploiting natural

1 Pp. 432. Price, $1.00. New York: American Book Company, 1901. 2 Contributed by Claude L. Roth.

3 La Fédération de l'Europe. By J. Novicow. Pp. 807. Price, 3 fr. 50. Paris, Alcan, 1900.

resources. The present activity of man may be divided into three parts: One part is devoted to the production of wealth; the second is engaged in the preparation of formidable military equipments with a view to the spoliation of our neighbors; while a third part is devoted to protecting ourselves against spoliation by our neighbors. Misery will only cease when men have given up these last two activities and have devoted themselves solely to the first.

It is certainly no exaggeration to say that ten million men have been sacrificed in the European wars of the nineteenth century, to say nothing of the material waste of war. In 1865 the principal nations of Europe spent over $500,000,000 for the maintenance of their armament. Now they expend more than $1,060,000,000. In 1875 the standing armies of European nations included 2,660,000 men; now they include 3, 120,000. In the same twenty-five years the war footing has risen from 7,900,000 to 19,700,000—more than the entire population of Spain. Since 1870 the debts of the European powers, chiefly due to wars, have risen from $15,000,000,000 to $24,000,000,000.

These facts and many others of a similar nature make of M. Novicow's book a veritable arsenal of anti-militaristic arguments, and if universal peace and disarmament can be brought any nearer realization by argument and eloquence, the author has made a great stride in that direction."

A SECOND EDITION of Mr. Owen's “Questions and Auswers to Twenty-five of the Most Important Legal Subjects"? speaks well for the efficiency of this method of getting at underlying principles of law. “The Quizzer,” when taken in connection with assigned readings or lectures, is a valuable help to a student. Mr. Owen has combined with the quiz method that of citation of the authority for his answer.

His work covers such subjects as contracts, agency, bailments, negotiable instruments, principle and surety, partnership, personal property, wills, domestic relations, private corporations, etc., besides the more general branches of criminal law, equity, pleading and constitutional law.

THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION has shown its appreciation of the value of the study of early economic history by publishing an important study of the decay of villainage in England by Thomas Walker Page. Dr. Page has examined a large number of manuscript

i Contributed by C. W. A. Veditz, Ph. D.

2 Questions and Answers. By WILBUR A. OWEN, LL.M., of the Toledo Bar. Pp. 612.

Price, $3.00. St. Paul : West Publishing Co. * The End of Villainage in England. By THOMAS WALKER PAGE. Pp. 99. Price, $1.00 Published for the American Economic Association by the Macmillan Company, May, 1900.

records of the fourteenth century preserved in the British Museum and the Public Record Office, and has drawn from them most enlightening information as to the social changes in progress at that critical period. His most important results are the disproof that there was any reintroduction of labor services after the Black Death, as Rogers asserted, and his proof that on the other hand commutation was going on rapidly, that the position of the villain was improving, and that as a result of the money terms in which his tenure was expressed, the customary tenant became within the last half of the fourteenth century practically a free man and a copyhold tenant of his land.

“JESUS CHRIST AND THE SOCIAL QUESTION” I is a presentation of Christ as a social leader. The author recognizes that Christ was primarily a religious teacher and that his social doctrine is a by-product. But in these occasional remarks, these teachings by the way, are to be found certain definite principles which may be applied with profit to the varying social conditions of successive periods of time. The social principles of the teaching of Jesus are "The view from above, the approach from within, and the movement toward a spiritual end; wisdom, personality, idealism ; a social horizon, a social power, a social aim.” It is in the discussion of these principles and in their practical application to modern social problems that the author has performed his greatest service. Jesus in viewing human institutions from above obtained a perspective so conspicuously lacking in most discussions of the social question. The development of personality is the aim of his social teaching. "The chief difficulty with modern social life, as we shall repeatedly see, is not a mechanical difficulty, but a moral fault.

The chief social contribution of Jesus is the production of spiritual personality."

The family, private property, and the industrial order are then considered “under the form of concentric circles environing the individual life.” Social mechanism, the solution of minor problems involved in the social question, receives but slight consideration. "The adjustment of economic conditions is, in each new age, a new problem of social mechanism, to be solved by new devices concerning which Jesus can have nothing to say; but the end for which these varying forms of social mechanism are devised is in all ages the same. It is the production of personality, the making of men."

It is a pleasure to note the clear optimistic ring of Professor Peabody's book. Its spirit is calm, conservative, and scientific. It is

1 By FRANCIS GREENWOOD PEABODY. Pp. 374. Price $1.50. New York: The Macmillan Company.

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