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ing year increases these relations, under the pressure of industrial growth. There will consequently be an increasing antagonism in the interests and ambitions of the great Powers. With each decade the relations of inter-dependence between nations increase in number and importance. Germany, too, by the increased importation of raw materials and food products, by the growing quantity of German capital invested abroad, by the extension of its foreign markets for manufactured wares, shares in these relations. No nation, however, can continue to occupy a commanding economic position unless it possesses the power, in case of need, to defend that position by the application of force. The very existence of Germany depends upon the maintenance of an open sea road ; its growth of commerce must be accompanied by an equipment prepared to defend German commerce on the seas and German capital or labor employed in distant countries. Germany's present development requires a strong navy to guarantee its permanency and to maintain peace. From a financial point of view, Dr. von Wenckstern declares, no country is better able to support the new burden than Germany; it would be an easy matter to produce the 1,700 million marks necessary for the construction of a new offensive navy, besides the millions necessary for the maintenance of a total naval force of fifty-seven battle-ships, fifteen large cruisers and thirty-six small cruisers; an increase of one per cent in the imperial revenues would suffice.

Two other brochures 1 % develop the same line of thought, being made up of speeches delivered by the author in various parts of Germany. There is consequently a frequent repetition of the same arguments, buried under a thick coating of vain rhetoric and the fatuous display of linguistic and poetic accomplishments. Germany stands next to England in the annual value of its commercial transactions-exports and imports. The importation of raw materials is one of the essential conditions for the existence of two-thirds of German industries, of which eight alone possess 1,622,236 factories or workshops, employing 4,671,589 laborers; the families of these laborers form a population of 11, 192, 152, or 60 per cent of the industrial population of Germany, and more than one-fifth of the total imperial population. Germany is no longer an agricultural State, but is dependent upon other countries for its food-supply. The empire must become strong enough upon the seas to defend an international commerce upon which so much depends.

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1 A. von Wenckstern, Heimatpolitik durch Weltpolitick. Reden zur Flottenvorlage, 1900. Pp. 130. Price, 2 m. Leipzig: Duncker und Humboldt, 1900.

2 A. von Wenckstern, Auf Scholle und Welle. Reden zur Flottenvorlage. Pp. 81. Price, 1 m. 40. Leipzig: Duncker und Humboldt, 1900.

The two little volumes? of speeches and essays edited by three wellknown Berlin professors of economics,-Schmoller, Sering and Wagner, are excellent both in style and contents. In the first speech, Prof. Schmoller discusses the probable future development of German commerce, industry and above all, population, He concludes that the development of these factors requires new markets and new openings abroad ; and that a strong navy is an imperative corollary. An interesting survey of the intimate relation between the spread of commerce, on the one hand, and the breadth of the intellectual horizon of a people, on the other hand is contained in the second article, from the pen of Professor Lamprecht. The next section, a speech by Professor Richard Ehrenberg, traces the influence of ocean commerce on political ideas. Dr. Ernest Francke attempts to show that the laboring classes should be interested in the development of foreign trade. Dr. Paul Voigt, in an essay full of interesting statistical material discusses the industrial development of the German Empire, and points out that while a century ago two-thirds of the population was engaged in agriculture, now only one-third is employed in this branch of production. In the second volume, Sering, Wagner, von Halle, and Schumacher treat respectively of the commercial policy of the great nations, the financial aspect of the proposed law, the development of German local navigation, and Germany's interests in China.

Though MANY excellent educational ideas have come from France, the fidelity to routine and pedagogical conservatism found in the French primary and secondary schools is so deep-rooted and persistent, that so striking a novelty, as the “Orphélinat de Cempuis" practically seems to stand alone in the history of recent educational experiments in France. No wonder that its directors were subjected to fierce vituperation, and its methods to malicious ridicule. An explanation of the ideas underlying the school, and a careful account of its actual workings, are contained in a recent, well-documented volume,? by M. Gabriel Giroud. The book is well worth the attention of those interested in pedagogy and the sociological bearing of educational problems.

The Cempuis school was organized as a public institution in 1880, under the direction of M. Paul Robin, certainly oue of the most emi1 Handels-und Machtpolitik. Reden und Ausätze von Schmoller, Sering, Waguer, nent French pedagogues, although the radical nature and uncompromising expression of his views have made him many enemies. The central idea of M. Robin's system of "integral instruction ” favors the development and equilibrium of all the faculties without exception. In the field of the intellect, this means the “simultaneous cultivation of the powers of assimilation and of production, of the scientific as well as the artistic faculties, of observation and judgment as well as memory, imagination and taste.” "All the great branches of human knowledge which extend their ramifications in all directions, have at their origin and basis certain truths which are simple,primordial, fundamental and easily observable and intelligible even to young children; these must constitute the first lot of ideas possessed by the little pupil destined to increase his mental stock gradually."

Band i, pp. vi, 208. Price, i m. Baud ii, pp. 246. Price, i m. 20. Stuttgardt: Cotta, 1900.

? Cempuis. Education intégrale. Coéducation des sexes. Pp. xx, 395. Price, 10 fr. Paris, (Schleicher frères. Bibliotheque internationale des Sciences Sociologiques), 1900,

etc.

2 Bde.

Par GABRIEL GIROUD.

The co-education of the sexes at Cempuis, a revolutionary idea in France, and one of M. Robin's pet notions, is discussed in the second chapter of the book; the next chapter deals with physical education, especially the elaborate system of bodily exercises admirably carried through by the school. A scheme for periodical bodily measurements, devised with the aid of M. Bertillon, the well-known Paris anthropometrist, has been introduced and might well inspire our educators with a spirit of imitation. Manual training of very much the same kind as is offered in some of our own schools, but much more diversi fied, is another essential feature of this noteworthy educational institution. Some of the methods of child-teaching invented by the Cempuis staff have found their way to American schools and kindergartens; others might be adopted with equal profit. Indeed, it is surprising that the teachers in the new school, many of them obliged to invent de toutes piéces the educational methods they employ, should have brought these methods so near perfection.

IN MR. WILLIAM Griffiths' “ History of Kansas City" is found a kind of literary effort that should be encouraged. The work is an improvement on most of the undertakings of the kind. It seems unfortunate that municipal histories are not prepared with less of the enthusiasm of the local resident, and with a broader purpose of giving to the student or historian reliable data on which to build. The local writers could do a great service to the country by giving an accurate account of the political and social institutions and material progress of every city and town of considerable size.

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GUNTON AND ROBBINS' " Outlines of Social Economics" 2 is a small 1 Pp. 133. Price $1.50. Kansas City: IIudson-Kimberly Company, 1900.

? By GEORGE GUNTON and HAYES ROBBINS. Price, 75 cents. New York: D. Appletou & Co., 1900.

volume of 215 pages, designed especially for study clubs. Its method is unique, giving, in conjunction with concise statements of theory, a bibliography and “extracts from readings" as appendices to each chapter. The theories presented are well considered and deserving of thought. In substance quite a departure is made from the old school, but the form and classification is largely retained. This is unfortunate, for a new view would be greatly strengthened by new categories and classification.

MR. Hales, an Australian war correspondent for the London Daily News has recently published selections from his “letters from the front,” under the descriptive title “Campaign Pictures of the War in South Africa.”

." By reason of his use of sombre as well as bright colors in his pictures, the pro-British enthusiast has represented him as a man to be distrusted. It is refreshing to find a man in the field who attempts to portray things as they are, instead of devoting his talent to pleasing popular fancy. We are indebted to men of this type for much of our reliable information. The best protection that a nation has against "conduct which will cause its people to blush with shame" is the candid correspondent.

HARPERS HAVE PUBLISHED a history of the Philippine war, containing seventeen chapters and six appendices. The work is dedicated “ to all who have fought gallantly; to all who have written frankly; to all who now read without prejudice." The history begins with Magellan's voyage and recounts the early struggles of the natives with the Christianizing influences sent out by Spain. In the third chapter begins the story of the "final revolt against the Spaniard, which was transformed into a movement against the Americans.” This movement is shown in chapter six to have been due to the “vain hope of independence” which led the insurgents to attack the American lines. Chapters seven to fifteen are devoted to military operations during the two years 1899-1900. The last two chapters present the political and social situation in the islands and discuss the local resources under the headings, agriculture, commerce and transportation, exports and iniports, mineral resources, woods, etc.

The only new feature with reference to the material is its association with a pleasing style, a fine quality of paper and beautiful and profuse illustrations. If the editor is without prejudice and has full knowledge of events, he has presented convincing justification of the

1 By A. G. HALES. Pp. 303. Price, $1.50. New York: Cassell & Co., 1900. 2 Harpers' History of the War in the Philippines. Edited by MARRION Wilcox, LL. B. Pp. 471. Price, $10.00. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1900.

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American policy of protecting the Filipinos against a designing minority of their own race. The book teems with citations of “ repressive measures executed by our troops" as well as evidence that the "cruel crimes (of the ladrones] have put them where they will be hunted like wild beasts." The liberal use of documents, the chronological tables, the pictures of social life in the Philippines, the list of volunteer soldiers, the photographs of prominent officers, the party platforms and views of the Kansas City and Philadelphia conventions, all combine to give to the book genuine value.

States.” 1

DR ALEXANDER JOHNSON'S “ History of the United States for Schools” since its first publication has undergone three revisions and now appears under the title of “ High School History of the United

The second edition was revised by Professor Winthrop More Daniels, of Princeton. The present one has had the professional attention of Dr. William MacDonald, of Bowdoin. The work as originally published was in the pature of a departure from the various forms of fable which had passed as American History. The author has abandoned the old stories of Pocahontas, Putnam and the wolf, etc., as centres of interest and endeavored to call attention to the larger aspects of our national career with the purpose of inspiring the student with ideals of duty and responsible citizenship. The able re-editing which it has had gives to the publication the stamp of reliability. The criticism of a present-day writer would be that too little attention is given to the economic aspects of political and social life.

THE PUBLISHERS of “Le Mouvement Socialiste,” a Paris socialistic semi-monthly review, have recently started a series known as the “Socialist Library,'' which is to include a new volume or nuniber every month, each number to contain about one hundred pages. The collection will comprehend treatises on doctrinal matters, historical and biographical studies, and translations from the socialistic literature of other countries than France. All of these will furnish material for propaganda purposes. The first number is a handy brochure in favor of co-operative societies for consumption, describing the organization and workings of such societies and telling how they may contribute to the advancement of the socialist cause. The second volume of the series is a more ambitious affair ; M. Emile Vandervelde, the Belgian

1 Pp. 612, xvii. Price, $1.25. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1901. ? Bibliothèque Socialiste. No. 1: Manuel du Coöpérateur socialiste. Par M. LAUZEL. Pp. 100 Price, 50 centimes. Nos. 2-4: Le Collectivisme et l'Evolution industrielle. Par EMILE VANDERVELDE. Pp. 285 Price, 1 fr. 50. Paris, Société Nouvelle de Librairie et d'Edition, 1900.

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