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lector of Moral and Political Philosophy, which office he held until his appointment in 1883 as Knightsbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy. Professor Sidgwick took an active interest in the education of women, and particularly in Newnham College, of which, upon the death of Miss Clough, Mrs. Sidgwick became the head. Professor Sidgwick held the degree of LL. D. from Edinburgh, Glasgow and St. Andrews, and that of D. C.L. from Oxford. Shortly before his death he retired from his professorship. His larger works are :

The Methods of Ethics."
The Ethics of Conformity and Subscription."
Outlines of the History of Ethics."
The Principles of Political Economy."
The Elements of Politics."


Basel.-Dr. Stephan Bauer,' formerly Privatdozent at Brünn, was appointed, October, 1899, Extraordinary Professor of Political Economy and Statistics at the University of Basel. Before entering upon his duties he responded to an invitation of the University of Chicago to lecture on “Colonial Economics" and the “ History of Political Economy" in the English language during the first summer quarter, 1899. Dr. Bauer has edited the statistical and other reports of the chamber of commerce of Brünn. Since 1895 Professor Bauer, in conjunction with Dr. Hartmann, of Vienna University, has edited the Zeitschrift für Social- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (Berlin: E. Felber) to which supplements under the title “Socialgeschichtliche Forschün. gen" have been added since 1897 (hitherto six numbers).

To the list of Professor Bauer's publications noted in a previous number of the ANNALS should be added the following:

Die Arbeiter der Brünner Maschinen-Industrie.4to, pp. 198. Brünn, 1895.

Quesnay's Tableau Economique." Economic Journal, Vol. V, No. 17, 1895.

Die Landarbeiter in Osterreich.Die Zeil, VI, 1896.

Die Heimarbeit und ihre geplante Regelung in Österreich." Archiv für soziale Gesetzgebung X, 2, 1897.

"Der Ausgleich und die Industrie.” Deutsche Worte, 1899. 1 See ANNALS, vol. iv, p. 810, March, 1894.

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THE PAST AND PRESENT CONDITION OF PUBLIC HYGIENE, ETC., IN THE UNITED STATES,' gives an interesting though necessarily brief discussion of state boards of health, national health organization, voluntary associations, the control of infectious diseases, quarantine, food and drug inspection, public water supplies, sewerage and sewage disposal, school hygiene and medical inspection of schools, municipal hygiene, industrial hygiene, burial of the dead, railway hygiene, vital statistics, rural hygiene, the relation of the general government to public health, state medicine, medical education, registration of medical practitioners, inquest systems of the United States and various statistical statements and charts.

It is to be hoped that copies of this monograph will find their way into every public library. Not less important is it that this work be on the shelves of all sanitary offices, both state and local. Within the brief limits of one hundred pages are found a comprehensive history of the evolution of sanitation in the United States; a thorough and graphic presentation of the existing status of sanitation in the various states, and a searching criticism of the principal defects, with suggestions for improvement.

Of special service, both to the practical administrator and to the voluntary citizens' health organization, are the charts and tables, which must have entailed an enormous expense of time. It is probable that nothing would expedite sanitary reform like the extension of these tables to include the subdivision of states. A health officer without statistics, or a sanitary inspector without charts of his district, is like a miner without a lamp. Dr. Abbot has indicated the nature of the requisite charts and statistics. State and local boards can with little expense carry out the idea. Every statistician who reads the monograph will certainly be tempted to reproduce these studies in his own field.

The author declares the most prominent points in relation to public health in the United States at the present time to be:

First of all, the marvelous rapidity with which the introduction of public water supplies has been effected in the past twenty-five years, specially in the states west of the Mississippi valley.

1A Monograph on American Social Economics for the Department of Social Economy of the Paris Exposition. By SAMUEL W. ABBOT, M. D. Pp. 103. 1900.

"Second, the stimulus which has been given to the methods employed for preventing the spread of infectious diseases through the agency of bacteriological investigations and the establishment of public and private laboratories for aiding sanitary work.

Third, the necessity of providing a central bureau or department having authority to collect the vital statistics of the United States, from the different states and territories, and to publish the results of the same. It should also be the duty of such bureau to secure uniformity in the methods of collection and presentation in all parts of the country.

Fourth, the need of one strong, central sanitary organization at Washington to co-operate with and to aid state and municipal sanitary authorities in every branch of public hygiene.

The failure of Congress to continue the useful work of the former National Board of Health, and its final dissolution, as a consequence, can only be regarded as a serious mistake.”

Special emphasis is laid upon the necessity of reliable statistics in the states. Only ten states maintain at present a fairly complete system; viz, the six New England states, New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Michigan. The larger part of the country is, therefore, entirely unprovided with any satisfactory system of state and municipal registration. It is obvious that so long as this situation obtains, that the census returns of vital statistics are little more than guesses so far as thirty-five states are concerned.

It is to be regretted that the author did not discuss more at length the administrative reorganization which will bring about an improvement of our vital statistics. For instance, the statement is made that hygiene is neglected to a marked degree in rural districts. Having asserted that the preservation of the health of the fifty millions occupying the rural districts is a matter of quite as much importance as that which relates to the dwellers in cities, he omits to attribute the neglect of hygiene to the absence of sanitary administration. It is quite probable that the rural population would more readily adopt the hygienic mode of living suggested in detail by the author if they had constantly presented to them in a graphic way by sanitary officers, a demonstration of the expensiveness of their present unhygienic habits.

Mr. JAMES DEWITT ANDREWS, in his "American Law,'& recently published by Callaghan & Co., of Chicago, has made a most valuable contribution to the legal literature of the United States. For

Contributed by Dr. WILLIAM H. ALLEN.

the practicing attorney this work far excels anything which has yet been written. The work, however, bears the clear impress of the student of law rather than the student of political science. The author has taken bis outline and classification largely from Black. stone and other old books. This classification was formulated at a time when little thought was given to political science. In his division of the subject into the law of persons, things, actions and crimes, Mr. Andrews discusses government as a part of the law of persons. This, while it allows of the discussion of legal principles and precedents, is very confusing to a student of government. Such a classification stands in the way of a clear understanding of the various political relations instead of serving to elucidate the subject. While, therefore, too much cannot be said for the work to one interested in legal rules and precedents, it cannot be recommended as a text-book for the student of political science.

PROFESSOR BULLOCK has recently brought out a "new, revised and enlarged edition " of his" Introduction to the Study of Economics." I The principal changes made have been a restatement of the theory of value in Chapter VII, and the addition of a sixty-page chapter on Governmental Expenditures and Revenues.” A comparison of the new edition with the former work shows decided improvement in every case that change has been made. The restatement of the theory of value is especially deserving of commendation, as it now brings out clearly the distinction between the money, or business man's conception of costs and the social or economist's conception. Moreover, the style of the whole work has gained in firmness and clearness as a result of the changes that have been made and the information, noted as such a valuable part of the book, has been brought down to date. The large circulation which the work has enjoyed attests its suitability as a college text, and it may be stated confidently that the new edition will satisfy, even more completely than did the original work, the requirements of teachers of economics.

M. J. FRANCISCO, who explains in his preface that twelve years of practical experience as manager of an electric light plant qualifies him to analyze statements and reports of electric plants, has published a pamphiet of 172 pages, entitled “Municipalities vs. Private Corporations, Political and Business Management Compared." The only

1 "Introduction to the Study of Economics." Pp. 581. Price, $1.50. New York: Silver, Burdett & Co., 1900. The first edition was reviewed in the ANNALS, Vol. X, p. 447.

* Price, $1.00. Rutland, Vt.: M. J. Francisco & Son, 1900.


thing of any value which it contains is an abstract of an address delivered by the author a few years ago before the League of American Municipalities. The rest of the pamphlet is a hotch-potch of miscellaneous data and expressions of opinion intended, no doubt, to repudiate the arguments of the advocates of municipal ownership, but as a matter of fact, conveying no special ideas on the subject. Here is a sample of many similar statements: “Audubon, Ind. Tried municipal ownership and failed; it leased the plant to private parties and made contract with them for lights, and the lights are now furnished by the lessee.” Also : " Portland, Ore. Dear Sir: The municipal plant was sold to the Electric Light Company. We are now paying about two prices for lights, etc.” Mr. Francisco adds the following comment, although there is nothing to show upon what he bases it: “Here is a case where the taxpayers were willing to pay two prices for lights to a private company, rather than operate their municipal plant any longer." Not the least interesting part of the pamphlet is that devoted to editorial comments regarding the author. It is due, however, to Mr. Francisco and public utilities corporations to say that "this and other books published by the author have been published at his own expense, without the knowledge, aid or money from any party or corporation.”

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The History of Military Pension Legislation in the United States, is a monograph, giving a systematic account of national pension legislation in the United States from 1776 to the present time. Dr. Glasson defines a military pension as “a regular allowance made by a government to one who has been in its military service, or to his widow or dependent relatives.” Of these he finds two kinds: (1) Invalid or disability pensions, and service pensions, the latter comprising pure service pensions and limited service pensions.

After a brief notice of the early colonial laws and a statement of the national legislation on pensions prior to 1789 the writer treats his subject topically under five heads:

1. Revolutionary Pension Legislation, 1789-1878. 2. Legislation Based on Service between 1789 and 1861. 3. Civil War Pension Legislation, 1861–79. 4. Civil War Pension Legislation, Arrears Act to 1890. 5. Civil War Pension Legislation, Dependent Pension Act to 1899.

As a result of his historical study Dr. Glasson finds that the trend of pension legislation has been constantly toward increased liberality.

Contributed by Hon. CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF, Philadelphia. * By WILLIAM HENRY GLASSON, Ph. D. The Columbia University Press. Pp. 135. Price, $1.00. The Macmillan Company, New York.

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