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scientific laws of politics and economics in their application to human welfare and development. In order to interest the largest possible number of students, the method pursued is to arravge for a course of lectures by the most distinguished specialists that can be secured for the several topics discussed, and to charge a fee for a season ticket to this lecture course just sufficient to cover the cost. The lectures are given in one of the college buildings and the speakers and the subjects for the current academic year are the following:

Chaplain J. F. Orwick, of the Michigan State Prison, on “ Behind the Bars ;" Judge O. N. Cartes on "Primary Election Laws;" Booker T. Washington, “ Race Problems ;' Mayor Jones on "The Golden Rule in Politics ;” President Samuel Gompers on “The Rough but Ignoble Struggle of Labor ;” Senator Burrows on “The Senate ;" President Schurman on “The Philippines ;” Professor Richard T. Ely on “An Economic Question.” Congressman W. A. Smith and Hon. Don M. Dickinson are also announced as speakers. Any student of the University registering, in a book provided for the purpose, and purchasing a course ticket for these ten lectures is considered a member of the club. About one thousand members have been secured for this season. The club furthermore offers a yearly prize of $25 for the best essay written by a student member of the club, upon any theme within the general scope of the club's work. Viewed as a student enterprise, such a club is certainly a sign of a good tendency in University life and might well be imitated in other institutions. The name and address of the secretary of the club is Mr. Earl B. Hawks, 1326 Geddes Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Commercial Education in Scotland.-Special attention has been paid to the subject of Commercial Education in England as result of the increasing competition of German manufactures. The growing importance of German trade supposed to be a direct result of the attention paid to commercial education in that country, Two important English reports have appeared : (1) Report of the Proceedings at a Conference on Commercial Education held under the auspices of the London Chamber of Commerce, July 8, 1898; (2) Report of Inquiry by a Special Sub-Committee on Commercial Education of the Technical Education Board of the London County Council, January 30, 1899. In neither of these reports is any special reference made to the conditions in Scotland. Therefore the Edinburgh Merchant Company, the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce, and the Leith Chamber of Commerce appointed a Joint Sub-Committee on Com. mercial Education, of which Mr. John Macmillan, Master of the Merchant Company, the Merchant's Hall, Edinburgh, was mado chairman. This committee made its report on September 27, 1900;

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report which covers with appendices fifty-seven quarto pages.' It discusses, with special reference to the centralization of Scottish trade and commerce in Edinburgh, many interesting phases of one of the most debated of current educational questions, namely, How to secure the best type of educated business men. The section relating to the defects of the present educational arrangements is particularly strong. It is noted that the teaching of history, geography and arithmetic is little adapted to the needs of a business career. Too much time is spant on Latin and Greek, and too little on French and German; furthermore, the modern languages are not thoroughly taught or mastered so as to be used with facility in business. The general conclusions of the committee are of more than local interest. They are summarized in the report as follows:

1. That primary education only should be given to pupils under twelve years of age, and that secondary or higher subjects should not be commenced until the pupil has gained the Merit Certificate or passed an equivalent examination. If this method were followed, the committee believe that not only would the pupil be better grounded in a sound English education, but would also be more likely to get the full benefit to be derived from a secondary course.

2. That it is necessary to provide a more modern secondary education that would better appeal to a large proportion of the pupils. It is acknowledged that the study of Latin and Greek is an admirable mental training, and that some acquaintance with Latin is very helpful to the student of English. Much of the study of Latin and Greek, however, has the disadvantage of being altogether divorced from every-day life, and it is only natural that boys should take more interest in the languages and affairs of the world in which they live. The committee have no intention of decrying Classical Education while asserting that the study of English literature ; of English and Scottish history; of the geography of the world and especially of the English speaking world ; of the elements and principles of science and mathematics—is real education likely to stimulate a boy's highest faculties.

3. That commercial subjects, properly so called, should not be taught at school, but that, as provided for in the Scotch Code with reference to higher-grade commercial schools, “the study of arithmetic, of history and of geography should have a commercial application." The committee consider that the aim of the school course should be to give a sound general education fitting pupils for entering on a commercial career.

4. That the better teaching of modern languages is also a first necessity for the improvement of commercial education. To enable 1 Sold by John Menzies & Co., 12 Hanover Street, Edinburgh. Price 1s. 3d.

this to be done there is required, to begin with, an admission on the part of educational authorities that a man may be an educated and even a cultured gentleman although he has not seriously studied Latin or Greek; and further, that both France and Germany possess invaluable literatures, with the added advantage that they are in languages which are living and not dead. Three steps seem necessary to stimulate the study of modern languages :

(a) That the universities should show proper respect for modern languages by giving the teachers of French and German the same status as the professors of Latin and Greek; and by assigning the same approximate value to these subjects in examinations.

(b) That students should be induced by bursaries and other means to master modern languages, so that there may be trained for the teaching of French and German, Englishmen and Scotsmen of equal ability and culture to the men who now teach Latin and Greek. The committee are much impressed by the consensus of opinion among the educational authorities who gave evidence, that modern languages can never be properly taught in this country until taught by Englishmen and Scotsmen who have had university training and have resided abroad.

(c) That secondary schools should also dignify the teaching of modern languages by placing them on a level with the dead languages in bursary competitions and in all other respects; and by offering proper remuneration to the teachers of modern languages.

5. That boys should not leave school to enter on business careers until they attain the age of sixteen, those who can afford to do so being encouraged to remain till seventeen or eighteen; and that employers should, as far as possible, require the production of and give due recognition to the Leaving Certificates by the Scotch Education Department as evidence of educational attainments. The committee would suggest that the department be approached with the view of instituting, in connection with school education, group certificates of certain grades, that would come to be universally known and recognized by business men in their selection of apprentices.

6. That it is most necessary that young men should continue their education, after they have begun business, during their leisure hours. In this way the defects of ordinary education may be remedied, and it is during the years of apprenticeship that young men may most profitably study commercial subjects. The committee agree with the witnesses that it is natural for boys at school to take an interest in such subjects as Bills of Lading or Foreign Exchange ; but that young men in offices and factories may with advantage study the theories and laws regulating matters with which they are in constant touch in their daily work. Of course if a young man is to derive benefit from the evening classes at the Heriot-Watt College, or any similar institution, he must have set his heart on his work.

7. That in view of the increased attention being given to strengthening and rendering more efficient the modern side in secondary schools, and of the tertiary schools which exist in large towns, such as the Heriot-Watt College in Edinburgh, the committee are not prepared to recommend the institution of a purely commercial school on the lines of the Continental Commercial Schools at Antwerp, Leipzig, and other places, or of the London School of Economics and Political Science.

8. The committee, while recognizing the good work being done by certain Chambers of Commerce and other mercantile bodies in Scotland, by means of examinations for commercial certificates, are of opinion that such work would be more efficiently accomplished on a uniform system by a National Examining Board. It is accordingly suggested that the proposal be brought before the Scotch Education Department.

9. That to enable commercial education to take its proper place in the educational arrangements of the country and fully to meet the requirements of commerce, it is desirable that Faculties of Commerce should be established in our universities. It is the opinion of the committee that such faculties would have a very beneficial effect in raising the status and importance of the commercial side in the secondary schools, by giving it, like the classical or science side, an opening to the university, by molding and regulating the course of study, and by inducing pupils of ability who at present prefer another course, because it leads to the university, to study for a commercial career. Turning to the interests of commerce, the committee believe that a university education would be of the greatest service to the men who are to occupy the chief positions in large commercial undertakings. To discharge aright the important and delicate duties and responsibilities which devolve upon them, the development of mind and width of culture which are produced by university study are as essential as in the case of the professional men, and there is no reason why the possession of a university degree should not be placed within the reach of the one as well as the other.

The classes of modern languages, of political economy, and possibly one or more of the present history and law classes, would form the nucleus of a Faculty of Commerce, and to these might gradually be added classes having more direct reference to the history and practice of commerce. The education to be provided by such a faculty would primarily be taken advantage of by young men having the

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means and leisure to attend as regular students, but others engaged in business might, as is the practice with lawyers' and accountants' apprentices, also take the classes if suitable hours were fixed. It would also be available for the training of those who might act as teachers of commercial subjects in schools.

Although the committee hold the opinions in regard to university education above expressed, they feel that the evidence given by the business men who came before them shows that the need for that education is not appreciated by the mercantile community, and they respectfully urge Chambers of Commerce and other mercantile bodies to consider this important subject and mature the opinion of business men in regard to it.

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III. PHILANTHROPY, CHARITIES AND SOCIAL

PROBLEMS. The Race Problem.-Hoffman's Race Traits of the American Negro." In spite of the fact that Mr. Frederick L. Hoffman's vol

* Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro" is very interesting reading and is being widely quoted, it is likely to prejudice unjustly the cause of the negro because of errors in statistical statement and in the use of the statistical method. The author is a professional statistician in the employ of a large insurance company. Careful students who are trained to make their deductions from all the data in hand rather than from half or two-thirds of the figures they quote may well be surprised at Hoffman's methods. After observing this fact, however, they will not be astonished perhaps to find that Mr. Hoffman's conclusions, based upon some figures, are disproved by other figures given within the covers of his own book.

In his discussion of the question of negro mortality he concludes, from the figures cited, that the rate of increase in the negro population is diminishing and the race consequently dying out. On page 53 Hoffman gives the following mortality rates for negroes in four cities : Mobile.

Charleston.
(1843-1894)
(1822-1894)
(1856–1894)

(1849-1894)
23. 10
28.16
34.07

52. JO
31.19
25.02

49.65
34.70
19.77
57.26

40.22
39.74
34.12

52.33
36.26
41.98
51.66

35.22
35.II
43.83
41.67

39.42
30.91

32.26 1 Contributed by Isabel Eaton, M. A., of New York City; author of “Negro Da mestic Service in Philadelphia," etc.

Savannah.

New Orleans.

44.61

44 82

44.06

37.26

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