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Coercion bill. It passed the Commons July 8 by 349 to 262. Royal assent was given July 19. Irish counties were proclaimed July 24, and the Irish National League was proclaimed August 19. Mrs. James Brown Potter made her debut in the Haymarket Theatre, London, on March 29. War excitement was caused on April 20 by the arrest of M. Schnaebles, French Commissary, by the Germans on the Franco-German frontier; he was released April 29. The French crown jewels were sold at auction on May 12. The Goblet ministry in France resigned in May and the Rouvier ministry was installed. At Toronto, May 18, William O'Brien, the Irish Home Rule agitator, was mobbed by Orangemen. The Opera Comique in Paris was burned May 26, with a loss of 130 lives; five days later panic in the cathedral at Chihuahua killed 300 children and injured 60 others. In June Queen Victoria's "Diamond Jubilee,' or semi-centennial of her coronation, was celebrated with imposing ceremonies in London and throughout British possessions, only Ireland remaining lukewarm, the Irish Nationalists struggling vainly at that time against the passing of a Coercion bill for Ireland. In India 25,000 prisoners were liberated in honor of the jubilee celebration. Revolution in the Hawaiian Islands caused a change of ministry and a revision of the constitution June 30. On July 7 Prince Ferdinand of SaxeCoburg-Gotha was elected Reigning Prince of Bulgaria by its Parliament; he was proclaimed August 14. The excommunication of the Rev. Dr. McGlynn was announced on July 8. An American testimonial to Mr. Gladstone was presented on July 9. On September 1 Joseph Chamberlain was appointed chairman of the British Fisheries Commission. The burning of the Theatre Royal at Exeter, England, on September 5 cost 140 lives. Home Ruler William O'Brien was convicted at Cork of sedition and imprisoned. On October 1-3 an alliance between Germany, Italy and Austria was created at Friedrichsruh by Bismarck and Crispi. The Chinese Government on October 12 granted extensive banking, railroad and telegraphic concessions to an American syndicate. On October 14 General Caffarel, of the French army, was disgraced for selling decorations, and General Boulanger was arrested for insubordination. The German Crown Prince's disease was pronounced to be cancer November 11. The French Chamber of Deputies voted on November 7 to prosecute M. Wilson, the President's son-in-law, for trafficking in offices, 527 to 3; he was acquitted by the tribunals December 3, on which date the Tirard ministry was again installed. M. Jules Grevy resigned the French Presidency on December 2, and Marie Francois Sadi-Carnot was elected by Congress to succeed him. The Pope's jubilee began on December 30 with the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of his ordination.

Notable events of the year 1887 in the United States began with the sale of the Hoosac Tunnel to the Fitchburg Railroad Company for $10,000,000. In January Congress passed the Interstate Commerce bill, and a little later the Canadian Retaliation bill. In February an attempt was made to assassinate Patti in San Francisco by an infernal machine. The President vetoed the Dependent Pension bill on February 11, and on February 24 the House refused to pass the bill over the veto. Severe earthquake shocks in northern Mexico, Arizona and vicinity caused topographical changes. Queen Kapiolani of Hawaii was entertained at the Executive Mansion, Washington, May 6. The Garfield Statue at Washington, D. C., was unveiled with demonstrations. On June 16 the President In New revoked the War Department order restoring captured Southern battle flags. York City, after long delay, Jacob Sharp, briber of the "Boodle Aldermen," was convicted June 29 and sentenced July 14 to fourteen years' imprisonment; stay was granted, appeal taken, and a new trial ordered November 29 by the Court of Appeals, Sharp being released on $40,000 bail. The Ute Indians, under Chief Colorow, went on the warpath in Wyoming on August 14. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was sold by the Garrett interest on September 2, and the Western Union Telegraph Company purchased the Baltimore and Ohio telegraph properties. The ninth international congress of physicians met at Washington, D. Č., on September 5. The centennial celebration of the signing of the Constitution was held at Philadelphia September 15-17. During September and October President and Mrs. Cleveland made an extensive Western and Southern tour. The Lincoln Monument was unveiled with demonstrations at Springfield, Ill, on October 22. President Cleveland received a memorial from the British International Arbitration Delegation on October 31. On November 10 Lingg, the Chicago anarchist, committed suicide by exploding dynamite in his mouth; on the following day his convicted companions, Spies, Fischer, Engel and Parsons, were hanged at Chicago, the Governor of Illinois commuting the sentences of Fielden and Schwab to life imprisonment. Barnum's Winter quarters, with many valuable

animals, were burned at Bridgeport, Ct.. November 20. On December 5 the United States Supreme Court rendered its "States Rights" decision in the Virginia Habeas Corpus case. The year closed with labor troubles and a strike of 60,000 men on the Reading Railroad.


The year 1888 was marked by numerous incidents of international interest in the United States and abroad. Of these the most important outside of this country were: The making public on February 3 of the treaty of alliance between Germany and Austria against Russia, concluded in 1879; the performing of tracheotomy on the German Crown Prince at San Remo on February 9; the death of William I. of Germany on March 9; the marriage of Prince Oscar of Sweden to Miss Elba Munck in England; the depriving of General Boulanger of his command by the French Government for breach of discipline; the introducing of a local government bill for England and Wales in the House of Commons; the retirement of General Boulanger, the defeat of the Tirard ministry in the French Chamber of Deputies by the Floquet ministry, and the election of Boulanger to the Chamber by a great majority; the issuing of a Papal rescript condemning the Irish "plan of campaign" and boycotting; the sentencing of John Dillon, M. P., to six months' imprisonment under the "Crimes" act; the loss of the steamer Pemptos in the Indian Ocean, with 1,100 lives; the abolition of slavery in Brazil by the Brazilian Chambers; the marriage of Prince Henry of Germany and Princess Irene of Hesse at Charlottenburg Castle; the unanimous re-election of President Diaz of Mexico; the resignation of General Boulanger from the French Chamber of Deputies and his severe wounding in a duel with Floquet; the forcible separation of Queen Natalie of Servia from her son by order of King Milan; the taking by Italy of formal possession of Massowah, Africa; the opening of the Australian Centenary Exposition at Melbourne; Charles Stewart Parnell's suit against the London Times for $250,000 damages; revolution in Hayti overthrowing the Salomon Government; Henry M. Stanley, the African explorer, heard from at Bonyala, on the Aruwhimi; the marriage of Princess Letitia Bonaparte, daughter of Prince Napoleon (Jerome), to her uncle, the Duke of Aosta, brother of the King of Italy; the defeat of the Thibetan army in Thibet by the British under Colonel Graham; the introduction by Premier Floquet of his proposed revision of the Constitution in the French Chambers; the election of General Legitime as President of Hayti; the announcement of the failure of the Panama Canal Company in December; the election of M. Hammer as President of Switzerland; the defeat of the Arabs, with great slaughter, by British troops at the battle of Suakin; the acceptance, by the Paris Municipal Council, of the statues of Washington and Lafayette, presented to the city by Mr. Joseph Pulitzer. Minor foreign occurrences worthy of note were: The celebration of the centennial of the London Times; the presentation of a jubilee gift from President Cleveland to Pope Leo XIII.; the appointment of Lord Stanley, of Preston, as Governor-General of Canada; the celebration in London and Greece of the centennial of Lord Byron's birth.

Stirring events in the United States in 1888 were: The signing of the fisheries treaty with Great Britain at Washington; the introducing of the Mills Tariff bill in the House of Representatives April 17; the ratification of a treaty with China by the United States Senate; the adjustment of the differences between the United States and Morocco May 9; the laying of the corner-stone of the Catholic University at Washington, D. C.; the signing by Governor Hill of the law substituting electricity for hanging as the death penalty in New York June 4; the marriage of the Duke of Marlborough and Mrs. Hammersly in New York City; the confirming of Melville E. Fuller as Chief Justice of the United States by the Senate July 20; the passing of the Mills Tariff Reduction bill by the House, 162 to 149, July 21; yellow fever epidemic at Jacksonville, Fla., lasting from July 29 to December 7, with 4,704 cases and 412 deaths; the rejection of the Canadian fisheries treaty by the United States Senate and the sending of a message by the President to Congress recommending retaliation upon Canada; the passing of the Chinese Exclusion bill by the United States Senate, it having previously passed the House; the touching at $2 by September wheat on the Chicago Board of Trade; the debut of Coquelin and Jane Hading in New

York October 8; the adjournment of the first session of the Fiftieth Congress; the opening of the National Exposition at Atlanta, Ga.; the affirming by the Supreme Court of the United States of the right of the Government to sue the Bell Telephone Company; the marriage of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain and Miss Mary C. Endicott, daughter of the Secretary of War, at Washington; the placing of the railway postal employees under the Civil Service law by the Postmaster-General. Naturally the occurrence of greatest interest in the United States in 1888 was the Presidential election. On June 6 the National Convention of the Democratic party at St. Louis renominated Grover Cleveland by acclamation, with Allen G. Thurman for Vice-President. In the National Republican Convention at Chicago, June 25, Benjamin Harrison, of Indiana, was nominated for President on the eighth ballot, his leading opponents being Senator John Sherman, Gen. Russell A. Alger and Walter Q. Gresham. Levi P. Morton, of New York, was nominated for Vice-President on the first ballot. Money was freely used in the campaign which followed, it being estimated that the two great parties expended $6,000,000. Blaine threw himself into the campaign for Harrison, many former Cleveland supporters deserted the Democracy, and the lowering of the tariff made an issue which united protectionists. A Republican trick, however, did much toward turning the tide of battle against Cleveland. In September George Osgoodby, of Pomona, Cal., wrote, ostensibly as an Englishman, to Lord Sackville-West, British Minister at Washington, cleverly asking the Minister's advice as to how naturalized Englishmen in the United States should vote, and reviewing the President's record of acts which Osgoodby termed "friendly to England." Lord Sackville-West fell into this decoy letter trap, and replied expressing his confidence in Cleveland and the Democracy. These letters were scattered broadcast by Republicans, and Cleveland was forced, by party pressure, to ask for the Minister's recall. It was refused, whereupon Sir Sackville-West was given his passports. This action was so strongly resented by the British Government that the British Embassy in Washington remained vacant during the rest of Cleveland's term. The November elections resulted in a substantial Republican victory, Harrison being elected, the Senate remaining Republican, and a face majority of ten in the House being secured by the Republicans.


Two great disasters, the one of international interest, occurred in 1889. The first was on March 16-17, when a hurricane at Apia, Samoan Islands, wrecked the United States warships Nipsic, Vandalia and Trenton, and the German warships Eber, Olga and Adler. The loss of life was 146, including Captain Schoonmaker, of the Vandalia. The ships, with the British Calliope, which escaped by putting out to sea, were at Apia because of the dispute between Germany, Great Britain and the United States concerning protectorate government of the Samoans. The hurricane tragedy was so distinguished by the heroic conduct of all the officers and men, irrespective of nationality, that war talk ceased. The other extraordinary disaster of the year was the flooding of Johnstown and the Conemaugh valley, Pennsylvania, on May 31, by the breaking of a dam. The loss of life was 2,295, and the property loss was $10,000,000. A third notable disaster was at Antwerp, Belgium, on September 6, when an explosion of dynamite cartridges killed 125 persons, wounded 300 and destroyed $6,000,000 worth of property.

In the United States the Republican party resumed full power at Washington, when Benjamin Harrison was inaugurated President on March 4, making Blaine his Secretary of State. In January the Republican tariff bill was passed by the Senate by a strict party vote, 32 to 30. One of President Cleveland's last important official acts was to sign, on February 22, the Territorial bill, admitting North and South Dakota, Montana and Washington as States. The Oklahoma lands were opened to settlers by Presidential proclamation on April 22. President Harrison was the central figure in the centennial celebration of On May the inauguration of President Washington in New York City on April 29-May 1. 13 the United States Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of the Chinese Exclusion act. The Sioux Indians ceded 11,000,000 acres, their reservation in Dakota, to the United States on August 6. A congress of North, South and Central American States convened at Washington on October 2. The Dakotas, Montana and Washington Territory were admitted Thomas B. Reed, of Maine, was as States by Presidential proclamation in November.

elected Speaker of the House in the Fifty-first Congress, which opened on December 2. The principal non-political occurrences at home were: The murder of Dr. P. H. Cronin, the Irish nationalist agitator, at Chicago, and the subsequent conviction of Burke, Coughlin, O'Sullivan and Kunze, four of his alleged assassins; the annexation of Chicago's suburbs to the city; the holding, at the Mayor's office, New York, of the initial meeting for a World's Fair in 1892; the unveiling of a monument to the Pilgrim Fathers at Plymouth, Mass.; the forming of a memorial association by Union and Confederate veterans on Chickamauga battlefield September 20; the debut of Mr. and Mrs. Kendal at the Fifth Avenue Theatre, New York, October 7; the celebration at Baltimore of the Roman Catholic centenary in America and the opening of the Catholic University of America at Washington, D. C., with impressive ceremonies; the opening of the Chicago Auditorium, President Harrison and Mme. Patti assisting, December 9. In France the Boulanger troubles continued. General Boulanger fled to Belgium on Apr 2 to avoid the consequences of prosecution by the French Government, removing to London April 24. On August 13 the French Senate pronounced him guilty of treason and embezzlement. In February the Floquet ministry was defeated in the Chamber of Deputies and resigned, on the question of revision of the Constitution, and the Tirard ministry was installed. The Eiffel Tower, in Paris, 1,178 feet high, was opened on March 30. The centennial of the beginning of the French Revolution was celebrated in France and elsewhere May 5, and the French Universal Exposition in Paris was opened May 6. In July, at the sale of the Secretan paintings in Paris, Millet's "Angelus" sold for 553,000 francs. President Carnot unveiled at Paris a replica of the Bartholdi Statue of Liberty on July 4. The fall of the Bastile was celebrated throughout France on July 14; the French elections of Council-Generals returned 949 Republicans and 489 Conservatives. The remains of the elder Carnot were deposited in the Pantheon, Paris, August 4. The Republicans triumphed in the elections for the Chamber of Deputies in September.

In England the Lord Mayor of London gave a great banquet in honor of United States Minister Phelps in January. William O'Brien was lodged in Clonmel jail and roughly treated, refusing to wear the prison garb, in January. A month later, in the Parnell inquiry, the government witness, Richard Pigott, broke down and confessed forgery; he fled February 26, and committed suicide in Madrid March 1. Great Britain, Germany and the United States began at Berlin their conference over Samoan affairs March 29. The Marquis of Londonderry resigned the Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland in April and was succeeded by the Earl of Zetland. The Shah of Persia was received with demonstrations in London on July 1, and on the same day in London was opened the world's Sunday-school convention. Parnell and his counsel withdrew from representation before the commission of inquiry on July 13. Mr. and Mrs. Gladstone celebrated their golden wedding on July 25. Labouchere's motion in opposition to further grants to the royal family was voted down in the House of Commons, 398 to 116. Princess Louise of Wales and the Duke of Fife were married in London on July 27. Emperor William of Germany visited England in August and witnessed a great naval review. The British and Egyptian troops defeated the Dervishers in a battle in upper Egypt on August 3. A strike of dockmen in London, which spread to 250,000 other workmen, lasted from August 22 to September 20. Нарpenings in other countries were: Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria committed suicide at Meyerling, near Baden. Prince Alexander of Battenberg and Marie Loisinger, opera singer, were married at Mentone; she died November 7 following. King Milan of Servia abdicated in favor of his son March 6. A statue of Bruno, the Italian liberal philosopher, was unveiled amid a great demonstration at Rome. King Alexander I. of Servia was consecrated at Saltchar July 2. An insurrection in Honolulu to overthrow the government was defeated July 31. Mrs. Florence Maybrick was convicted in Liverpool of the murder, by poison, of her husband. Her death sentence was commuted to penal servitude for life August 22, President Legitime abandoned Hayti, and the rival President, Hippolyte, took possession of Port-au-Prince. Floods in Japan destroyed 10,000 people in August. October 27 Princess Sophia of Germany and the Duke of Sparta, Crown Prince of Greece, were married at Athens. On November 16 a revolution in Brazil overthrew the monarchy, banished the Emperor and his family, and established a republic. The explorer Stanley reached the eastern coast of Africa at Pagamoyo on December 3, claimed King of Portuga on December 28.


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The first year of the last decade of the nineteenth century was one of comparative quiet throughout the world. Two record-breaking trips around the globe, both ending in New York, were made. The first was by Nellie Bly in 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes and 14 seconds; the second journey was by George Francis Train, the philosopher, in 67 days, 13 hours, 13 minutes and 3 seconds. At Washington, D. C., the wife and daughter of Secretary Tracy were burned to death in February. The centenary of the Supreme Court of the United States was celebrated in New York February 4, and on the same day the Samoan treaty with Germany and Great Britain was ratified by the United States Senate. Speaker Reed's new rules were adopted by the House of Representatives, 161 to 144, February 14. Chicago was chosen by the House for the World's Columbian Exposition February 24. On March 10 the Blair Educational bill was defeated in the United States Senate, 37 to 31. The Pan-American Conference closed at Washington on April 18. Commander McCala, U. S. N., was suspended in May for three years for cruelty to seamen. The McKinley Tariff bill passed the House of Representatives, 162 to 142, two Southern Republicans voting in the negative. Amid a great concourse from all the Southern States the statue of General Lee was unveiled at Richmond, Va., on May 29. The following day,the Garfield Memorial was dedicated at Cleveland, Ohio. The corner-stone of the Washington Memorial Arch, Washington Square, New York, was laid May 30. On July 2 the Lodge Force bill passed the House of Representatives, two Southern Republicans voting in the negative. President signed the Idaho Admission bill the July 3, and Wyoming Admission bill on The July 11. was Louisiana Lottery bill vetoed by Governor Nichols, of William Louisiana. The New Croton Aqueduct was opened in New York on July 15. Kemmler, the first victim of the new electrocution law in New York State, was executed in the electric chair in Auburn (N. Y.) prison. The United States cruiser Baltimore sailed on August 25 for Sweden with the body of Captain Ericsson; the remains were received with imposing ceremonies at Stockholm September 16. The Senate passed the McKinley Tariff bill, 33 to 27; the President signed it the next day, when the first session of the Fifty-first Congress ended. The President of the Mormon Church, on October 6, published a decree forbidding plural marriages of Mormons in the future. On October 8 Chief of Police Hennessy, of New Orleans, was assassinated by Italians, some of them members of the Mafia; later the murder led to international complications. The House of Representa tives, by a vote of 139 to 95, passed the International Copyright bill December 3. King Kalakaua of Hawaii landed at San Francisco December 4. The Sioux Indians in South Dakota made trouble in December. In one of the skirmishes with soldiers the noted chief, Sitting Bull, was killed, and in another Captain Wallace and several United States soldiers were slain.


The record of the year abroad was: A federation conference of the Australian colonies was held at Melbourne February 6. The young Duke of Orleans visited Paris and was arrested and imprisoned February 7; he was pardoned by President Carnot June 7 and escorted out of France. The railway bridge across the Forth, 8,269 feet long, was opened to traffic, The Tirard ministry in France resigned March 14 and the Freycinet ministry was installed. Prince Bismarck resigned the German Chancellorship March 17. The Government Irish Land Purchase bill was brought forward by Mr. Balfour, Chief Secretary for Ireland. On June 18 the British and German treaty, settling their African claims and ceding Heligoland by England to Germany, was made public. The city of Fort-deFrance, Martinique, was nearly destroyed by fire June 22. On the same day the sudden death of President Menendez, of Salvador, was followed by a revolution, and General Ezeta seized the government. The new Constitution was promulgated in Brazil June 23. Major Panitza was executed at Sofia, Bulgaria, for conspiring against the government June 28. Henry M. Stanley and Miss Dorothy Tennant were married in Westminster Abbey July 12. From July 15 to August 31, when peace was finally proclaimed, hostilities existed between Salvador and Guatemala, during which several battles were fought with Salvadorean victories. An Insurrection against the government broke out in Buenos Ayres on July 26, and peace was promptly restored by concession to the revolutionists. The Armenian Cathedral in Constantinople was mobbed by Mohammedans July 28. Emperor

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