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Treasury than would have been received had the secret deal been consummated. THE WORLD kept its promise, taking $1,000,000 worth of the bonds and paying $1,130,000 in gold for them.
THE WORLD AND THE BOER WAR. Following its splendid victory in the cause of peace and arbitration in the Venezuelan boundary controversy, THE WORLD was the guiding spirit in an effort to avert the South African conflict in 1900. On September 27, 1889, President Kruger, in THE WORLD, summed the issues from the Boer view point and alleged that the crisis was due to certain British residents “to whom the very existence of the republic is an eyesore, " and who, not content with the best mining laws in the world, wished also to have complete control of legislation and administration, the destruction of the republic, and complete control of the richest mines in the world." He concluded sadly that "we have no such powerful friend as you proved to be to Venezuela and other republics. We have strong faith that the cause of freedom and republicanism will triumph in the end." THE WORLD cabled President Kruger's message in full to Joseph Chainberlain, British Secretary for the Colonies, who was quick to reply with a reference to the British Blue Book for his side of the controversy.
President Kruger answered through THE WORLD that his Government had ever been ready to submit the dispute to arbitration, and suggested that a board of arbitration be selected, two members by England, two by the Transvaal, and the fifth by the President of the United States or the President of Switzerland, concluding with: “We have yielded everything but the life of the republic. We wish most earnestly for arbitration to prevent a war which would be an outrage against religion and humanity."
THE WORLD immediately set going the movement for arbitration, which resulted in the most powerful petition ever drawn to President McKinley, asking him to offer the kindly offices of the American Government in mediation of the dispute which had reached a stage that threatened the existence of two sister republics.
President Steyn, of the Orange Free State, cabled his grateful indorsement of THE WORLD'S effort for peace and urging the necessity for speedy action.
Premier W. R. Schreiner, of the British Cape Colony, cabled from Cape Town his appreciation and sympathy with the movement for a peaceful settlement of the South African difficulties.
Archbishop Croke cabled: "Avert war by all honorable means.”
The Archbishop of York, Archbishop of Canterbury, Right Hon. Leonard Courteney, M. P.; Michael Davitt, and other prelates, statesmen and public men of England, indorsed THE WORLD'S effort to secure peace, while the signers of the petition to President McKinley in this country made it the most formidable document of the kind and of the most representative feeling since the Declaration of Independence, Among the signers were ex-Senators George F. Edmunds and John Sherman, Archbishop Ireland, Gen. 0, 0. Howard, President Jordan, of Leland Stanford University; Donald G. Mitchell; Mayor Phelan, of San Francisco; President Warren, of Boston University; Frederic R. Coudert, ex-VicePresident Adlai E. Stevenson, ex-Senators Manderson and Ingalls, ex-Representative Breckinridge, John P. Altgeld, Augustus Van Wyck, William B. Hornblower, Ernest H. Crosby, T. Estrada Palma, Carl Schurz, Horace Boies, J. Sterling Morton, Archbishops Kain and Christie and sixteen Bishops of the Roman Catholic Church, Bishops Potter, Dudley, Whittle, Hare and fourteen other Protestant Episcopal Bishops, ninety university and college presidents, forty Federal and State judges, the Governors of thirty-five States, one hundred and eight Senators and Congressmen, State officers, mayors, editors, clergymen, lawyers, business and professional men, and thousands of others of lesser note. After this petition had been indorsed by a great mass meeting in Carnegie Hall, New York, the paper was taken by a representative delegation to President McKinley, who declined to offer his services as mediator unless formally asked to do so by the disputants. President Kruger, fearing further delay, then boldly warned England that unless troops were withdrawn by a fixed hour war would begin, and served notice to civilization through THE WORLD in words that have already become historic:
"The republics are determined that if they must belong to England, a price will be paid which will stagger humanity."
Then came the clash of arms. Having done all it could to avert the war, THE WORLD now turned its attention to its next highest duty--that of presenting the earliest, most graphic and complete report of each movement in the war. It retained Lieut. Winston
Spencer Churchill, the talented son of Lord and Lady Randolph Churchill, with the American blood of the Jeromes in his veins, as its special correspondent in the field.
It presented to its readers an immense map of the section of South Africa which was the scene of the conflict, with carefully compiled descriptive statistics of the country. It printed comprehensive articles on Cecil Rhodes, the uncrowned diamond king and maker of modern Africa; the war itself, by Lieutenant-General Schofield; the arms and marksmanship of the Boers, by Maxim, and life in Boerland, by H. C. Hillegas, the American authority on South African matters. Lieutenant Churchill was taken prisoner by the Boers, and E. F. Knight, one of the ablest wár correspondents on earth, took his place, only to be Founded at the famous fight at Belmont. He heroically dictated a graphic account of that battle, the best account that came over the cable. John Stuart, a third correspondent of THE WORLD, was cut off by the Boers at Ladysmith. THE WORLD presented the fullest and earliest news from the beginning of hostilities.
THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR RECORD. During the many months that preceded the outbreak of the Spanish-American war THE WORLD chronicled the fullest and most accurate accounts of incidents in Cuba's long struggle for freedom. It published the signed statements of General Gomez, Captain-General Weyler, Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, Marshal Campos, Sagasta, Blanco, Harris Taylor, former Minister to Spain, Gen. Julio Sanguilly, President Cisneros and others. It was largely through THE WORLD that the American people first learned the truth about the barbaric captivity of the reconcentrados who were driven into the Cuban cities by General Weyler-a condition which led to diplomatic notes between the United States and Spain and to an offer of autonomy and greater liberty for Cuba by Spain. THE WORLD was especially invoked by Cubans to make known their terms and point the way to peace. Marshal Campos expressed through THE WORLD from Madrid his approval of reforms proposed by Spain. General Gomez, in THE WORLD, declared Cuba's ultimatum-liberty and nothing else, At midnight, on September 29, 1897, THE WORLD was the first to Inform Senor Dupuy de Lome, the Spanish Minister, of a ministerial crisis in Spain. On January 12, 1897, THE WORLD, fifty days in advance of any other newspaper, outlined the President's offer of mediation, and predicted that both Spain and Cuba would reject intervention. THE WORLD, too, predicted the deposing of Weyler, Blanco's return to Cuba, the overturning of the Azcarraga ministry, and the organization of a Liberal Government in Spain, with Sagasta at its head,
During the Spanish-American war THE WORLD easily led all its competitors. Its average circulation through the war was 1,300,000 a day, and during the year 5,000,000 a week. In some of the city schools it was regarded as a text-book, of current history. Its great “beat” in giving the first news of Dewey's victory in Manila Bay will never be forgotten.
When war with Spain was declared THE WORLD called upon the people of Greater New York to fling, the starry banner of freedom to the winds on an appointed day, and a hundred thousands flags made the city bright and beautiful on April 21, 1898, “Flag Day." and aroused the patriotism of the city to fighting pitch, THE WORLD employed the finest despatch boat in the service, the Triton, and in this vessel its correspondent, Sylvester Scovel, performed most valuable scouting services for Admiral Sampson. The steamer Three Friends was also employed on many venturesome voyages. THE WORLD'S special war correspondents were Henry N. Cary, Sylvester Scovel, Stephen Crane, A. C. Kenealy, F. H. Nichols, George Bronson Rea and Charles H. Thrall in Cuba and Porto Rico, and E. W. Harden and John Fay in Manila. Some of their achievements are treated elsewhere in this brief review of THE WORLD'S accomplishments. To those stories may be added these incidents: THE WORLD sent an expedition to Gen. Maximo Gomez with important despatches and supplies. When the plaints of volunteers at Camp Thomas, telling of hard fare and no delicacies, came up from Chickamauga, THE WORLD headed a movement which resulted in the sending of a train loaded with all sorts of comforts for the New York soldiers in camp. The Spanish flag captured at Manila, the first trophy of the war, was sent to THE WORLD and was displayed in front of the Pulitzer Building. Michael Davitt, the Irish statesman, cabled to THE WORLD his views of England's attitude toward us.. Gen. 0. 0. Howard reported for THE WORLD from Camp Alger. Gen. Joe Wheeler wrote his description of the Santiago campaign. Aguinaldo, the leader of the Filipinos, addressed the American people through THE WORLD August 25. General Merritt cabled the story of the battle of Manila August 26, and Admiral Dewey expressed thanks to the people for the commendation on the same day. General Shafter published an exclusive story of his campaign in THE WORLD of September 2. General Miles gave his
story of that affair to THE WORLD September 8. Capt. Charles E. Clark, of the Oregon, told how he made the 14,000-mile sail around the Horn from San Francisco to Key West. THE WORLD discovered and first revealed that an American and an English firm had sold mines and the apparatus to operate them to the Spanish Government and delivered the goods at Havana in 1897. This, in the face of the Spanish denial that there were any such appliances at Havana. Admiral Cervera's flag lieutenant wrote a graphic story of the last hours on board the doomed Santiago fleet. Charles H. Thrall, a WORLD correspondent, moved in and out of Havana during the most perilous time at the Cuban capital, bringing news of highest importance to the American Government. Signor Crispi, Italy's great statesman, in an exclusive interview on April 26, said prophetically: “It is the end of Spain." George Bronson Rea, an intrepid correspondent of THE WORLD in Porto Rico, having escaped with difficulty to St. Thomas, was asked by cable how he escaped: “Police surveillance, eluded vigilance, midnight, bicycle, horse, coach, schooner, smuggler's boat.' This is a fair sample of the chances taken in securing the most important and exclusive news for THE WORLD. THE WORLD published an exact summary of President McKinley's war message nearly two weeks before it was delivered to Congress, and, of course, long in advance of any other paper. THE WORLD sent submarine divers to Havana to rescue the bodies of the American sailors in the Maine, but the Spanish authorities would not allow them to perform their mission of humanity. General Breckinridge wrote an account of the battle of San Juan Hill. Rear-Admiral Jouett wrote a careful analysis of the sea fight off Santiago. Hassam Enver Pasha, representative of the Turkish Government at the front in the late war, and one of Europe's great generals, reviewed the war for THE WORLD in a six-column article. Col. John Jacob Astor, the forty-millionaire patriot soldier, wrote a personal narration of his experiences at Santiago.
THE WORLD also sent to Camp Wikoff sanitary experts, who denounced the camp as unhealthy. It also showed that the remodelled old hulk Merrimac, a collier costing $102,000, offered to and rejected by the Auxiliary Board in April, was sold to the War Department in July for $342,000, or at an advance of $150,000 over her cost, and then towed into the mouth of Santiago Bay by Hobson and sunk as a worthless vessel. It exposed the method of letting contracts for army overcoats, the winning firm being mulcted by go-betweens in the sum of $75,000 for "influence." It showed that eleven times as many men died from disease in the camps as were killed in battle, and quoted eminent authorities that nine out of every ten of these deaths by disease might have been avoided by the War Department. When the appointment of the investigation commission was announced THE WORLD presented to the commission "A Record of Facts Concerning Camp Wikoff," arranged in chronological order, together with the names and addresses of witnesses by whom each could be proven.
EXCLUSIVE NEWS IN THE WORLD. While not a day passes in which THE WORLD does not contain exclusive news, known in newspaper parlance as "beats" and "scoops," it has won an international reputation of being first to print news of great importance on many occasions. One of the most notable instances of this sort of enterprise was immediately after Dewey's victory in Manila Bay. On Saturday, May 7, 1898, E. W. Harden, THE WORLD'S correspondent at Manila, having steamed across the China Sea to Hong Kong, cabled the first authentic description of the great naval duel between the American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey and the Spanish fleet under Admiral Montojo, and the complete annihilation of the eleven vessels of the Spanish fleet inside the Bay of Manila, and between the belching forts of Cavite and Corregidor. President McKinley got his first information of Dewey's victory from THE WORLD. The news was recabled to London for the afternoon papers there. Commodore Dewey congratulated THE WORLD in this hearty fashion: “I congratulate THE WORLD on the excellence of its report. I congratulate THE WORLD on its enterprise în getting the first story as cabled by Mr. Harden before even my official report reached Washington. I am still wondering how it got through, as I was under the impression I had control of the wires.'
THE WORLD was twenty-four hours ahead of all its contemporaries in informing its readers of the occupation of Santiago by General Shafter.
On April 10, 1898, THE WORLD announced exclusively that President McKinley had decided to ask Congress for authority to intervene on behalf of Cuba, and Congress would give its consent.
THE WORLD correspondents established the first newspaper camp on Cuban soll June 17, 1898, at Cuero, thirteen miles from Santiago.
The news of the Malne disaster was first received by THE WORLD. To do it, its Havana correspondent, Mr. Scovel got the Government officials to open the cable offices, at night. The first authentic information that the battle-ship bad been blown up from the outside was given to the people through THE WORLD five days after the disaster, its intrepid correspondent having made a personal examination of the broken keel of the ship. At the same time it was demonstrated that the explosion of a submarine mine or torpedo under the Maine could not have occurred without the connivance of the Spanish officials, in charge of the submarine explosives. Fifty physical proofs were given that the Maine was blown up. This was corroborated by the official report of the Court of Inquiry a month later, while THE WORLD published it exclusively on February 20, 1898. THE WORLD proposed this epitaph for the Maine's martyrs: “They died that Cuba might be free."
On December 17, 1900, THE WORLD exclusively told of the severe illness of Queen Victoria, and how her death might be hastened by the British defeats in South Africa; how she was unable to sleep because of worry over the losses to British manhood in the war for which she had never seen any justification.
It was first to give positive warning of the near approach of Queen Victoria's death, stating on January 18 that a special train was kept in readiness to convey the Prince of Wales and the royal family to Cowes upon a moment's summons. An official announcement confirmed the news next day. The Queen died four days later.
The complete list of the securities owned by the dead millionaire railway king, Cornelius Vanderbilt, were first published in THE WORLD.
The important points in the decision of the United States Supreme Court in the Porto Rico cases--the most important decision handed down in a generation, establishing the doctrine that "the Constitution follows the flag"-were first given to an anxiously waiting nation by THE WORLD.
The public first learned through THE WORLD of the sinking of the French steamer La Bourgogne, with all on board.
In 1891, among many other items of exclusive news, was THE WORLD'S interview with Sir William Gordon Gordon-Cumming immediately after his trial in the famed baccarat case; also the announcement that the British Government had determined to prosecute William Henry Hurlbert on a charge of perjury in the Gladys Evelyn case. THE WORLD was toward the close of the same year the only paper to tell of the plot existing in Santiago de Chile to burn the United States Legation in that city.
At the time of the death of Jay Gould, in 1892, THE WORLD published the most complete biography of the dead financier, and subsequently added many chapters to the facts known about his achievements during life.
During December, 1892, while Panama Canal revelations were convulsing French political life, THE WORLD told the American end of the story in a series of articles about the canal, revealing incompetent and extravagant management, which could not fail to bring disaster to the enterprise.
THE WORLD told exclusively on June 24, 1893, of the unexpected meeting of Mrs. Jefferson Davis, widow of the President of the Southern Confederacy, and Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant at West Point. They had never met before, but greeted each other most cordially, and spent considerable time in exchanging reminiscences of their famous husbands, The incident excited great interest throughout the United States, and THE WORLD scored a distinct news "beat,"
The revolution in Brazil in 1893, which attracted the attention of the civilized world, broke out during the first week of September. Almost immediately afterward THE WORLD became conspicuous as the only paper publishing exclusive news direct from Rio, in spite of the fact that an embargo had been put upon all news in Rio, and the cable and telegraph lines were in the hands of the combatants.
One of the famous WORLD exclusives was the graphic description of the ramming of he British battle-ship Victoria by the Camperdown, near Tripoli, June 23, 1893. The Victoria was sunk, Admiral Sir George Tryon and hundreds of British officers and sailors went down with her. The bare fact of the great tragedy was known in London, but for three days the civilized world called in vain for the story. On that day a WORLD correspondent reached Tripoli, and in the afternoon, in obedience to cabled instructions from THE WORLD, cabled all the ghastly details-a powerful story. The story was immediately cabled by THE WORLD to London, and then Queen Victoria, her Ministers and the English people first learned how Admiral Tryon and his battle-ship and crew were lost.
THE WORLD was the only American newspaper which had the foresight to send a core respondent to Asia at the breaking out of the war between Japan and China, in 1895. He cabled the famous “beat" describing, in graphic story, the naval battle in the Yellow Sea between two Pagan navies, and later the four days' butchery of unarmed Chinamen at Port Arthur. The Japanese tried to bribe THE WORLD'S correspondent, 10,000 miles from home, and offered to pay THE WORLD'S cable bills and give its correspondent a monopoly of the war news on condition that he refrain from sending his 10,000-word despatch describing the Port Arthur massacre-a "news scoop" that thrilled and horrified the civilized world.
A trusted agent of THE WORLD in the Philippines visited Aguinaldo in January, 1901, in the mountain fastness where Funston found and captured him later in the year, and secured from him a long interview in which he set forth his aims and ambitions regarding the Filipino people and their government, and stated the terms on which he would treat with President McKinley for peace. This exclusive interview with the Filipino chieftain was forwarded, uncensored, to THE WORLD,
In 1893 the great question which was disturbing religious bodies all over the United States was the opening of the World's Fair on Sunday. What was the attitude of Catholics, who outnumbered any other denomination, was a question which THE WORLD solved by securing a long and authoritative interview with Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore and primate of the Catholic Church in the United States. This was published June 12. His Eminence came out squarely in favor of opening the World's Fair on Sunday, saying that it was the people's only day, and that innocent pleasures on the Sabbath were a necessity for the thousands.
The first poll of Congress showing that the Sherman Silver law would be repealed was taken by THE WORLD on June 17, 1893. A majority of 175 members of the House were pledged over their own signatures to THE WORLD to vote for repeal, The publication of this poll had a quieting effect, the country being threatened with a financial panic, resulting from a senseless scare, rather than from insolvency or inflation. Under these circumstances THE WORLD decided to ascertain from presidents of the leading banks of the country the exact facts as they saw them. The result was a long series of statements, published by THE WORLD June 3. What the country at large thought of the situation was shown from what bank managers in a score of cities in the South and West had to say about it.
MINOR BUT IMPORTANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Many great newspapers would eulogize themselves upon performances which THE WORLD would merely deem natural and expected accomplishments by it day after day, month after month, and year after year. In redeeming its pledge to fight public and private wrongs, and to interest and instruct its readers, THE WORLD continually adds to its long list of victories. It is impossible to mention more than a small fraction of such triumphs, and of news-getting, in the limited space given to this review, but a score or two of instances will be sufficient to prove the statement:
THE WORLD sent a correspondent, Nellie Bly, rushing around the globe in 1889 in 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes and 14 seconds, to show that the imaginary record of Jules Verne's “Phileas Fogg" could be beaten. The trip caused great excitement, and THE WORLD received nearly a million guesses as to when the intrepid voyager would reach home.
When Stanley emerged from the African wilderness, the first man to meet him was a WORLD correspondent, and the first news of the explorer's return to the confines of civilization was sent by him. THE WORLD'S mission to Africa was twofold-to meet Stanley and to make a thorough investigation of the African slave trade. Both of these objects were successful, despite extraordinary difficulties which beset the effort.
WORLD reporters in New York City began the year 1892 by "showing up" one of the most extraordinary expeditions in the annals of Spanish-American revolutions. This was the fitting out and expected departure for Hayti of a man-of-war called La Pays, intended to aid the revolutionary leader there, whose description and movements had been given at columns' length in a big metropolitan Journal. The revolutionists who had chartered the vessel had an office in New York, had all their arrangements complete, and had spent many thousand dollars on the venture, when THE WORLD exposed the fact that the vessel was a myth, the expected revolution a fraud, and the agents in this city the dupes of the Haytian Minister to the United States.
Early on the morning of Sunday, February 7, 1892, a terribly fatal fire at the Hotel Royal occurred, and THE WORLD of that day contained exclusively the names of guests, secured through a characteristic piece of WORLD-reporter enterprise. While the building was a mass of flames, and while burning timbers were falling to the ground floor, which was ankle deep in water, a WORLD reporter went into the office and secured the register of the hotel, which was thus saved from destruction, and proved of much value subsequently in identifying the dead and estimating the number of lives lost.
THE WORLD exposed the Broadway Railway boodle combine in the New York Board