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Statistics of Homicide. In the Independent of April 11, 1907, James Edgar Bisun contributed the following statistics of homicide in principal countries of the world:
Josiah Strung's "Social Progress'' for 1906 gives the following table of homicides and
Tried. victed. Italy 3,606 2,903 England 318 151 Hungary
825 Austria 689 499 Ireland
28 France 847 580 Scotland
567 476 Belgium 132 101 spain
1,384 1,083 The average number of murders in the United States annually during the past twenty years, from 1883 to 1904, was 6,597. In 1896 the murders reached high-water mark, 10.662, and in 1895 there were 10,500. In Germany the convictions equalled 95 per cent. and a fraction; in the United States, 1.3 per cent.
In this connection, the nationalities of the homicides in the United States will be of interest. August Drahm gives the following: Native white, 42.94 per cent.; foreign born, 16.00 per cent.; negroes, 37.12 per cent.; Chinese and Japs, 1.28 per cent.; civilized Indians, 1.21 per cent.
HOMICIDE IN THE UNITED STATES. The statistics of the l’nited States Census for 1900 had not been published by the Census Office when THE WORLD ALMANAC for 1908 was ready for the press. The special report of the Census Office is in course of preparation. The latest official statistics, therefore, are for 1890.
The census bulletin presenting statistics of homicide in the United States in 1890 was prepared by Frederick H. Wines, special agent on pauperism and crime. The following is the sumining up of the results of his investigations:
Of S2,329 prisoners in the United States June 1, 1990, the number charged with homicide was 7,386, or 8.97 per cent.
Omitting 35 who were charged with double crimes, 6,958 of them (or 94.65 per cent.) were men, and 393 (or 5.35 per cent.) were women,
As to color, 4,425 were white, 2,739 negroes. 94 Chinese, 1 Japanese, and 92 Indians.
As to the nativity of the 4.425 whites, 3,157 were born in the United States, 1,213 were foreign born, and the birthplace of 10 is unknown.
The number employed at the time of their arrest was 5,659; unemployed, 1,225; unknown, 467.
The habits of 973, in respect of use of intoxicating liquors, are not stated. The remaining 6,378 are classed follows: Total abstainers, 1,282; occasional or moderate drinkers, 3,829; drunkards, 1,267.
As to their physical condition. 6.149 were in good health, 600 ill, 283 insane, 24 blind, 14 deaf and dumb, 18 idiots. and 263 crippled.
The number of legal executions in the United States in the twelve years ending January 1, 1907, was 1,314,
Prisoners' Commutation Table. THE following table shows the time subtracted for uniformly good conduct from the terms to which prisoners are sentenced under the regulations in force in the State prisons of New York:
REMAINING SHORT TERM.
SHORT TERM, SENTENCE.
Years. Months, Days. Years. Months. Days. Years.
4 16 12
9 3 10
15 11 9
18 2 months off first year, 2 months oft second year, 4 months off third year, 4 months off fourth year, 6 months off tifih year and 5 months off each subsequent year after Ave years.
Eri o: 5: 5 5: 5: 5:::::::
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Prisoners in the United States. The Census Office published in 1907 a special report on prisoners and juvenile delnquents in institutions in the United States. The enumerations are for 1904, when the census was taken. The following is a suimmary from the report:
The nuinber of institutions in the United States June 30, 1904, was 1,337, classified as follows: United States civil prisons, 4; State prisons and State and County penitentiaries, 67; reformatories for adults, 14; County jails and workhouses, 1,181; municipal prisons and workhouses, 71.
Exclusive of the juvenile delinquents in special institutions for that class, and exclusive of persons imprisoned for the non-payment of fines, $1,772 sane persons at least five years of age were serving sentences in civil prisons on June 30, 1904. Out of every million persons in the estimated population of that date 1,006 were prisoners.
Possibly the greater leniency in the present treatment of the criminal affects the female offenders more than the male, for the proportion of women among prisoners has constantly decreased. In 1880 women' formed 8.5 per cent. of the prisoners; in 1800, 7.8 per cent.; and in 1894, 5,5 per cent. The decrease between 1890 and 1904 is common to all sections of the country.
Colored persons were more common among the prisoners on June 30, 1904, than they were on June 1, 1890. In 1904 the percentage of colored was 32.0, while in 1890 it was 30.4. This increase in the proportion of colored prisoners is shown by all the geographic divisions of the country except the South Atlantic and the Western. It was particularly notable in the North Central States, where 14.2 per cent. of the prisoners enumerated in 1890 were colored as contrasted with 20.5 per cent. in 1904.
MINOR OFFENCES MOST COMMON. In the country as a whole 34,753 persons were sentenced for drunkenness, 28,339 for vagrancy, and 17,264 for disorderly conduct. In other words, more than one-half of the total number of prisoners committed during the year were sentenced for some one of these three closely allied offences. No less than 25.098 prisoners (16.8 per cent. of the total number) were sentenced for larceny; 10,877 (7.3 per cent.) for assaults, and 7,161 (4.8 per cent.) for burglary. of the remaining offences homicide showed the largest number-2,414, or 1.6 per cent. of the total.
SHORT SENTENCES IMPOSED. Since such a large proportion of the total number of prisoners had been committed for minor offences, it naturally follows that a large proportion were committed for short termis. In continental United States 42,735, or 28.6 per cent. of the total number, were sentenced to imprisonment for less than thirty days, and 97.759. or 65.4 per cent., for less than four months. The proportion of short sentences varies widely in different states, but this variation does not stand in as close relation to the proportion of minor offenders as might be expected. The figures, in fact, indicate wide divergences between different States in the length of sentence imposed for similar offences.
DEATH SENTENCES. of the 106 persons committed to prison under death sentence 99 had been convicted of hoinicide, 4 of assaults, 2 of rape, and 1 of a double crime, murder being one of them. Two women paid the death penalty for homicide.
Life sentences were imposed upon 640 prisoners, of whom 586 were convicted of homi. cide, 28 of rape, 12 of burglary, 4 of robbery. 3 of larceny, 2 of arson, I of assault, 1 of the crime aguinst nature, 1 of perjury, 1 of an unclassified crime against property, and 1 of a crime not stated. Twenty women were committed during 1904 on a life sentence.
CRIMINALITY OF COLORED. Among the 149.691 prisoners committed during 1904, 125,093 were white and 24,798 colored, of whom 186 were Mongolians and 714 Indians. In other words, 16.4 per crat. of the total number of prisoners committed during the year were colored. of the gene: 41 population in 1900 the colored formed only 12.1 per cent. Since it cannot be presumed that the proportion of colored in the population increased materially between 1900 and 1904, it is evident that the colored contributed to the prison class in excess of their representation in the general population. This condition is not confined to any one section of the country, for the figures show that it obtained in every State and Territory, except North Dakota and Arizona, where the colored population is composed chiefly of Indians.
The colored, moreover, formed a larger percentage of the prisoners convicted of the more serious crimes than they did of those who had been sentenced for the lesser offences. They formed 31.5 per cent. of the major offenders and only 13 per cent. of the minor.
CRIMINALITY OF FOREIGN BORN. of the white prisoners of known nativity 35.093, or 28.8 per cent., were foreign born. The figures for the separate nationalities of foreign born show that persons born in Austria, England. and Wales, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, and Scotland formed a larger pro. portion of the foreign born prisoners committed during 1904 than of the total foreign born population in 1900, This was not true of the persons born in Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. The last mentioned group of countries furnished 58.8 per cent. of the foreign born population of 1900, but only 36.5 per cent. of the foreign born prisoners committed during 1904, while the first mentioned group included 35.3 per cent. of the population and 59.3 per cent. of the prisoners,
The Defective Classes. The Insane.-The total number of insane in the United States on June 1, 1890 (Census of the l'nited States), was 106,485, of whom 74,028 were in hospitals. In the collection of statistics of the insane in 1:03 (Census Bpecial Report issued August, 1906), only the insane in bospitals were considered. These bad increased to 150, 151 on December 31. 1906. The number of hospitals for the iusane bad inereased in thirteen years from 162 in 1890 to 328 in 1903.
Ju 1903 the number of insane males in hospitals was 78,523, and insane females 71.628. In proportion to population there were more white ihan negro insane. None of the insane iu hospitals were under twelie years of age. The maximum concentration occurred between ages twenty-five and thirty-five years. Female insane live longer than male insane, and white iusane thap negro insane.
More than one-fourth, 27.8 percent of the bospital insane bad been inmates less than one year, less than one-sixteenth per cent. bad been in hospitals at least twenty years, 41. 6 per cent, bad been employed as laborers and servants before becoming inmates, 22.5 per cent. had been occupied in agriculture, transportation and other outdoor pursuits, and 16 per cent. in manufacturing and mechanical industries. Of the 328 bospitals for the insane. 226 were public and 102 private in character. The annual cost of mail tenance of insane in public bospitals approximated $21,000,000.
The Feeble-Minded. - The number of feeble-minded in institutions on December 31, 1903, was 14,347. The Census estimate of the number of feeble-minded in the general population is not less than 150,000. Of the feeble-minded in institutions 58 per cent. were under twenty years of age, and 85 per cent were under thirty years of age. Three-fifths of the inmates were epileptics,
The Deaf and Dumb.-The total number of deaf mutes in the United States on June 1. 18110 (the latest Census returns on the subject), was 40,592-whites, 37,447; negroes, 3,115; others, 30; males, 22,429; females, 18.163; native-born whites, 33,278; foreign-born whites, 4,169.
The number of persons so deaf as to be unable to hear loud conversation on June 1, 1890, was 121,178, of whom 80,611 were able to speak. The latter were 49,278 males, 31,338 females, 77,308 whites, 3,308 negroes.
The Blind. --The total number of blind in the United States on June 1,1890, was 50,568-whites, 43.351; negroes, 7,060; others, 157; males, 28,080; females, 22,488: native-born wbites, 34,205; foreign-born wbites, 9,146. The number of blind in one eye only was 93,988.
The number of insane persons in Great Britain and Ireland in 1896, according to Mulball, was 128, 896, or 328 per 100,000 population; Austria (1890),51.850; Hungary (1890), 28,158. The number of insane in Germany in 1884 was 108, 100; France, 93, 900; Russia, 80,000.
Suicides. IN European cities the number of suicides per 100,000 inhabitants is as follows: Paris, 42; Lyons, 29; St. Petersburg, 7; Moscow, 11; Berlin, 36, Vienna, 28; London, 23; Rome, 8; Milan, 6; Madrid, 3; Genoa, 31; Brussels, 15; Amsterdam, 14; Lishon, 2; Christiania, 25; Stockholm, 27; Constantinople, 12; Geneva, 11; Dresden, 51. Madrid and Lisbon show the lowest, Dresden the highest figure,
'The average annual suicide rate in countries of the world per 100.000 persons living is given by Barker as follows: Saxony, 31.1; Denmark, 25.8; Schleswig-Holstein, 24.0, Austria, 21.2; Switzerland, 20.2; France, 15.7, German Empire, 14.3; Hanover, 14.0; Queeusland, 13.5; Prussia, 13.3; Victoria, 11.5; New South Wales, 9.3; Bavaria, 9.1; New Zealand, 9.0; South Australia, 8.9; Sweden, 8.1; Norway, 7.5; Belgium, 6.9; England and Wales, 6.9; Tasmania, 5.3; Hungary, 5.2: Scotland, 4.0 Italy, 3.7; Netherlands, 3.6; United States, 3.5; Russia, 2.9: Ireland, 1.7; Spain, 1. 4. A later enumeration of suicides in France gives 8,926 as the number in 1900, or 23.6 per cent,
The canses of suicide in European countries are reported as follows: Of 100 suicides: Madness, delirium, 18 per cent.; alcoholism, 11; vice, crime, 19; different diseases, 2; moral sufferings, 6; family matters, 4; poverty, want, 4; loss of intellect, 14; consequence of crimes, 3; unknown reasons, 19.
The number of suicides in the United States in the Census year 1900 was 5, 498. The number of suicides in States and cities of the United States wbich have laws reguiring the registration of deaths in the five years 1900 to 1904. inclusive, as reported in the Special Mortality Report of the Census Office, published in 1906, was 20,834. The methods of death by suicide in numbers, were: By poison, 6,946; tirearms, 4.938: hanging, 3, 232; asphyxia, 1.487 cutting, 1,171; drowning, 1,069 jumping from bigh places, 252, crushing, 87; other methods, i, 662. Insanity is the principal cause of suicide. The largest proportion of deaths by suicide, according to age, is from forty to forty-nine years, Summer appears to be the favorite season.
The number of suicides in fifty American cities in ten years, 1895 to 1905, inclusive, according to Frederick L. Hoffmann statistician of the Prudential Insurance Company of New Jersey, was 26,079. The ten cities having the highest rate per 100,000 of the population were: San Francisco, 52.2; Hoboken, 30.2: St. Louis, 27.4; Oakland, 24.9; Chicago, 22.7: New York (Manhattan and Bronx), 22.2; Milwaukee, 21.8; Newark, 21.6; Cincinnati. 20.6: Indianapolis. 17.6. The average of ofty cities was 17.8. The number of suicides in New York (Manhattan and Bronx) in 1906 was 442 and in Chicago 885.
Statistics of Births.
6:3, 106 England and Wales
136,523 15,641 Ireland ....
627,848 In "Statisque Humaine de la France, M. J. Bertillon presents the following table, showing that the French are the least prolific and the liermans the most prolific people of Europe: Number of chlldren born alive annually per 1,000 women of 15 10 50 years: France, 102; Ireland, 114; Belgium, 127; England, 186; Netherlands, 137: Spain, 141; Prussia, 150; Bavaria, 156. The number of chile dren born in France in 1904 was 818, 229, the smallest number registered in late years. In August, 1906, Hanaw Kailua, in Hilo, Hawali, gave birth to seven childron; Mrs. Snell, of Malad, Idaho, on September, 19, 1889, gave birth to six children,
897,297 73.121 Spain
Tampa sthmian Canal Exposition of 1910. AN Exposition of the industrial arts will be held at Tampa, Florida, from January to May, 1910, inclusive, to commemorate the progressof the work on the Panama Caunl. It was originally purposed to hold this Exposition in 1908, but the time was last year postponed to 1910, with the concurrence of Congress. The head of the
Exposition project is Thomas J. L. Brown, President of the Florida Mid-Winter Fair Association, Tampa, Florida
Congress on June 30, 1906, adopted the following joint resolutions :
"Whereas, it is fitting that the commencement of the work on the Panama Canal should be celebrated in a suitable manner to the end that the importance of this great isthmian waterway may be accentuated and the sentiment in favor of its early completion fostered and kept alive; and
• Whereas, the City of Tampa, in the State of Florida, by reason of its being farther to the sonthward and nearer to said canalihan any other city in the country, having a deep and commodious harbor, reached hy ample railroad facilities, as also on account of its salubrious climate and the spirit of American progress among its citizens, manifest in the rapid growth and development of the city and her commerce, affords a suitable place for such an Exhibition; and
"Whereas, it has been determined to hold such an Exposition at Tampa, Florida, during the months of January, February, March, April and May, A.D. 1908, and
"Whereas, his Excellency Napoleon B. Broward, Governor of the State of Florida, did on December 30, 1905, issue his proclamation calling an Isthmian Exposition to be held in the City of Tampa, commencing in the month of January, A. D. 1908, for the purpose aforesaid, and invitingihe Governors of the several States comprising the l'nited States of America, as well as the Ciovernors of the Territories of the United States, to secure the co-operation of their state Legislatures in aid of said Exposition by participating therein and sending exhibits of their resources to said Exposition; therefore he it
"Resolved, that the President be, and he is hereby, requested to hold a naval review, in Tampa Bay at such time during the progress of said Exposition as he may deem best.
"Resolved further, that the President of the United States he, and he is herehy, requested to cause to be made such display of the Army of the Cuited States at said Exposition as he may deem advisable.
- Resolved further, that nothing contained in this concurrent resolution shall be construed as committing the l'uited States to any obligation hereafter to appropriate money for expenses or liabilities of any kind or character made or incurred hy any one for the entertain pient of the guests of such Exposition, or in connectiou with such celebration and Exhibition."
Baltimore Exposition in 1914. It is proposed to hold an International Exposition on the water front at Baltimore in 1914, that being the one hundredth anniversary of both the climax of the war of 1812 and the birth of the "Star Spangled Banner." The idea originated with the Baltimore ** American,' in which the national song was first published from Francis Barton Key's manuscript and received the general approval of citizens. The City Council has taken steps toward an organization and the Maryland State authorities have promised co-operation.
The Japanese National Exposition of 1912.
The following statement has been prepared for THE WORLD ALMANAC by the Japanese Embassy at Washington:
The Exposition which will be held in 1912 in Tokio is a national exposition, and is to be maintained and administered by the Imperial Government of Japan. While it is a national exposition, the participation of the governments and peoples of foreign countries is cordially invited and the Japanese Government will make the plan on such a scala as not only to render it the largest exposition ever held in Japan, but give it a positively international character. This has been communicated to several countries, and many of them, appreciating the desire of the Japanese Government, have already shown their readiness to render their assistance.
It is expected that the national appropriation alone in connection with the projected exposition will amount to about $3,000,000. Added to this, the local governinent and municipallty of Tokio, as well as the various local governments throughout the Empire of Japan and the Government of Formosa, and so forth, will make appropriations in their respective budgets so that the total governmental and murricipal appropriation covering the direot expenditures of the exposition will aggregate at least more than $10,000,000.
The grounds of the exposition will occupy about 270 acres of land, of which about thirty acres will be covered by buildings already decided upon. Special buildings will be set apart for exhibits representative of arts and science, including those relating to education and also of machineries and electrical appliances.
The period during which the exposition is to be held is determined to be from April 1 to October 31, so as to include both the cherry blossom and the chrysanthemum seasons, of which so much has been written by writers on Japan, and talked of by foreign visitors who have been there.
From these facts it can be easily seen that the Japanese Government desires to offer an unexcelled opportunity for foreigners to take a trip to Japan and to be entertained with attractions and amusements which even the natives may not often witness except on such an occasion.
Being a national exposition, the primary object of the enterprise is to widen the knowledge of the Japanese people as regards the industrial development attained within their own country as well as in the whole world; but, nevertheless, no better opportunity win be found in the near future than this exposition for one who entertains the desire to know the Japanese people better and to study deeper the natural and industrial resources of the country, no less than the present state of civilization and industrial achievement of her people,
Alaska-Xukon-Pacific Exposition of 1909. From June 1 to October 15, 1909, there will be held at Seattle, Wash., an international exposition, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition.
The primary purpose of the Exposition, the creation of which is well under way, is to exploit the resources and potentialities of the Alaska and Yukon territories in the United States and the Dominion of Canada and to make known and foster the vast importance of the trade of the Pacific Ocean and of the countries bordering thereon, In addition it will demonstrate the marvellous progress of Western America.
It will be the aim of the Exposition to correct the common impression that Alaska and Yukon are nothing but countries of cold and gold and to place the Territories in their true light before the eyes of the world. Another object of the Exposition is to increase the trade of the nations that are lapped by its waters.
The Exposition will represent an expenditure of approximately $10.000.000 when the gates are opened on June 1, 1909. It will occupy 250 acres of the campus of the University of Washington, adjoining one of the many beautiful residence districts of Seattle, on the gentle slopes and terraces overlooking, Puget Sound, Lake Washington and Lake Union. the lakes are natural, fresh water bodies, Washington having an area of 381, square miles ond Union an area of 1 1-3 square miles. They are separated from the Puget Sound by the land upon which Seattle stands and will, by the time the Exposition opens, be connected with the salt water by a ship canal, now under construction. The unsurpassed stretches of water front on both lakes afford great opportunities for aquatic features, the like of which no other exposition ever possessed.
The grounds are twenty minutes' ride by electric car from the business centre of Seattle and are scenically one of the finest exposition sites ever laid out. The snow-clad Olympic and Cascades ranges of mountains are in plain view from all points of the grounds. Mount Rainier, the highest peak in the United States proper, rises to a height of 14,526 feet, and Mount Baker, another formidable peak of the Cascades, towers 11,000 feet.
Twelve large exhibit buildings will forın the nucleus of the Exposition. Around these will cluster the State, Territorial and concessions buildings, foreign pavilions, the Administration group and smaller psuedo exhibit structures.
The main exhibit buildings will be: (1) United States Government, (2) Alaska, (3) Yukon. (4) Manufactures, Liberal Arts and Education. (5) Agriculture, Horticulture and Irrigation, (6) Machinery, (7) Forestry, Fine Arts, (9) Fisheries, (10) Mines, (11) Hawaii, (12) Philippines.
On June 1. 1907, just two years prior to opening day, before a crowd of 15,000 persons, the first spadeful of earth was turned and work begun on the Exposition. The exercises which were held in the natural amphitheatre and participated in by governors, mayors and other prominent people of the Pacific Coast, were preceded by a large military parade in the city. The day, which was a holiday in Seattle, was made a memorable one in the history of the Pacific Northwest. Hon. John Barrett, director of the International Bureau of American Republics, represented President Roosevelt.
Work on the grounds since then has progressed rapidly. All of the grading has been finished, and half a dozen buildings are under construction. The Administration Building, the first to be completed, has been occupied by the Exposition offices for many months.
The United States Government will participate on a large scale. The Senate passed a bill at the last session of the Fifty-ninth Congress appropriating $700.000 for the representa; tion of Alaska, Hawaii and the Philippines, but as the session was short the measure did not get through the House. Assurance has been given the management that at the first session of the Sixtieth Congress a bill will be passed appropriating $1,175,000 for the participation of the Government and its non-contiguous territories on the Pacific Ocean.
The people of Seattle financed the Exposition by raising $650,000. The capital stock was placed at $300.000, but when it was put on the market on the morning of Oct. 2, 1906. it was oversubscribed by the sum of $130.000. The capital stock was increased to $500.000, all of which will be sold in Seattle before the Exposition opens.
The States of the Union will participate on a large scale by the erection of buildings and the installation of interesting and comprehensive displays.
The State of Washington has appropriated $1.000.000 for its representation at the Exposition. Oregon has made provision to spend $100.000, and will supplement this amount at a later meeting of its State Legislature California has appropriated $100,000, with the assurance that an additional sum will be expended before the Exposition opens. Other States that have made preliminary appropriations are: Pennsylvania, $75,000; Missouri, $10,000; Utah, $2,000; Nebraska, $15.000.
Assurances have been given the Exposition management that the following States will make provisions for participation at the next meeting of their Legislatures: New York, Massachusetts. Montana. Kentucky, Idaho, Nevada, Wisconsin, Wyoming, bansas, Illinois. Minnesota, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, North Dakota, and Colorado.
The foreign exhibits will be confined strictly to the products of the countries bordering on the Pacific Ocean, and it is the plan of the Exposition management, as far as practicable, to induce the foreign nations to erect their own builiings and install therein collective and competitive exhibits. The following countries are expected to take part: Australia, Canada, Chile, China Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador. Formosa, Korta, French East Indies, German Colonies, Guatemala, Honduras, British India, Japan, Mexico, Dutch East Indies, Nicaragua, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, Slam and Salvador.
In addition to the foregoing, the L'nited States, Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia and the Netherlands will be invited to inake exhibits representative of their interest in Pacific trade development.
Official Roster: J. E. Cullberg, President; John H. McGraw, Vice-President: R. A. Ballinger. Vice-President: A. S. Kitty. Vice-Preaident: William M. Sheffield, Secretary: C. R. Collins, Treasurer: I. A. Nadau. Director General: Henry E. Repit Director of Exploitation; Frank L. Merrick, Chief of Publicity; Frank P, Allen, Jr., Director of Works.