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and resigned June 12; the first formal meeting of the Venezuelan Arbitration Commission was opened June 15, and on October 3 rendered its unanimous decision, which was promptly accepted by Great Britain and Venezuela, thus ending a sixty-years' controversy and averting war; M. Waldeck-Rousseau succeeded in forming a new French ministry June 22; the International Council of Women opened in London June 26; French soldiers killed their officers in the French Soudan July 14; President Heureaux, of Santo Domingo, was assassinated July 26; the Peace Conference at The Hague held its final sitting July 29; the Dreyfus trial was opened at Rennes, France, August 7; Captain Dreyfus was convicted September 9 and pardoned September 19; on August 18 a hurricane in Porto Rico destroyed 2,000 lives; throughout August, in Paris, there were anti-government riots, and on August 1+ an attempt was made to assassinate Maitre Labori; the revolution in the Dominican Republic succeeded August 27; the Seventh International Geographical Congress opened in Berlin September 28; an earthquake in Java killed 4,000 people October 12; General Jimenez was elected President of the Dominican Republic October 20; Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, surrendered to General Castro, after holding out for two days, November 12; Kaiser Wilhelm arrived at Windsor Castle on a visit to England November 20; the Khalifa of the Soudan was killed in battle November 23.


"The war which staggered humanity,” to use the words of President Kruger, of the Transvaal; the Boxer rebellion in China; a Presidential election in the United States and general unrest made historic events follow in quick succession in 1900. The Boer war and Boxer troubles are treated on following pages. In the United States Secretary Hay announced the success of the "open door” policy in China January 2; the Senate ratified the Samoan treaty January 16; the Hay-Pauncefote treaty, amending the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, was signed at Washington February 5; President McKinley signed the Gold Standard Currency bill March 14; Admiral Dewey announced himself a candidate for the Presidency April 4; General MacArthur succeeded General Otis in the Philippines April 7; Charles H. Allen was appointed first civil Governor of Porto Rico April 12; the United States Senate denied admission to Matthew Quay, who had been appointed by the Governor of Pennsylvania; a mine explosion killed 200 at Scofield, Utah, May 1; Boer delegates arrived in New York May 16 and were subsequently received unofficially by the President; General MacArthur issued a proclamation of amnesty to the Filipino insurgents June 15; at Hoboken, N. J., on June 30, occurred a fire in which hundreds of lives were lost, and docks, vessels and other property to the value of $10,000,000 were destroyed; the United States Government took measures for the relief of destitute miners at Cape Nome, Alaska, August 31; a tornado at Galveston, Tex., destroyed 7,000 lives and $30,000,000 in property September 8, and about $1,000,000 was subscribed throughout the States for relief; a great strike prevailed in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania September 13-October 13, and was ended by mutual concessions; the United States cruiser, Yosemite was wrecked at Guam by a typhoon November 13; fifty lives were lost by a hurricane in Tennessee November 21. The Republican National Convention at Philadelphia, Pa., nominated William McKinley, of Ohio, for President, and Theodore Roosevelt, of New York, for Vice-President, both by acclamation. Every vote in the convention was cast for McKinley, and 929 of 930 votes for Roosevelt, the candidate, who was a delegate, not voting. The Democratic National Convention at Kansas City, Mo., nominated William J. Bryan for President by acclamation. On the first ballot Adlal E. Stevenson for Vice-President, his leading opponent being David B. Hill, who received 200 votes out of 936 cast, Stevenson getting 5594 ballots. The Silver Republican National Convention at Kansas City, Mo., July 6, the People's Party (Fusion) at Sioux Falls, S. Dak., May 10, and the Anti-Imperialist League at Indianapolis, Ind., August 16, indorsed Bryan, and the National Democratic party (Gold Democracy) refused to indorse him, and voted in convention at Indiana yolis to oppose him July 25. The money issue was paramount in the campaign, arc on November 6, in the general election, McKinley and Roosevelt had a popular plurality of 849,435 over Bryan, a popular majority of 457,027 over all, and an electoral majority of 137. The total popular vote was 13,961,566.

Among the notable incidents in foreign countries in 1900 were: The announcing of the Delagoa Railroad award, making Portugal pay nearly $5,000,000, March 29; Sipido attempted to shoot the Prince of Wales in Brussels April 4; the Paris International Exposition was formally opened by President Loubet April 14; Queen Victoria departed from Ireland after a three weeks' visit April 26; Hull and a part of Ottawa, Canada, were destroyed by fire April 26, making 12,000 persons homeless and causing $15,000,000 property logs; the Marquis de Galliffet resigned as Minister of War of France and was succeeded by General Andre May 29; the International Miners' Congress began at Paris June 25; a British force of 400 was attacked by 10,000 Ashantis, near Dompoassi, six officers and eighty-seven men being killed, June 26; the United States battleship Oregon grounded thirty-five miles north of Chefoo, China, June 29, and was subsequently taken to Japan and repaired; a statue of Lafayette, the gift of American school children, was unveiled in Paris July 4; General Porfirio Diaz was re-elected President of Mexico July 9; the Earl of Hopetown was appointed Governor of the new Commonwealth of Australia July 1%; King Humbert of Italy was assassinated by Angelo Bresci at Monza, Italy, July 3, and was succeeded August 11 by King Victor Emmanuel, who took the oath of office August 11; President Sanclemente, of the Republic of Colombia, resigned, and Vice-President Marrogun succeeded him August 15; the Duke of Abruzzi's polar expedition returned to Tromso, Norway, and announced that it had reached 86° 33' north latitude, the highest point yet touched, September 6; Cuba held an election of delegates to a constitutional convention September 15. which convention was opened at Havana November 5; England held elections for a new House of Commons in October, and a reconstructed British Cabinet, Conservative, with the Marquis of Salisbury as Prime Minister, was approved by Queen Victoria November 1; in October and November there were Carlist disorders in Spain; on October 17 the betrothal of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands to Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was announced; a new Spanish ministry was formed under General Azcarraga October 22; the five hundredth anniversary of the death of Chaucer was commemorated in London October 25; the Canadian Parliamentary elections were carried by a Liberal majority November 7; the steamer Monticello foundered in the Bay of Fundy and thirty-one lives were lost November 10; the Paris Exposition closed, 50,000,000 visitors having passed through the gates, November 12; President Kruger landed at Marseilles, France, and began a triumphal journey to Paris November 22; arsenic poison in beer caused 60 deaths and the illness of 1,000 persons at Manchester, England, November 30; General Mercier, in the Senate of France, projected the unionism of England, by arms, December 4; tension between Portugal and the Netherlands over South African affairs caused the withdrawal of their respective ministers December 7.


For three years prior to the enforced occupation of China by the Powers in 1900 trouble for foreigners had been brewing in the Flowery Kingdom. Since 1898 Russia had taken Port Arthur and the adjacent harbor of Talien-wan. Germany had leased Klaochau and gained great concessions in the province of Shang Tung. France had suggested privileges in portions of Chinese territory adjacent to the French possession of Tonquin. Great Britain, to cap the climax, had obtained from China a lease of Wei-Hai-Wei, on the south shore of the Gulf of Pechili, opposite Port Arthur, and thus commanded the entrance to the gulf and the water approach to Peking.

Many Chinese were resentful of these encroachments by foreigners, but the Dowager Empress did not, and hence she was bitterly opposed by her people. The leader of this opposition was Prince Tuan, the sixth son of the Emperor Kwang-Su's grandfather. Prince Tuan had long been an athlete and had a following of many athletic young men in the kingdom, who, because of their ability in sports, were known as boxers, a name which Tuan's recruits adopted. Tuan proclaimed his nine-year-old son heir presumptive to the throne. The Emperor, then but a figurehead, dominated by the Dowager Empress. had little popular support. The Boxers revolted, massacred missionaries at many interior points of the Empire, and finally made a concerted attack upon the foreign legations in Peking in which movement the Imperial troops eventually participated.

The Chinese Tsung-li-Yamen, the equivalent to a responsible government ministry in Europe, was in sentiment hostile to foreigners, and hence either would not, or could not, protect the legations or escort them safely from the country. The civilized world received distressing reports of massacres and outrages, and was for several weeks in suspense as to the fate of the foreign ministers in China, their families, legation attaches and converted Chinese under foreign protection. The offended Powers decided upon concerted action and hurried vessels and troops to the ports nearest to the danger points. Upon Chinese resistance to the landing of marines at Taku the forts were shelled by all the allies except Americans, and on June 17, while the Chinese shelled the allies' fleet, the allied troops landed and captured the Taku forts, after a sanguinary conflict. On June 18 the Ninth United States Regiment was ordered from Manila to China, other troops following. On June 20 German fury and general international indignation was aroused when Baron von Ketteler, the German Minister, while proceeding on a diplomatic mission to the Tsung-11-Yamen in Peking, was beset by Chinese soldiers and butchered. On the same day an allied expedition under Vice-Admiral Seymour, of the British Navy, began a march upon Peking for the relief of the British legationers. Such countless hordes of Chinese opposed him that he was obliged to turn back, suffering casualties of 374. The allied warships shelled Tien-tsin on June 21, and the combined forces, two days later, occupied the foreign quarters of that city. The Chinese, on June 23, requested an armistice through Minister Wu at Washington. The United States promptly replied that free communication must first be allowed with the legations, and on July 4 Secretary of State Hay outlined to the Powers the American policy.

On July 13-14 occurred one of the noted conflicts of history, when the allied forces stormed the Chinese part of Tien-tsin, which they captured with a loss of 800 killed and wounded. Col. E. H. Liscum, commanding the United States contingent, was among the slain. On July 19 the Emperor of China appealed to President McKinley for peace. The advance of the allies upon Peking began August 4, under command of Field Marshal von Waldersee, of the German army, who was unanimously selected to command the allied forces.

The first news from the beleaguered foreigners reached the United States in the form of a cipher message from Minister Conger. It read: "Still besieged. Situation more precarious. Chinese Government insisting on our leaving Peking which would be certain death. Rifle firing upon us daily by Imperial troops. Have abundant courage, but little aminunition or provisions. Two progressive Yamen ministers beheaded. All connected with the legation of the United States well at present moment." The receipt of this message caused intense excitement throughout the United States, for, though it broke the long suspense, it added to public fury and anxiety. On August 8 Li Hung Chang was appointed Envoy Plenipotentiary to propose to the several Powers for the immediate cessation of hostile demonstrations. On August 14 Peking was captured by the allied forces of the Americans, British, Germans, French, Austrians, Italians and Japanese, the American troops being the first to enter the city, and Captain Reilly being killed. The Emperor and Empress had fled. The legationers were promptly relieved and told thrilling stories of their danger and distress during the long siege. The Chinese, on August 16, asked for an armistice, which was refused. Li Hung Chang's appeal was rejected by the United States, and China was informed that the demands of this Government must be complied with. At the same time General Chaffee was given full power to act. The American refugees from Peking reached Tien-tsin safely on August 25.


On November 19 the negotiations between the allies and the Chinese authorities for terms of peace and compensation, which were begun when the allies took full possession of Peking, had progressed so far that the German Imperial Chancellor in the Reichstag announced that the allies had unanimously agreed upon the following as their demands upoi. China:

First: China shall erect a monument to Baron von Ketteler on the site where he was murdered and send an Imperial Prince to Germany to convey an apology. She shall inflict the death penalty upon eleven princes and officials already named, and suspend provincial examinations for five years where the outrages occurred.

Second: In future all officials failing to prevent anti-foreign outrages within their jurisdiction shall be dismissed and punished.

Third: Indemnity shall be paid to States, corporations and individuals. The Tsung-liYamen shall be abolished and its functions vested in a Foreign Minister. Rational intercourse shall be permitted with the Emperor, as in civilized countries.

Fourth: The forts at Taku and other forts on the coast of Chi-li shall be razed, and the importation of arms and war material prohibited.

Fifth: Permanent legation guards shall be maintated, and also guards of communica tion between Peking and the sea.

Sixth: Imperial proclamations shall be posted for two years throughout the Empire suppressing Boxers.

Seventh: Indemnity is to include compensation for Chinese who suffered by being employed by foreigners, but not compensation for native Christians.

Eighth: China shall erect expiatory monuments in every foreign or international burtal ground where the graves have been profaned.

Ninth: The Chinese Government shall undertake to enter upon negotfations for such changes in existing treaties regarding trade and navigation as the foreign governments deem advisable, and with reference to other matters having in view the facilitation of commercial relations.

In December, 1900, the Chinese authorities had accepted all the foregoing conditions imposed by the allies, and the preliminary note of the demands of the Powers was signed by Li Hung Chang and Prince Ching. Another year, however, was devoted to a final settlement of affairs. The allied commanders in Peking organized a judicial system on January 15. On January 22 the Shan-hai-Rivan Railway was given over to the Germans by the Russians. Russia refused, on February 2, to consent to the execution of Prince Tuan, and public demand was made on February 6 by the foreign ministers in Peking for the heads of twelve Chinese officials. The United States, on February 19 protested against further military expeditions in China. The next day the Germans were attacked at Paoting-fu. On February 21 the Powers agreed to acquire no Chinese territory without international consent. Chi Hsin and Hsu Ching Tu were executed at Peking February 27. On March 8 the Chung-sun Pass was captured by the Germans. Japan's protest regarding the Manchuria Convention was replied to by Russia April 3, Russia saying that terms would be discussed after their acceptance; China, on the same date, declared herself unable to sign the Manchuria Convention. On April 23 the Germans, in an engagement, forced the Chinese over the great wall, but with considerable loss. Peking was evacuated by the American cavalry and artillery May 5, and General Chaffee embarked for the Philippines May 18. The Powers, on May 9, demanded of China a formal indemnity of 450,000,000 taels (about $300,000,000), which was agreed to by China and the Powers, on July 26, formally accepted China's offer to pay the sum named on time at 414 per cent. Interest. Prince Chun, at Berlin, September 4, formally apologized to Emperor William for the insult to German honor in the murder of Baron von Ketteler. On September 17 the American and Japanese troops in Peking handed over the Forbidden City to the Chinese. Li Hung Cháng, who had taken such a prominent part in peace negotiations, died on November 7.

The terms of the new Manchuria agreement were made public on November 18. By this agreement China gave to Russia exclusive mining and railway privileges in Manchuria, and the command of all the Chinese troops there by the Russian aut iorities, Russian occupation to end in three years. President Roosevelt, in his annual message to Congress on December 2, 1901, highly praised the United States Plenipotentiary, William Woodville Rockhill, for his good judgment and energy in the conference of the Powers which induced China to sign a final protocol for the betterment of conditions in China and assurance of more desirable international relations. On January 7, 1902, the Emperor and Empress Dowager re-entered Peking, and on April 8, 1902, was signed, at Peking, the convention between China and Russia regarding Manchuria,

The United States Congress, by act approved April 29, 1902, re-enacted much of the Chinese Exclusion act of September 13, 1888, extended said law to all territorial possessions of the United States, authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to make and prescribe necessary rules and regulations to secure efficient execution of the act, and provided for the issuance of certificates of residence to Chinese laborers entitled to remain in the United States or insular possessions. All Chinese in the United States were compelled to register such a certificate or be deported within a year. Exemption was granted to Chinese coming to the United States to install or attend to exhibits in any fair or exposition authorized by act of Congress. In the Philippines the term of registration was extended to within two yeart, 11 so long • time wu found to be necessary.


The advent of the twentieth century was celebrated with demonstrations throughout the United States and in many cities of the Old World on January 1, 1901. Quiet generally prevailed, except in South Africa, where the Boer war raged during the entire year, and in China, where the Allies and Chinese frequently met in armed conflict, as described elsewhere. At home, the nation was inexpressibly shocked and well-nigh fred zied by the assassination of President McKinley while he was holding a reception in the Temple of Music at the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, The assassin, Leon Czolgosz, fired two shots, one bullet entering the President's arm and the other perforating his stomach. The President survived an immediate operation, but died on September 19 from his wounds at the home of John G. Muburn, in Buffalo. Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt took the oath of office as President immediately after McKinley's death The assassin Czolgosz was tried September 24, and was in nine hours found guilty and sentenced to death in the electric chair during the week of October 28. On October 29 he was electrocuted at Auburn prison. Mr. McKinley was inaugurated on March 4 for his second term. In May he made a trip to the Pacific Coast and was received with great enthusiasm. Other notable occurrences in American territory during the year were: On & trial trip the torpedo-boat Bailey made 30.88 knots an hour January 17; hazing was abolished at West Point Military Academy by an agreement signed by the cadets January 19; the United States Government surrendered Neely, the alleged postal defaulter, to the Cuban authorities January 21; the Army Reorganization bill was signed by President McKinley February 2; the centenary of the installation of Chief Justice Marshall was celebrated February 4; the canteens were closed by the War Department February 4; the Supreme Court of Michigan held public franchises to be taxable February 12; the first Territorial Legislature of Hawaii began its session February 20; the Pacific Mail steamship Rio de Janeiro sank off the Golden Gate, San Francisco, after striking in a fog and 128 lives were lost February 22; the United States Steel Corporation was incorporated February 25; the United States Supreme Court decided against the Bell Telephone Company in the Berliner case February 27; Andrew Carnegle presented $5,200,000 to the City of New York for libraries March 13; Aguinaldo, the Filipino insurrectionary chief, was captured by General Funston in the Province of Isabella, Luzon, March 23; on the same date the United States paid Spain for the islands of Cagayan and Sibutu; President McKinley received the Cuban Commissioners April 26; the Pan-American Exposition was formally opened at Buffalo, N. Y., May 1; it was closed November 4; civil government was established at Manila, in the Philippines, May 3; Jacksonville, Fla., suffered a $10,000,000 fire May 3; Cardinal Martinelli was invested with the red biretta at Baltimore; five cadets were dismissed and six suspended at West Point for insubordination May 22; & decision was rendered by the United States Supreme Court declaring duties collected prior to the Porto Rican Tariff law to be illegal (and refundable), but the law itself to be constitutional, May 7; Senators McLaurin and Tillman resigned their seats in the United States Senate, but their resignations were not accepted by the Governor of South Carolina, May 30; the Hall of Fame at New York University was inaugurated May 30; General Chaffee was appointed Military Governor of the Philippines June 22; Minister Leishman, of the United States, obtained a final settlement from Turkey of indemnity claims July 2; the will of Jacob S. Rogers, of Paterson, N. J., bequeathed $5,000,000 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, July 5; William H. Hunt was appointed Governor of Porto Rico July 23; in response to the request of Rear-Admiral the Secretary of the Navy ordered a Court of Inquiry into his conduct in the Spanish-American war July 24; Admiral Schley was exonerated from all blame December 13; the new battleship Maine was launched at Philadelphia July 27; a general strike made by 14,000 employees of the United States Steel Corporation August 10; the bi-centennial of Yale University was celebrated October 20-24; the Isthmian Canal Treaty between the United States and Great Britain was signed by Secretary Hay and Lord Pauncefote November 8; the South Carolina and West Indian Exposition at Charleston, S. C., was opened with religious ceremonies December 1.

Abroad, in 1901, the noteworthy events were: Lord Roberts was made Earl and Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria January 2, and was received in London with royal honors the following day; the Kingdom of Prussia celebrated its bl-centenary Jan


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