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FRANCE.
UNITED STATES MINISTERS AND AMBASSADORS TO FRANCE.

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Date.

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64

PRESIDENTS.

Representatives. States. Tyler Henry Led yard, ch, d'aff..... Mich... William R. King....

Ala Polk... J. L. Martin, ch. d'aff. X. C... Richard Rush.

Pa..... Taylor.... William C. kives..

Va
Fillmore.....
Mierce ... llenry S. Sanford, eh. d'aff... Ct...
John Y. Mason...

Va. Buchanan W.R. (alhoun, ch. d'aff.. S.C.. Charles J. Faulkner.

Va. Lincoln William L. Dayton.

NJ... John Bigelow,

N. Y... Johnson John Ilay, ch. d'aff.

John A. Dix...
Grant....

Elihu B. Washburne..
Edward F. Xoyes.

Ohio,... Gartield. Levi P. Morton,

N Y... Arthur.. Cleveland .. Robert M. McLane,

Md.. B. Harrison... Whitelaw Reid

X. Y.. T. Jefferson Coolidge..

Mass.. Cleveland James B. Eustis, ambassador. La..... McKinley Horace l'orter, ambassador... N. Y.. Roosevelt

Rohert S. McCormick, amb... M...
Henry White, am assador...R.I...

Confederation Thomas Jefferson..
Washington.. William Short, ch d'aff.
Gouverneur Morris..

X. Y....
James Monroe...

a... Charles C. Pinckney

S.C... ( Charles C. Pinckney John Adams.. John Marshall.

Va... Elbridge Gerry

M888.. (Oliver Ellsworth.

Ct.
William Vans Murray

Md.
I wilham k. Davie..

c.. Jefferson Robert R. Livingston.. N. Y....

John Armstrong. Madison. Jonathan Russell, ch. d'aff. R.I.... Joel Barlow......

Ct...
William H. Crawford

Ga.
Henry Jackson, ch. d'aff.

Ky..
Albert Gallatin..

Pa... Monroe James Brown..

La.... Jackson William C. Kives

Va...
Nathaniel Niles, ch. d'aff.
Edward Livingston.

La...
Thomas P. Barton, ch. d'aff.. Pa...
Lewis Cass

Ohio Van Buren Tyler Lewis Cass..

Ohio.

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1790 1792 1794 1790 1797 1797 1797 1799 1799 1799 1801 1504 1810 1811 1813 1813 1816 1523 1829 1832 1833. 1835 1836 1836 1825

1842 1844 1846 1847 1849 1849 1953 1853 1859 1860 1861 1864 1866 1866 1869 1877 1891 1881 1895 1889 1899 1893 1697 1807 1905 1907

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Ill.....

Hayes...

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Louis XVI... Coudt de Moustier..

M. Otto, ch. d'aff.

Colonel Ternant. Convention... Edmond C. Genet.. Directory..... Joseph Fauchet.

Pierre Auguste Adet. Consulate....

L. A. Pichon, ch, d'aff. Napoleon I... General Turreau..

M. Serurier.. Louis XVIII..

G. Hyde de Neuville

Count de Menou, ch. d'aff. Charles X.. Baron de Mareuil

Count de Menou, ch, d'aff

Roux de Kocbelle
L. Philippe M. Serurier,

Alphonse l'ageot, ch. d'aff.
Edouard Pontois..
Alphonse Pageot, ch. d'aff.
L. Adolph Aime lourier de Bacourt.

Alphonse Joseph Yver Pageot.
L. Napoleon.. Guillaume Tell lavallee l'oussin...

E. A. Olivier Sain de Boislecomte....

1788 1789 1791 1793 1794 1795 1795 1801 1805 1611 1811 1816 1822 1824 1827 1830 1831 1835 1837 1839 1840 1812 1849 1850

Napoleon III.. Count de Bartiges..

Viscount Jules Treilhard, ch. d'aff.
leori Mercier...
Viscouni Jules Treilhard, ch, d'aff.
Louis de Geofroy, cb. d'aff.
Marquis de Montholon..
Jules Berthemy
Count de Faverney, ch. d'aff.

I'revost Paradol..

Jules Berthemy
Nat. Defence.. Viscount Jules Treilbard
Pres. Thiery.. Henry de Bellonpet, ch. d'af.

Marquis de Noailles....
Pr. MacMahon A, Bartholdi...

F. de Vaugelas, ch, d'aff.
Mamime Outrey.

Theodore J. D. Roustan.
Pres. Grevy.. J. Patenotre.
Pres. Carnot..

ambassador Pres. Faure..

Jules Cambon, ambassador. Pres. Loubet..

Jean J. Jusserand, ambassador..

1851 1659 1860 1863 1664 1865 1866 1869 1870 1870 1870 1871 1879 1874 1876 1877 1882 1891 1891 1893 1893 1898 1898 1902

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CERMANY.
UNITED STATES MINISTERS AND AMBASSADORS TO THE GERMAN EMPIRE.

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* Mr. Van Alen was confirmed by the Senate but declined, and Mr. MacVeagh was appointed.

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1790 1794 1194 1796 1801 1805

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Hayes.

Wis.

PRESIDENTS.

Ministers.

States. Washington.. w. Carmichael, ch. d'atl... Md...

William Short, min. res. Va.
Thomas Pinckney...

S. C....
David Humphreys.

Ct... Jefferson. Charles l'inckley

S.C... G, W. Erving, ch, d'aff. Mass... omcial relations with Spain

were broken off from 1808

to 1614. Madison..... G. W. Erving.

Mass... Monroe..... John Forsyth.

G&,
Hugh Nelson..

Va.
J.

Mass.. :9: Adams.. Alexander !!, Everett. Jackson, Cornelius P, Van Ness...

Vt...... A. Middleton, Jr., ch. d'aff... S.C. Van Buren John Il. Eaton..

Tenn. Aaron Vail, ch. d'aff.

N. Y.. Tyler

Washington Irving Polk.

Romulus M. Saunders N. C...
Taylor Daniel M. Barringer.
Pierce
Pierre Soule..

La..
Augustus C. Dodge...
Buchanan William Preston.
Lincola.... Carl Schurz..

Wis.
Gustavus Koerner..

Lincola. H. J. Perry, ch. d'all.

N. H.
John P. lale.
Grant. Daniel E. Sickles..

N. Y
Alvey A. Adee, ch. d'aff
Caleb Cushing...

Mass
James Russell Lowell.

Lucius Fairchild.
Garfield.
Arthur Iannibal Hamlin.

Me.
John W. Foster..

Ind
Cleveland la bez L. M. Curry

Va
Perry Belmont.

X, Y B. Harrison.. Thomas W. Palmer

Mich. E. Burd Grubb.

N. J... A. Loudon Snowden,

Pa.. Cleveland. Hannis Taylor...

Als McKinley.... Stewart L. Woodford N. Y...

Official relations with Spain

were broken off, April, 1895,

to April, 1899.

Bellamy Storer..
Roosevelt
Arthur S. Hardy

N.H...
William M. Collier.

N. Y...

1864 1865 1869 1873 1874 1877 1850 1880 1881 1883 1855 1889 1899 1890 1892 1893 1897

1814 1819 1823 1825 1829 1636 1837 1840 1842 1846 1899 1853 1855 1858 1801 1862

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Ohio, ..

1899 1999 1402 1906

Ky.

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1765
1789
1791

66

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1796
1807

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1867 1869 1879 1872 1979 1874 188 1879 1881 1683 1884 1886 1890 1891 1692 1893 1896 1893

1819

Carlos IV. Diego de Gardoqui, ch, d'aff.

Jose Ignacio de Viar, ch, d'aff..
Jose Ignacio de Viar, joint
Jose de Jaudenes, ichi d'aff.
Carlos M. de Irujo.
Valentin de Foronda, ch. d'aff
Official relations with Spain were

broken off from 1808 to 1814. Perdan. VII.. Luis de Onis.

Mateo de la Serna, ch. d'aff.
Francisco Dionisio Vives.
Joaquin de Anduaga..
F.ll. livas y salmon, ch. d'aff.

Francisco Tacon.
M. Christina..
Isabella II.... Angel Calderon de la Barca.

Pedro Alcantara Argaiz.
Fidencio Bournan, ch. d'aff..
Angel Calderon de la Barca, min, res.
Jose Maria Magallon, ch. d'aff
Leopoldo Augusto de Cueto..
Alfonso Escalante,
Gabriel Garcia y Tassara.......

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Isabella II.... Facundo Gopi..
Provis. Gov.. Mauricio Lopez Roberts
Amadeo I. ... Admiral Don Jose Polo de Bernabe.
Pr. Figueras..
“ Castelar..

" Serrano, Antonio Mantilla. Alphonso XII. Jose Brunetti, ch. d'aff.

Felipe Mendez de Vigo y Osorio.
Francisco Barcs del Corral,
Enrique Dupuy de Lome, cb. d'aff..

J18 Valera y Alcala Galiano..
Alph. XIII... Emilio de Muruaga

Miguel Suarez Guanes
Jose Felipe Segano, ch. d'aff.
Enrique Dupuy de Lome..
Emilio de Muruaga
Enrique Dupuy de Lome..
Louis Polo y Bernabe
Diplomatic intercourse broken off by

the war.
Jose Brunetti, Duke of Arcos....
Einitio de Ojeda, ......
Bernardo J. de Colog&n.........

1820 1821 1893 1827 1927 1835 1-39 18.14 1614 1853 1654 1835 1867

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1899 1902 1906

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GOVERNORS.

Terms.
GOVERNORS.

Terms.
GOVERNORS.

Terms. Adrian Joris...

1623-1634 John Nanfan, Lt-Gov. 1099-1700 James De Lancey, Lt.. Cornelius Jacobzen Mey. 1624-1625 Earl of Bellomont. 1700-1701 Gov..

1.65 William Verhulst..... 1625-1626 (ol. William Smith..

5

Sir Charles Hardy. 1756-1757 Peter Minuít.....

1637-1633 Col. Abraham De Peyster 1701 Janies De Lancey, Lt.Wouter Van Twiller.... 1633-163 Col. Peter Schuyler...

Gov.

11757-1760 Williain Kieft...

1638-1647 | John Nunfan, Lt.-Gov., 1701-1702 Cad wallader Colden, Petrus Stuyvesant. 1647-1664 Lord Corubury.

1702-1708 President.

1760-1761 Richard Nicolls 1661 166. Lord Lovelace.

1708-1709 Cadwallader Colden, Francis Lovelace. 1664-1673 Peter Schuyler, Pres. 1709

Li.-Gov.....

1761 Anthony Colve 1673-1674 Richard Ingoldsby, Lt.

Robert Monckton..

1761 Edmond Audros.. 1674-1677 Gov.

1709 Caciwallader Colden Anthony Brockholles, Peter Schuyler, Pres 1709 Lt. - Gov..

11761-1762 Com.-in-Chief. 1677-167 Richard Inigoldshy, Lt.

Robert Monckton.. 1762-1763 Sir Edmond Andros. 1678-1681 Gov. ...

1709

Cadwallader Colden
Apibony Brockholles,
Gerardus Beekman

Lt.-Gov....

1763-1765 Com.-in-Chiei.. 1691-16831 President,

1710 Sir Henry Moore.. 1705-1769 Thomas Dongan.. 1083-168 Robert llunter.... 1710-171.Cadwallader Colden, Sir Edmond Andros.. 1699 Peter Schuyler, Pres... 1719-1720 Li. -Gos..

1769-1770 Francis Nicholson. 1688-1699 William Burnet.

1720-17: Earl of Dunmore, 1770-1771 Jacob Leisler. 1689-1691 John Montgomerie. 1723-17311 William Tryon

1771-1774 Henry Sloughter

691 Rip Van Dam, President 1731-17:- Cadwallader Colden, Richard Ingoldsby,

William ('osby.
1733-174 Lt. -Gov.

1774-1775 Com.-in-Chief.. 1691-1692 George Clark, Lt.-Gov. 1736-174: William Tryon..

1775-1780 Benjamin Fletcher.. 1692 169 George Clinton,

1743-10. James Robertson

1780-1783 Earl of Bellomont 19-109 Sir Danvers Osborne 1713-1757| Andrew Elliott, L-Gov. 1783

STATE. i George Clinton........ 1777-1795: 14 William H. Seward.., 1839-1842 27 John A. Dix...

1873-1874 2 John Jay

1796-1801 15 William C Bouck. 1943-1844 Samuel J. Tilden. 1875-1876 3 George Clinton. 1801-1804 16 Silas Wright.

1040-1 16 29 Lucius Robinson.. 1877-IRNO 4 Morgan Lewis, 1804-1-07 17 John Young

1847-1818 30 Alonzo B. Cornell... 1880-182 5 Daniel D. Tompkins.. 1807-1817 18 Hamilton Fish 1849-1451 31 Grover Cleveland. 18x3-1884 6 John Taylor..

1817 | 19 Washington Hunt.. 1851-1852 32 David B. Hill.... 1885-1891 7 De Wilt Clinton. 1817-152220 Horatio Seymour. 1893-1854 33 Roswell P. Flower.. 1893-1844 8 Joseph C. Yates. 1822-1824 21 Vyron H. Clark. 1850-1856 34 Levi P. Morton.. 1895-1896 9 De Witt Clinton. 1834-1826, 22 John A. King... 1857-1858 35 Frank S. Black...... 1897-1898 10 Nathaniel Pitcher. 1823

23 Edwin D. Morgan. 1859-1862 36 Theodore Roosevelt.. 1999-1900 11 Martin Van Buren.. 1828-1829 24 Horatio Seymour. 1863-1861 37 Benjamin B. Odell, Jr. 1901-1904 12 Enos T. Throop 1999-1832 25 Reuben E. Fenton. 1865-1858 28 Francis W. Higgins... 1905-1906 13 William L. Marcy. (1833-1839. 26 John T. Holman. 11869-1872 39 Charles E. Hughes. 1907-1908

Mayors of the City of New ¥ork. .

1676

BEFORE the Revolution the Mayor was appointed by the Governor of the Province; and from 1784 to 1820 by the Appointing Board of the State of New York, of which the (overnor was the chief member. From 1820 to the amendment of the Charter, in 1830, the Mayor was appointed by the Common Council. In 1898 the term of the first Mayor of Greater New York (Van Wyck) began. MAYORS. Terins. MAYORS. Terins. || MAYORS.

Terms. 1 Thomas Wulett.

1555 33 Robert Walters. 1720-1725 51 James llarper. 1814-125 2 Thomas Delavall

1666 34 Johannes Jansen. 1725-1726 60 Wm. F. Haveneyer. 1845-1846 3 Thomas Willett..

1667 35 Robert Lurting. 1726-1735 66 Andrew H. Mickle.... 1846-1847 4 Cornelis Steenwyck 1668-1670 36 Paul Richard.

1736-1739 *7 William V. Brady 1847-1848 5 Thomas Delavall

1671 37 John Cruger, Sr. 1739-17468 Wm. F. Havemeyer... 1848-1849 6 Matthias Nicolls... 1672 38 Stephen Bayard, 174-1747 69 (aleb S. Woodhuli. 1849-1851 7 John Lawreuce.

1673 39 Edward Holland. 1747-1757 70 Ambrose C. Kingsland 1851-1853 8 William Dervall.

40 John Cruger, Jr. 1757-1765 71 Jacob A. Westervelt... 1853-1955 9 Nicbolas de Meyer

1676 41 Whitehead Hicks. 176-1776 72 Fernando Wood. 1850-1858 10 s. van Cortlandt.

1677 42 David Matthews, Tory. 1776-1784 73 Daniel F. Tiemann. 1808-1860 11 Thomas Delavall... 1678 43 James Duane.

1714-1789 74 Fernando Wood.. 1860-1862 12 Francis Rombouts. 1679 14 Richard Varick 1789-180175 George Opdyke 1862-1864 13 William Dyre..

1680-1681'45 Edward Livingston. 1801-1803 76C. Godfrey Gunther.. 1864-1866 14 Cornelis Steenwyck. 1683-1683 46 De Witt Clinton.. 1803-180777 John T. Hollman. 1866-1868 15 Gabriel Minville.

1654 17 Marinus Willett.. 1-07-178 T. ('oman(act'g Mayor 1868 16 Nicholas Bayard..

1685 48 De Witt Clinton..... 1808-181079 A. Oakey Hall..., 1869-1972 17 S. van Cortlandt. 1666-1687 49 Jacob Radclit.. 1910-1911 80 Wm. F. Havemeyer. 1873-1874 18 Peter Delanoy.

1689-1690 50 De Witt Clinton. 1811-1815 81 S. B. H. Vance(Acting) 1874 19 John Lawrence 1691 51 John Ferguson.

1815 William H. Wickham. 1875-1876 20 Abraham De Peyster. 1692- 1695 62 Jacob Radclitf.

1810-1818 83 Smith Ely

1877-1878 21 William Merritt... 160-1699 13 (adwallader D.Colden, 1818-1821 84 Edward Cooper 1879-1880 22 Johannes De Peyster. 1698-1699 54 Stephen Allen.. 11821-1924 85 William R. Grace 1881-1882 23 David Provost... 1699-1700 55 William Pauiding 1925-1826.8K Franklin Edson, 1883-1884 24 Isaac de Riemer..... 1700-1701 56 Philip Hone..

1820-1827 87 William R. Grace... 1885-1886 25 Thomas Noell...... 1701-1702 57 William Paulding. 1827-1829 84 Abram S. Hewitt 1887-18x8 20 Philip French... 1702-1703 58 Walter Bowne.

1829-1833 89 Hugh J. Grant.. 1809-1892 27 William Peartree... 1703-1707 59 Gideon Lee.

1833-1834.90 Thomas F. Gilroy.. 1895 1894 2 Ebenezer Wilson.. ...1707-1710 60.Cornelius W Lawrence 1834-1837 91 William L. Strong. 1896-1897 24 Jacobus van Cortlandt 1710-1711 61 Aaron Clark.

1837-1839 92 Robert A. Van Wyck.. 1898-1901 80 Caleb Heathcote....... 1711-1714 62 Isaac L. Varian.... 1859-1841 93, Seth Low..

1902-1903 31 John Johnson

... 1714-1718 63 Robert H. Morris.... 1841-1844 94 George B. McCleilan.. 1904-1909 32 Jacobus van Cortlandi, 1719-172011

Xnsular Possessions of the United States.

THE PHILIPPINES. THE Philippine group, lying off the southern coast of Asia, between longitude 120 and 130 and latitude 5 and 20 approximately, number about 2.000 Íslands, great and small, in a land and sea area of 1, 200 miles of latitude and 2,400 miles of longitude. The actual land area is about 140,000 miles. The six New England States, New York, and New Jersey have abont an equivalent area. The island of Luzon, on which the cupital city (Manila) is situated; is the largest member of the group, being about the size of the State of New York. Mindanao is nearly as large, but its population is very much smaller. The latest estimates of areas of the largest islands are: Luizon, 44.400; Mindanao. 34,000; Samar, 4.800; Panay, 4.700; Mindoro, 4,000; Leyte, 3, 800; Negros. 3,300; Cebu, 2.400.

A census of the Philippines was liken by the United States Ciovermnent in 1903 under the auspices of the Census Office. The population returned wus 7,635, 426, Oi uinber almost seven million are more or less civilized. The wild tribes form about 9 per cent of the entire population. Racially the inhabitants are principally Malays. The civilized tribes are practically all adherents of the Catholic Church, the religion being that introduced into the country by the Spaniards when they took possession of the islands in 1565. The Church his since then been a strong ruling power and the priesthood numerous. The Moros are Mohammedans and the other wild peoples have no recognized religious beliefs. The total number of non-Christian peoples is 617.740.

The density of population in the Philippines is 67 per square mile. Tu Continental United States it is 26 per square mile. Foreigners number about 50,000, of whom nearly three-fourths are Chinese. Exclusive of the Army there are 8, 135 Americans in the islands, nearly one-hall being locater in the municipalities. There are thirty different races in the islands, all speaking distinct dialects, the laryest tribe being the Visayans, who form nearly one-fourth of the entire civilized population. The Tagalogs, occupying the provinces in the vicinity of Manila, rank second in numbers, and the 110canos the third. Education has been practically reorganized by the Americans. The number of persons attending school is 811,715. Six thousand teachers are employed, four-fifths of whom are Filipinos English is very venerally taughi, and the next generation of Filipinos will probably speak that tongue. Pamperism is alınost unknown in the islands. In 1902 there irere only 1.668 paupers maintained at public charge. The average normal death rate in the Philippines is 32 per thousand. The birth rate is 43 per thousand. There were in 1902 41 newspapers published, 12 being in English, 24 in Spanish, 4 in native dialects, and 1 in Chinese. The estimated real estate property value is 469,527.058 pesos, and the personal property 152,718.661 pesos. The reported value of church buildings, mostly Catholic, is 41.698,710 pesos. While there are four towns with more than 10,000 population Manila is the only incorporated city. Its inhabitants numbered 219,928 in 1902.

The climate is one of the best in the tropics. The islands extend from 50 to 210 worth latitude, and Manila is in 140 35'. The thermometer during July and August rarely goes below 790 or above 850. The extreme ranges in a year are said to be 610 and 970, and the annual mean 810,

AGRICULTURE. Although agriculture is the chief occupation of the Filipinos, yet only one-ninth of the surface is under cultivation. The soil is very fertile, and even after deducting the mountainous areas it is probable that the area of cultivation can be very largely extended and that the islands can support population equal to that of Japan (42,000,000).

The chiet products are hemp, rice, corn, sugar, tobacco, cocoanuts, and cacan, hemp being the most important commercial product and constitutins two-thurds of the value of all exports. Cotlee and cotin were formerly produced in large quantities--the former for export and the later for home consumption; but the coffee plant has been almost exterminated by insects and the home-made cotton cloths have been driven out hy the competition of those imported from England. The rice and corn are principally produced in Luzon and Mindoro and are consumed in the islands. The cacao is raised in ihe southern islands, the best quality of it at Mindanao. The sugar cane is raised in the Visayas, The hemp is produced in Southern Luzon, Mindoro, the Visayas, and Mindanao. It is nearly all ex. ported in bales. Tobacco is raised in all the islands.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. In the year ending December 31, 1907, the exports of merchandise from the United States to the Philippines were $8,657,956, and the total imports from the Philippines for the same period were $11,610, 438.

The imports of inerchandise from foreign countries, year ending December 31, 19906, were $25,114.852, and the exports were $16,681,097. The principal foreign countries trading with the Philippines are Great Britain, French East Indies, China, and Spain,

CIVIL GOVERNMENT FOR THE PHILIPPINES. On July 1, 1902, Congress passed (chapter 1369) “An act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil goverument in the Philippine Islands and for other purposes." Under this act complete civil governinent was established in the Archipelago and the oflice of Mili. tary Governor with military rule was terminated. William H, Tast was appointed Governor by the President. Governor Taft was suceeeded by Luke E. Wright in December, 1903, by Henry Clay Ide in 1905, and James F. Smith, the present Governor, in 1906. The government was composed of a civil governor and seven commissioners, of whenú four wore americans and three Filipinos. There were four executive departments Interior inance, and Justice, Commerce and Police, and Public Instruction There are thirty-nine provinces, each with a governor, a supreme court with seven judges, and fourteen judicial districts. In March, 1907. the President, in accordance with the act of Congress, directed the Commission to call a general election or delegates to a Philippine Assembly. The new Assembly was chosen July 20, and was opened October 16 by Secretary of War Taft. It is politically divided as follows: Nacionalists, 31; Progresistas, 16; Independents. 19; Immediatistas, 1; Independistas, 4; Nacional Independiente, 1; Catolico, 1. The total vole recorded at theplection for delegates was 91,803, which is only 1.4 per cent of the population.

PORTO RICO. The island of Porto Rico, over which the flag of the United States was raised in token of formal possession on October 18, 1898, is the most eastern of the Greater Antilles in the West Indies and is separated on the east from the Danish island of St. Thomas hy a distance of about fifty miles, and from Hayti on the west by the Mona passage, seventy miles wide. Distances from San Juan, the capital, to important points are as follows: New York, 1,411 miles; Charleston, s. C., 1, 200 miles; Key West, Fla., 1.050 miles; Havana, 1,000 miles.

The island is a parallelogram in general outline, 108 miles from the east to the west, and from 37 to 43 miles across, the area being about 3,600 square miles, or somewhat less than half that of the State of New Jersey (Delaware has 2,030 square miles and Connecticut 4,990 square miles). The INSULAR POSSESSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES--Continued. population according to an enumeration made by the United States Government in 1900 showed a population of 153,243, of whom 589,426 are white and 363,817 are colored. The density was 26.4 to the square mile; 83.2 per cent. or the population cannot reai.

Porto Rico is unusually fertile, and its commant industries are agriculture and lumbering. In elevated regions the vegeiation or the temperate zone is not unknown. There are more than 500 varieties of trees found in the forests, and the plains are full of pulm, orange, and other trees. The principal crops are sugar, coffee, tobacco, and inaize, but oranges, bananas, rice, pineapples, and many other iruits are important products, The largest article of export from Porto Rico is sugal. The next largest is tobacco. The other exports in order of amvuut are collet, fruits, molasses, cuttle, timber, and hides.

The principal minerals found in Porto Rico are gold, carbonates, and sulphides of copper and magnetic oxide of iron in large quantities. Lignite is found at Uluwo and Moca, and also yellow amber. A large variety of marbles, limestones, and other building swues are deposited on the island. but these resources are very undeveloped. There are salt works at (ruanica aud Salina on the south coast, and al Cape Rojo on the west, and these constitute the principal mineral industry in Porto Rico.

The principal cities are Mayaguez, with 15,187, Ponce, 27.9.12 inbabitants; aud San Juan, the capital, with 32,048. The shipments of donieslic mercbandise from the United States to l'orto Rico, year ending December 31. 1907, were $2), 320, 465. The exports of domestic merchandise 10 the United States were $20.552,612. The foreign trade, year ending December 31, 1907, was: Imports, $3.580.887; exports, $4.899,372.

An act providing for a civil goverument for Porto Rico was passed by the Fifty-sixth Congress and received the assent of the President April 12, 1900, A statement of its provisions was printed in THE WORLD ALAVAC for 1901. Pages 92 and 93. President Roosevelt in' his message to Congress in Deceruber, 1906, recommended the granting of United States citizenship to the Porto Ricaus.

Under this act a civil goverument was established, which went into effect May 1, 1900. There are two legislative chambers, the Executive Council, or “Upper House." composed of the Government Secretary, Attorney-tieneral, Treasurer. Auditor, Comunissioner of the Interior, and Commissioner of Education, and five citizens appoiuted by the President, and the House of Delegates, or ** Lower House."' consisting of 35 members, elected by the pevple. The island is represented near the Congress of the United States by a Resident Comn, issioner.

CUAM. The island of Guam, the largest of the Marianne or Ladrone Archipelago, was ceded by Spain to the United States by Article 2 of the Treaty of Peace, concluded at Paris December 10, 1898. "It lies in a lirect line from San Francisco to the southern part of the Philippines, and is 5,200 miles from San Francisco and 900 miles from Manila. It is about 32 miles long and 100 miles in circumference, and has a population of about 8.661, of whom 5,219 are in Agana, the capital. The inhabitants are mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the Philippines, the original race of the Ladrone Islands being extinct. The prevailing language is Spanish. Nine-tenths of the islanders can read and write. The island is thickly wooded, well watered, and fertile, and possesses an excellent harbor. The productions are tropical fruits, cacao, rica, corn, tobacco, and sugar cane.

Commander Taussik, of the United States gunboat Bennington, took possession of the island and raised the United States flag over Fort Santa Cruz on February 1, 1899.

TUTUILA. Tutuila, the Samoan island which, with its attendant islets o Truu, Olesinga, and ofu, became a possession of the United States by virtue of the tri-partite treaty with Great Britain and Germany in 1899, covers, according to the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department, fifty-four square miles, and has 5,800 inhabitants. It possesses the most valuable island' harbor, Pago-Pago, in the South Pacific, and perhaps in the entire Pacific Ocean. Commercially the island is unimportant at present, but is extreinely valuable in its relations to the commerce of any nation desiring to cultivate transpacific commerce.

Ex-Chief Justice Chambers, of Samoa, says of Pago-Pago that "The harbor could hold the entire naval force of the United States, and is so per ectly arranged that only two vessels can enter at the bame time. The coaling station, being surrounded by high blutis, cannot be reached by shells írom outside.'' The Government is increasing the capacity to 10,000 tons.

The Samoan Islauds, in the South Pacific, are fourteen in mumber, and lie in a direct line drawn from San Francisco to Auckland, New Zealand. They are 4,000 miles from San Francisco. 2.200 miles from Hawaii. 1, 900 miles from Auckland, 2.000 miles from Sydney, and 4,200 miles from Manila. Germany governs all the group except the part owned by the United Slates. The iuhabitants are native Polynesians and Christians of different denominations.

WAKE AND OTHER ISLANDS. The United States flag was hoisted over Wake Island in January, 1899, by Commander Taussig, of the Bennington, while proceeding to Guam. It is a small island in the direct route from Hawali to Hong Kong, about 2,000 miles from the first and 3.000 miles from the secoud.

The United States possesses a number of scattered small islands in the Pacific Ocean, some hardly more than rocks or coral reefs, over which the flag has been hoisted from time to time. They are of little present value and mostly uninhabited. The largest are Christmas, Gallego. Starbuck, Peurbyn, Phoenix, Palmyra, Howland, Baker, Johoston, Gardner. Midway, Morell, and Marcus islands. 'The Midway Islands are occupied by a colony of telegraphers in charge of the relay in the cable line connecting the Philippines with the United States and a camp of United States marines, in all about forty persons.

The Santa Barbara group is a part of California and the Aleutian chain, extending from the peninsula of Kamchatka in Asiatic Russia to the promontory in North America which separates Bering Sea from the North Pacific, a part of Alaska.

HAWAII. Hawali was annexed to the United States by joint resolution of Congress July 7, 1898. A bill to create Hawaii a Territory of the United States was passed by Congress and approved April 30, 1900.

The area of the several Islands of the Hawaiian group is as follows: Hawaii. 4,210 square miles; Maui, 760; Oahu, 600; Kauai, 690; Molokai, 270; Lanai, 150; Niibau, 97; Kahoolawe, 63. Total, 6,740 square miles.

At the time of the discovery of the islands by Captain Cook in 1778 the native population was about 200,000. This has sitadily decreased, so that at the last ceusus the Dalíves puuveitu bulöl,019,

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