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and central administrative control, in which the local governmental bodies exercise power in the supervision of the central authorities. The speaker claimed that central control over local activity was not open to the same objections as centralization. Where local bodies exist, even though they may be controlled by central authorities, the citizen is given considerable opportunity for political training and education by his activity in the local government. Where they do not exist the opportunity for political education is limited. His main thesis was that our attitude toward this tendency should not be one of hostility but rather of weicome.

Report of the Annual Business Meeting of the Academy. The annual business meeting was held in the lower hall of the Coliege of Physicians and Surgeons, in accordance with the provisions of the by-laws, on the third Monday in January: to wit, January 21, 1901, at 4 p. m. It was a well-attended and enthusiastic gathering of those interested in the conduct of the affairs of the Academy. The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved, the treasurer's report accepted and ordered filed, and the report of the board of directors of the Academy during the calendar year 1900 was read and discussed. The report of the directors called attention to the fact that the membership of the Academy remained at about the same high figure as at the same date last year. Attention was also called to the need of better housing facilities for the Academy's work, especially for its library. The meetings of the year were reviewed and attention was called to the publications of the Academy. Six numbers of the ANNALS, comprising two volumes, aggregating 1,030 pages, and two supplements, of 208 pages and 72 pages respectively, were issued, in addition to which three bulletins containing announcements were also sent to members, making in all 1,340 pages of printed matter sent out to the members of the Academy during the year 1900. The report stated that “all of these publications were sent free to members and in addition each member is entitled to cards admitting four invited guests to each of the meetings of the Academy. It is possible to continue these privileges only through economical management and the maintenance of a large membership. This economical administration is secured through the fact that the whole conduct of the Academy's affairs, both in editorial and business matters, and in connection with our meetings, is a labor of love on the part of all concerned. There are no salaried officers; no compensation is paid to speakers; and only necessary clerical expenses in the conduct of the business and editorial work of the Academy and the traveling expenses of speakers and expenses for entertainment are paid for out of its treasury. In recog.

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nition of this missionary spirit that has thus far characterized the work of the Academy, the directors feel that it is not unreasonable to expect that each member will endeavor to do his share to promote its interests and to extend its influence, and through personal effort to add to its membership such of his friends and acquaintances as he may think would be interested and willing to co-operate in its work or would profit by the privileges of membership. Several members have during the past year qualified as life members by paying one hundred dollars, which exempts them from all future assessments or dues. It is highly desirable that more members should take this step in order that the work of the Academy may be put upon a solid basis. The money from life-membership fees is permanently invested. The report also showed that the accounts of the Academy had been audited by professional auditors and found correct. The securities representing permanent invested funds have a par value of $5,000, but their market value is somewhat above that amount. They are yielding over 6 per cent interest. The expenses of the last annual meeting and the cost of publication of the supplemental volume containing a report of that meeting and the addresses then delivered were met through the sale of this volume and through contributions to a special fund.

The Academy has sustained through death during the past year the loss of an unusually large number of members, many of whom were men of exceptional ability as leaders of life and thought in their respective communities. The following list is as complete as it is possible to make it from the records of this office; notices should be sent of any omissions in the list: H. H. Aldrich, Chicago, Ill.; Dr. William Bishop, Salina, Kan.; Dr. J. M. Da Costa, Philadelphia; Dr. F. Humphreys, New York City; Dr. Vincent John, Innsbruck, Austria; Oswald Ottendorfer, New York City; Frederick Meredin Peterson, San Francisco, Cal.; John Polson, West Mount, Paisley, Scotland; Charles Pratt, Toledo, Ohio; H. W. Reed, San Nicolas del Oro, Mexico; A. J. Rooks, Sommerville, Tenn.; Matthew Semiple, Philadelphia; Thomas G. Shearman, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Professor Henry Sidgwick, Cambridge, England; Henry Villard, New York City; Dr. Charles Voorhees, New Brunswick, N. J.; Isaiah Wears, Philadelphia; Oren W. Weaver, Washington, D. C.; Hon. William L. Wilson, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va.

The term of office of three directors expired, to wit: Dr. Roland P. Falkner, Chief of the Bureau of Public Documents, Washington, D. C.; Professor Leo S. Rowe, of the University of Pennsylvania, and Mr. Stuart Wood, of Philadelphia. These three gentlemen were re-elected for a term of three years. The summary of the Treasurer's Report as prepared by the auditors is as follows:

Synopsis of Cash Account for Year Ended December 31, 1900. Balance: January 1, 1900, as per last year's report.

$1,884 96 Receipts: Annual subscriptions

7,119 20
Life membership
Special contributions

650 00
Sales of publications, etc.

2,148 63
Income from investments
Interest on deposits

37 24

$12,460 03

300 00

320 00

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Payments: Clerk-hire and stenographers . $1,651 33
Printing, stationery, etc.

6,439 99
Office expenses, postage, etc.

1,087 55
Advertising

75 90
Expenses of meetings:
Rent ...

$130 00
Invitations, etc.

176 00 Refreshments

250 50 Traveling expenses

of speakers

176 08 Miscellaneous .

182 20

914 78

Balance:

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$10, 169 55
December 31, 1900, viz.:
In Mortgage Trust Co., Penna.

$1,192 34
In Centennial National Bank .
At Academy Office .
With A. S. Harvey, Banker, London

836 23 61 91

200 00

2,290 48

$12,460 03

The accounts of the Academy were audited and found correct by Messrs. Lybrand, Ross Brothers and Montgomery, certified public accountants, Philadelphia,

The report of the board of directors was discussed and many belpful suggestions offered by the members of the Academy present. There was a general feeling of satisfaction at the prosperous condition of the affairs of the Academy. A vote of thanks to the officers and directors and to the ladies of the reception committee for their services during the year was unanimously adopted. Such hearty appreciation as that manisested in this meeting and that displayed in the following quotations from two letters received immediately after the meeting, is ample reward to those who have been charged with the conduct of the Academy's affairs. One who has been a member of the Academy from near the beginning of its organization writes :

Please permit me to say that the uniform kindness I have received from the officers of the Academy in reply to requests for information has deeply impressed my heart and endeared them to me. They have spared no labor or trouble to render me the desired assistance.” Another member, of almost equally long standing, writes: “The work of the Academy is certainly most successful, satisfactory and advancing and I extend to you my personal appreciation, etc.”

Election of officers.-At the meeting of the board of directors following the annual business meeting, the board was reorganized for the work of the year and officers elected. A communication from the president of the Academy, Professor Edmund J. James, of the University of Chicago, asking that his name be not considered for reelection, was read. After many expressions of regret, in which every member of the board present shared, that Professor James felt himself compelled to decline to serve longer in an active official capacity, the board proceeded to an election of officers, which resulted in the unanimous election of Professor Samuel McCune Lindsay, first vice-president and acting president since 1898, as president of the Academy; Professor Leo S. Rowe, who had served during the past year as secretary of the Academy, as first vice-president; and Professors Franklin H. Giddings, of Columbia University, and Woodrow Wilson, of Princeton University, as second and third vice-presidents respectively. Mr. Stuart Wood was re-elected treasurer, and Dr. James T. Young, of the University of Pennsylvania, who is known to the readers of the publications of the Academy as Editor of the Book Department of the ANNALS, was elected secretary ; Mr. Clinton Rogers Woodruff was re-elected counsel; and Professor John L. Stewart, of Lehigh University, was re-elected librarian.

Correction of typographical error in the January Annals. — The editors of the ANNALS beg to call the attention of our members to a typographical error in the January ANNALS in the signature to the article by the Chinese Minister, His Excellency Wu Ting-fang. The words “Chinese Embassy, Washington," on page 14, should read

Chinese Legation, Washington.” Also, on page 9, in line 9 from the bottom of the page, the phase “with a few exceptions" should be inserted after the word “but."

PERSONAL NOTES.

University of Chicago.Since going to Chicago in February, 1896, Professor James has held the chair of Public Administration and has had charge of the Extension Division of the University. He organized and was for two years Dean of the College for Teachers, a department of the University established to offer special facilities for higher instruction to the teachers in the public schools of Chicago. Its success was so immediate and decided that its relation to the University was made more intimate, and under the name of the University College it has become the down-town centre of work for the institution,

He was appointed in 1897, by the Governor of the State, a member of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, and was shortly after elected vice-president of this board. In this capacity he took up and pushed through to success a project often proposed, but never before carried out, for the formation of a State Historical Society. He also inaugurated the plan of publishing a series of historical monographs on the early history of the state, having contributed himself three numbers to the series.

He was appointed by the Secretary of State to represent the United States at the International Congress on Commercial Education, held at Antwerp in May, 1898.

Professor James was offered the presidency of the University of Cincinnati in May, 1899. He spent the academic year 1899-1900 in Europe, chiefly in Paris and Berlin, engaged in the study of problems of municipal administration.

Publications by Edmund J. James since 1895 : 1

An Early Essay on Proportional Representation.ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, Vol. VII, pp. 233-252, March, 1896. Philadelphia, 1896.

Reprinted as No. 168 of the Publications of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

An Examination of Bryce's American Commonwealth.ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, Vol. VII, pp. 377–410, May, 1896. Philadelphia, 1896.

Reprinted as No. 172 of the Publications of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

Review of Black's Hand-Book of American Constitutional Law.ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, Vol. VII, p. 475, May, 1896. Philadelphia, 1896. 1 ANNALS, vol. vii, pp. 78, January, 1896.

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