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Building Operations of D. C.

Weeks & Son.

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E

ARLY in the Spring of 1840, De Witt

Clinton Weeks came to the city and started in the building business. Since

that time the firm he established has been continuously in business--the present head of which is Mr. Francis M. Weeks, the son of De Witt Clinton Weeks and many large operations and finest class of residences have been built by it. The Fourth Avenue Presbyterian Church, Fourth Avenue and Twentysecond Street, is an existing monument of the work of De Witt Clinton Weeks.

The old St. Thomas Church, at the corner of Fifty-third Street and Fifth Avenue, built in 1869 and burned a few years ago, was the first building erected under the firm name of D. C. Weeks & Son. Prior to that time De Witt Clinton Weeks had been operating under

his own name. The result of the fire, which REARING STEEL FRAMEWORK OF completely consumed everything burnable in NEW PULITZER BUILDING, the building, leaving the walls practically inJULY 25, 1907.

tact, is proof of the claim of the Messrs.

Weeks that nothing but the very best of workmanship has ever entered into their buildings since the earliest days of the firm's operations. The ruins of the old St. Thomas Church stand to-day as a monument to this fact.

The first building of the American Museum of Natural History, the old Queens County Court House, Long Island City, are other buildings constructed about the same period.

of the modern work of the firm the following are a few examples of its successes:

The estate of G. W. Vanderbilt, the well-known “Biltmore," on which work was carried on continuously for seven years.

The Morton Building, at the corner of Ann and Nassau Streets. This is a twelve-story building, of which the foundations were laid in October and the tenants were moving in on the first of the following May.

The residences of Mr. Samuel Thorne and John W. Sterling, on Fifth Avenue, between Seventy-second and Seventy-third Streets, which are among the best examples of the work of the late Bruce Price, Architect.

"The Marble Twins," two residences with seventy-five feet frontage on Fifth Avenue, between Fifty-first and Fifty-second Streets,

Residence of Mr. Morton F. Plant, corner of Fifty-second Street and Fifth Avenue.

Alterations to the residence of Mr. G. W. Vanderbilt, at the corner of Fifth Avenue and Fifty-first Street.

Residence for Mr. Robert Olyphant, East Fifty-second Street.
Residence for Mr. George W. Blumenthal, West Fifty-third Street.
Residence for Mr. Anson R. Flower, 601 Fifth Avenue.

Residence of Mr. Oliver Harriman, White Plains, N. Y.
Winter Club House, Tuxedo Park, N. Y.
Two ten-story buildings for Huyler's Candy Factory.
Ten buildings for the New York Telephone Company, New York City.
Two buildings for the Central New York Telephone Company at Syracuse.

One building for the Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company at Baltimore, Md., on which the world's record was made for speed of construction, as several stories of a nine-story building were ready for occupancy 149 days after the excavation was started.

On a telephone building on East Twenty-ninth Street, between Fourth and Madison Avenues, one of the most novel engineering feats ever attempted in the building line was carried out by this firm. The supporting walls for four floors and the roof of the building were entirely removed and the floors were supported by iron rods fastened to beams at the top of the building, which were supported by heavy timber towers. The new addition was completed and the floors picked up and connected with the new structure, and the whole building completed without so much as cracking the plaster in the old portion.

Among the firm's heavy contracting work the foundations for the Seventy-fourth Street Power House of the Manhattan Elevated Railway Company and the foundations for the Port Morris Power House, supplying power for the New York Central Railroad Company's Grand Central yards, which included cofferdam work, heavy earth and rock excavation and an enormous amount

of concrete work, some of the piers going down

sixty feet, to get solid rock foundation.

The Tribune building was one of the largest

and most difficult al. terations ever attempt

ed, in which the old clock tower, erected in

1876, was removed and later on set up again.

after ten stories had been added to the old

building. Steel col umns were also run

down through the hall, and offices of the old

building to new foundations to carry the up.

per stories which were added.

Among the important work now being

carried on by the firm is a residence for Mr.

George J. Gould, corner of Sixty - seventh

Street and Fifth Ave. nue, and the addition

to the world - famous Pulitzer Building.

The enlarged Pulitzer Building, now

nearly completed and which will give THE

WORLD the largest and most thoroughly

equipped newspaper and office building in

the country, will be the latest successful

undertaking of the firm.

The new building will retain the well

known architectural lines that have made

the old building one of the most beautiful

and impressive struc tures in the city, and REAR VIEW, SHOWING ADDITION TO

it will have a floor space of 18,496 feet, PULITZER BUILDING, PRACTICALLY

nearly double that of the old building. The COMPLETED OCTOBER 30, 1907.

dome, the most strik ing of New York's landmarks. will be retained, and so will the front elevation-but the enlarged building will give THE WORLD a magnificent business office on the main floor for the adequate transaction of its increased business, which can with difficulty be taken care of in the cramped quarters now occupied. There will be editorial and composing rooms of nearly double their present capacity, and there will be a great press room, sirteen feet high, in which will be installed presses of the largest and most improved pattern. New eleotric devices for driving power, new elevators, new systems of ventilation and water supply, new decorative effects-in a word, an enlarged and completely remodelled plant for the production of a great newspaper, and one of the most complete and convenient as well as beautiful office buildings in the country.

The enlarged Pulitzer Building fills the whole block bounded by Park 'Row, Frankfort Street, North William Street and the approach to the Brooklyn Bridge. The New York Press Club and the Lorillard estate owned the land on which the new addition is nearing completion, from whom Mr. Pulitzer purchased it. No. 12 Frankfort Street, included in this plot, was the birthplace of the New York Staats-Zeitung. Historical associations are also

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connected with the site of the original Pulitzer Building. The first mention of the spot in the annals of New Amsterdam was in 1642, and it is known to many living New Yorkers as the location of French's Hotel.

In the construction of the enlarged building Messrs. Weeks & Son had several difficulties to overcome. For instance, that portion of the site which is bounded by the approach to the Brooklyn Bridge was troublesome when the foundations were being prepared. They had to dig down under the bridge approach wall for a distance of eighteen feet and underpin it, but this was accomplished without the slightest interruption to the Bridge traffic, a minute's delay to which ofttimes means an hour of congestion. The tests for the foundations were of the most severe character. A block of concrete two feet square was fitted into the earth as the base of the excavation. Fifty tons was loaded upon this small block, and there was practically no settlement, proving conclusively that the structure would stand upon virtually a foundation of solid rock.

The most serious difficulty encountered by the contractors was in attaching the new building to the old, because the welding had to be accomplished without interruption to the work of publishing the newspaper and without inconvenience to the many tenants occupying the old building. The taking down of the old east wall, the cutting off of about six feet of the old building and the joining of the new and the old, were accomplished substantially without a hitch. In one instance part of the old wall had to be torn down before the steel skeleton of the new building was started. The smokestack in the old building was left standing, and when the steel skeleton was finished the smoke from the old building was turned into the new stack, which had risen with the steel structure of the new building. Then the balance of the old wall was removed, the floor beams fitted together and the welding of the two mammoth buildings was completed.

In another instance it was found necessary, in order to avoid interference with the publication of the newspaper, to build a new floor under a line of autoplate machines, which were at the time being operated to the fullest capacity.

The cost of the new Pulitzer Building, without equipment, will be in round figures about One Million Dollars. Briefly, it is a steel skeleton, with concrete floors, strong enough to stand the weight of any machinery desired to be placed upon them. The outside walls are of granite, with terra cotta and brick trimmings. The window frames, sashes, etc., are of copper; all the interior partitions are of fireproof tiling-in short, a thoroughly fireproof, earthquake-proof structure.

The greatest care has been exercised in the construction and assembling of the steel used in the erection of the skeleton to prevent flaws or rust, with the result that it is absolutely perfect. After the steel had been painted it was not exposed to the weather or loaded for shipment until it had been carefully inspected and the paint found to be thoroughly dry. At no time after the application of the first coat of paint was the steel laid on the ground, but each part was placed on skids or trestles, and in the handling and unloading extreme caution was observed to avoid scraping off of the preservative coating, and even in transportation, to avoid nesting of the pieces, packing material was placed between them. After the erection of the steel skeleton the work was thoroughly inspected, cleansed, and repainted. The tests for sustaining weights were of the most stringent nature and have been more than satisfactory.

In the new building six large elevators and two smaller ones will take the place of the three elevators in the old building. Two smaller elevators are to be so equipped that they may be easily turned into service for general passenger use at rush hours in the great building. There will be new systems of heating, ventilating, lighting, and new plans of decoration, which will bring the enlarged Pulitzer Building up to the standard set by the contractors, if it does not THE RECONSTRUCTED AND place it ahead of the very best of the many beautiful ENLARGED PULITZER BUILDstructures erected by this extraordinarily successful ING, COMPLETED MAY and competent firm of builders.

10, 1908.

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Remarkable New Fuel that Gives Perfect Heat and

Light at Very Small Cost.

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HEN the United States Government recently removed the tax on denatured

alcohol, it conferred a great boon on the American people. It gave to them a fuel at once far superior to electricity, coal, gas or kerosene, and much cheaper.

It is doubtful if even the legislator who first studied the subject and was the prime mover in getting Congress to take off the tax foresaw the great material benefits that would result.

It is not an exaggeration to say that no recent legislation has more widely affected the economic welfare of the Nation. By abolishing the duty on this perfect fuel Congress placed within the reach of all citizens a substitute for expensive heating and lighting commodities that will go far toward ending the monopolies created by the Coal Trust and the Standard Oil concerns.

Osol, or denatured alcohol, is alcohol that has been made undrinkable by a special process. It is non-explosive. It possesses sterling virtues besides its cheapness. Chief among these is its cleanliness. A heater fed by denatured alcohol will warm a large room or several connecting rooms at a total cost of a trifle more than a cent an hour. The heat radiated from this heater is very agreeable, totally devoid of that quality usually styled "dryness" so often complained of in hot air furnaces and steam apparatus. Another great advantage is that this heater is as easy to run as an ordinary lamp. A child can tend it. A small reservoir at the base of the heater is filled with the osol, the wicks are lighted and that is all there is of it.

How the housewife will rejoice in her osol heater, in her osol cooking range, in her osol sad-irons! No black, messy coal to be carried from the cellar. No odoriferous kerosene to be smeared about her clothes and furniture. No exorbitant gas bills to be paid each month. It is, indeed, a great step in advance in the comfort and well-being of our Nation-this introduction of denatured alcohol into the economies of our daily life.

In the cooking range the cleanliness of osol and its convenience are peculiarly gratifying; but no less so than in the sad-irons on ironing day. The osol is burned inside the Irons, and there is no frequent changing of irons because they grow cold. An osol-fed iron is always ready for duty. The time of the ironer is saved; she has no worry over her irons.

The osol heaters and ranges have been found to be of peculiar value to hospitals and the sick room. No noise attends the care of them, and no gases or other unpleasant odors emanate from them, while their heat-glow is more comforting than from other fuels.

The light shed by an osol-fed lamp is soft, brilliant and white, and burns with a flame of great steadiness. It is like sunlight. Indeed, it possesses the properties of sunlight. It is as good for the eves as sunlight, too. If you work or read by an osolfed lamp your eyes will last longer and stay young longer than with any other kind of light.

For the last twenty years, while the United States Government was keeping a prohibitive duy on denatured alcohol, people in Europe and other countries had been enjoying its benefits, In Germany, the land of good housekeeping, the housekeeper would deem herself very ill-used were she forced to do without denatured alcohol in the conduct of her home. She prefers the brilliant, incandescent light of denatured alcohol to the really high-grade gas that the German city authorities insist upon,

Now, for the first time, osol has been put on the general market in the United States. It can he had at any grocer's or hardware dealer's. As soon as the public learns of osol there is certain to be a great rush to get it. As yet the public really knows little of it. The heating and lighting trusts have taken care that as little information as possible shall be circulated concerning it. It was only when newspaper editors awoke to a realizing sense that a great, new fuel was at hand to the people and began printing articles lauding its cheapness, cleanliness, safety, abundance and perfection that its merits have become known at all.

Just as electricity is supplanting steam on our railroads, so is denatured alcohol. apparently, destined to supplant coal, gas and kerosene oil as fuel for heating and lighting.

Donatured alcohol has another virtue besides those of heating and lighting. It is a splendid cleanser. For cleaning household utensils, windows or clothing, for removing all kinds of grease, paints, etc., etc., it is invaluable. It is the basis of most of the patent cleaning compounds on the market.

Osol, or denatured alcohol, is now on sale practically everywhere in the United States in any desired quantity.

Every dealer in osol carries a complete line of heating and lighting utilities, such as heaters, stoves. ranges, lamps. sad-irons, etc., etc. These are supplied by the Alcohol Utilities Company. No. 156 West Twenty-third Street, New York, who will gladly furnish. gratis, any information regarding denatured alcohol and its uses, or send circulars and catalogues giving in detail the articles manufactured for utilizing this grand new fuel.

By Edward S. Beach. Attorney and Counsellor at Law, 60 Wall Street, New York,

Specialist in Patent, Trade-Mark and Corporation Cases.

For THE WORLD ALMANAC AND ENCYCLOPEDIA. Mr. Justice Bradley, of the United States Supreme Court, said: "The design of the patent laws is to reward those who make some substantial discovery or invention which adds to ou: knowledge and makes a step in advance in the useful arts. Such inventors are worthy of all favor. It is never the object of those laws to grant a monopoly fur every trifling device, every shadow of a shade of an idea which would naturally and spontaneously occur to any skilled mechanic or operator in the ordinary progress of nianufactures."

The greatest "vice of the patent laws, frequently complained of, is not in the laws themselves, but in neglect of inventors to secure sound professional advice in the preparition and prosecution of their patent applications.

Patents are contracts between (1) the Government, (2) the patentee, and (3) the public; and patent specifications are among the most difficult contracts that trained lawyers are called on to prepare.

The real value of a patent lies in its force as a contract capable of being enforced by the courts, and the claims of a patent are its vitals. Everything, however well illustrated and described, but which is not claimed in a patent, is abandoned to the public--except when properly reserved for the subject-matter of another patent; and to draw legally proper patent claims demands the hardest labor of experienced patent lawyers. A patent without at least one sufficient claim for the invention is like a house with a foundation of sand.

Inventors and patent investors should consider the following:

1. Don't apply for a patent on an invention which does not fill or is not likely to fill some real want, or for an invention for which no actual market exists or can be probably created.

2. Don't invest (as a general rule) in a patent unless its claims cover the actual invention; nor unless the invention can be made and sold at a profit without infringing other patents; nor unless the claims of the patent are broad enough to cover the invention and also substantial imitations of it.

3. Don't make too many claims, They are a sign of weakness, and inducements to litigation. The courts do not favor such patents. One sufficient claim is stronger than forty uncertain claims.

1. Don't take out foreign patents unless sure that they can be worked or disposed of when obtained. In deciding this question, consult consular reports, exporters and other authorities.

j. Don't make doubtful claims in foreign patents. In some foreign countries invalidity of one claim invalidates the patent.

6. Don't think that patents will run alone. However important the invention, adequate capital and sound business judgment and energy are essential.

7. Don't fail to mark patented inventions with the word “Patented," and also with the date of the patent.

8. Don't keep inventions secret. Disclose them to trustworthy persons, who can be called as witnesses in case an interference' is declared in the Patent Office between your application for your invention and the applications of rival inventors.

Remember that the Patent Office has nothing to do with questions of infringement, but deals exclusively with Patentability and Interferences. The Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction of Infringement--i. e., the unauthorized manufacture, use or sale of a patented invention.

Remember that (1) patents, (2) trade-marks, (3) prints and labels for articles of manufacture, and (1) copyrights, are distinct things.

Patents are granted for 17 years, for machines, articles of manufacture, compositions of natter and processes.

Design patents are granted for 316 or 7 or 14 years, for ornamental designs for articles of manufacture.

Prints and labels for articles of manufacture are registrable in the Patent Office, under the Copyright Law,

Copyrights are obtainable from the Copyright Office in the Library of Congress, and relate only to literary or artistic sub'ect-matter.

Trade-marks consist of arbitrary, non-descriptive, non-geographical words (or symbols), and, unlike patents, are not based on invention.

Registration of a trade-mark is not essential to its protection. Trade-mark rights are secured by mere adoption and actual use of lawful trade-marks on articles of merchandise, and are lost by non-use. Trade-marks are registrable in most of the States of the United States, and also in the United States Patent Office when used in interstate or foreign commerce. Trade-marks should never be adopted without careful consideration of their substantial legality and of the question of their essential novelty on the classes of goods to which they are appropriated. Registration of trade-marks in the Patent Office is frequently of doubtful advisability, often leading to otherwise avoidable litigation.

GOVERNMENT FEES.
On filing application for 17-year patent, $15. After allowance, a final fee of $20.
Total

$35.00 On filing 314-year Design application, one fee.

10.00 On filing 7-year Design application, one fee..

15.00 On filing 14-year Design application, one fee...

30.00 On filing Trade-Mark application in United States Patent Office.

10.00 On filing Print or Label application in United States Patent Office.

6.00 On filing Copyright application in Copyright Oflice by United States citizen.

.50 On flling Copyright application in Copyright Office by a foreigner..

1.00 The feus for filing Trade-Mark applications in the various States vary from $1 to $10.

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