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“Works done by bare nature are not meritorious de congruo : nature of sin they must have, if sin be in them; and so it is, for malum ex qualibet
Unless a downright Pelagian, you may give it a fayre, and safe, and true interpretation.
Upon these reasons, I presume, did that reverend prelate. Andrews, and that learned Mountague subscribe, when they publickly taught evangelical councels in their writings. What you have sent to me in a third person, &c. Be not forward, nor possessed with a spirit of contradiction. Thus you may
However at last Mr. Chillingworth surmounted his scruples; and, being promoted to the chancellorship of the church of Sarum, July 20th, 1638, with the prebend of Brixworth, in Northamptonshire annexed to it, he complied with the usual subscription.
About the same time he was appointed master of Wigstan's Hospital in Leicester; “both which,” says Mr. Wood,* “ and perhaps other preferments, he kept to his dying day.”. In 1640, he was deputed by the Chapter of Salisbury for their proctor in convocation. In 1642, he was put into the roll with some others by his Majesty to be created doctor of divinity; but he came not to take that degree, nor was he diplomated.T At the siege of Gloucester, begun August 10, 1643, he was in the King's army before that city; and observing, that they wanted materials to carry on the siege, he suggested the making of some engines after the manner of the Roman testudines cum pluteis, in order to storm the place. That siege being raised by the Earl of Essex, and the war continuing with great vigour on each side, the King appointed the Lord Hopton general of his troops in the west, who forced Arundel Castle, in Sussex, to surrender: but that Castle was retaken by Sir William Waller, and Mr. Chillingworth, among the rest, made prisoner of war; who, out of respect to my Lord Hopton, “ had accompanied him in that march, and being indisposed by the terrible coldness of the season, chose to repose himself in that garrison, till the weather should mend.”+ Mr. Chillingworth's illness increased to such a degree, that not being able to go to London with the garrison, he was conveyed to Chichester; which favour he obtained at the request of his great adversary, Mr. Francis Cheynell, a bigotted presbyterian divine, who accidentally met him in Arundel Castle, and frequently .visited him at Chichester till he died. He hath given us an account of our Author's sickness, and his own behaviour towards him in a book, printed at London, 1644, in 4to. intitled, Chillingworthi novissima; or, the Sicknesse, Heresy, Death, and Buriall, of William Chillingworth, (in his own phrase) Clerk of Oxford, and in the Conceit of his fellow Souldiers the Queen's arch Engineer and grand Intellgiencer. Set forth in a Letter to his eminent and learned Friends : a Relation of his Apprehension at Arundell; a Discovery of his Errours in a briefe Catechisme; and a short Ora
* Athen. Oxon. vol. ï. col. 42. + Id. Fasti Oxon, vol, ï. col. 30.
* Rushworth, Histor. Collect. vol. ii. part 3. ad ann. 1643. tom. iv. p. 288, 289.
+ Clarendon, History of the Rebellion, B. viii. tom. iv. p. 472, 473.
tion at the Buriall of his Hereticall Book. By Francis Cheynell, late Fellow of Merton Colledge. Published by Authority:-Mr. Chillingworth died about January 30, 1643-4, and was interred in the Cathedral of Chichester. in Besides his Works printed in this volume,* he wrote several other pieces, not yet published, which were among the manuscripts of Mr. Henry Wharton, bought by Dr. Tenison, archbishop of Canterbury, and presented to the Lambeth Library; some of which have been mentioned above. I shall give an account of them all from the Catalogue of those manuscripts drawn up by Mr. Wharton himself, who observes, † that the volume marked M. is Volumen Chartaceum in fol. containing A Collection of Papers formerly belonging to Archbishop Laud, many of them wrot with his own Hand, but most of them endorsed with his Hand; together with some Papers of the Archbishops Sheldon and Sancroft, and many of Mr. Chillingworth. And after having set down part of the contents of that volume, he adds, Several Papers of Mr. William Chillingworth, viz.
“ Mr. Peake's Five Questions proposed to Mr. Chillingworth, about the Nature of Faith, and the Resolution and Consequence of the Faith of Protestants.
“ Mr. Chillingworth’s Answer to Mr. Peake's Questions: first draught imperfect.
“ Mr. Chillingworth's Answer to the same: being complete and perfect.
“ The beginning of a Treatise against the Scots. By Mr. Chillingworth. * This alludes to the folio edition of his Works. † Catalogus MSS. H. Wharton, in Biblioth. Lambeth. ad vol. M.
Passages extracted out of the Declarations of the Scots. By Mr. Chillingworth.
“ Observations upon the Scottish Declaratión. By Mr. Chillingworth.
“A Treatise of the Unlawfulnesse of resisting the lawful Prince, although most impious, tyrannical, and idolatrous. By Mr. Chillingworth.
“ A Letter of Mr. Chillingworth, excusing his writing against the Rebels.*
“ Notes of Mr. Chillingworth concerning God's universal Mercy in calling Men to Repentance.
“ A Problematical Tentamen of Mr. Chillingworth against punishing Crimes with Death in Christian Societies :f cancelled.
“ A Letter of Mr. J. to Mr. Chillingworth of the Imperfection of Naturall Religion and Reason, without the Assistance of Revelation : wrot 1637.
“A short Discourse of the Nature of Faith. By Mr. Chillingworth.
“A larger Discourse of the Nature of Faith. By Mr. Chillingworth.
“Of the Absurdity of Departing from the Church of England, for Want of Succession of visible Professors in all Ages. By Mr. Chillingworth.
“ A brief Answer to several Texts of Scripture, alledged to prove the Church to be one, visible, universal, perpetual, and infallible. By Mr. Chillingworth.
“ A Letter of Dr. Sheldon to Mr. Chillingworth, to satisfy his Scruples about subscribing. I
“ Letter of Mr. Chillingworth to Dr. Sheldon, * Printed in Mr. Des Maizeaux's Life of Mr. Chillingworth,
+ This paragraph is razed out in the Catalogue. # This paragraph is razed out in the Catalogue.
containing some Scruples about leaving the Church of Rome, and returning to the Church of England.
Letter of Mr. Chillingworth to Dr. Sheldon, containing his Scruples about Subscription, and the reason of them."*
Archbishop Tillotsont styles our Author "incomparable,” and “ the glory of his age and nation :" and Mr. Locke recommends the reading of his Religion of Protestants in several of his works; and particularly in a piece, containing some thoughts concerning reading and study for a gentleman, wherein, after having observed, that the art of speaking well consists chiefly in two things, viz. perspicuity and right reasoning, and proposed Dr. Tillotson as a pattern for the attainment of the art of speaking clearly; he adds, “ Besides perspicuity, there must be also right reasoning, without which perspicuity serves but to expose the speaker. And for attaining of this I should propose the constant reading of Chillingworth, who, by his example, will teach both perspicuity, and the way of right reasoning, better than any book that I know; and therefore will deserve to be read upon that account over and over again; not to say any thing of his argument."
* This letter hath been inserted above.
+ Sermons on various Occasions, published by Dr. Ralph Barker, vol. xii. Sermon vi. on Hebr. xi. 6. p. 167, 168.
† A Collection of several Pieces of Mr. John Locke, never before printed, or not extant in his Works, p. 234, 235,