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a necessity. To meet this need Mr. Pulitzer purchased on April 10, 1888, for $630,000 what was then known as the French's Hotel property, long the site of a famous hostelry, on which stands the magnificent home of THE WORLD. The spot is historic, and its occupancy can be traced to 1642, when one Van de Grist and Govert Loockerman, of New Amsterdam, were granted a large tract of land which included this property. Loockerman's daughter Elsie, after having been for some years the wife of Peter Corneilson Vanderveer (who built the first three-masted schooner and the first brick building in Manhattan Island), became a widow, and later married Jacob Leisler, who grew rich and influential, but who mixed in po until he was accused of treason, and died on a gibbet erected where the Pulitzer Building now towers. Leisler's property was confiscated and was later restored to his heirs, the stigma of treason against him having been removed. In Revolutionary days the old commons opposite the Pulitzer Building were the scene of many stirring gatherings, and history now fixes them with reasonable accuracy as the place where Nathan Hale, regretting that he had but one life to give for his country, was, hanged by the British as a spy. Tammany's first hall was built in 1811 on the corner of Nassau and Frankfort streets, the site adjoining that of the Pulitzer Building. In 1849 French's Hotel was opened and was continued until Mr. Pulitzer bought the property and demolished the noted structure to make place for the Pulltzer Building of to-day, an edifice largely designed by Mr. Pulltzer,
The preliminary work for the foundations of the new structure was begun on June 20, 1889. The corner-stone was laid on October 10, 1889, by Master Joseph Pulltzer, jr., then four years old. Bishop Tuttle, of Missouri, made the invocation, and Chauncey M. Depew delivered the oration. Gov. David B. HII, Daniel Dougherty and others made addresses. From Mr. Pulitzer, who was ill at Wiesbaden, Germany, came the following cablegram, which was read:
“God grant that this structure be the enduring home of a newspaper forever unsatisfied with merely printing news-forever fighting every form of wrong; forever independent; forever advancing in enlightenment and progress; forever wedded to truly democratic ideas; forever aspiring to be a moral force; forever rising to a higher plane of perfection as a public institution,
"God grant that THE WORLD may forever strive toward the highest ideals; be both a daily school-house and a daily forum; both a daily teacher and a daily tribune; an instrument of justice; a terror to crime; an aid to education; an exponent of true Americanism.
"Let it ever be remembered that this edifice owes its existence to the public; that its architect is popular favor; that its moral corner-stone is love of liberty and justice; that its every stone comes from the people and represents public approval for public services rendered.
"God forbid that the vast army following the standard of THE WORLD should in this or in future generations ever find it faithless to those ideas and moral principles to which alone it owes its life and without which I would rather have it perish.
“JOSEPH PULITZER." The readers of THE WORLD to-day who were its readers twenty-five years ago know how well Mr. Pulitzer's fervent prayer, flashed under the Atlantic, has been answered. The aim of THE WORLD has never changed. The army that followed it then has grown to mighty legions, and is still growing. Where THE WORLD is willing to lead, millions are always glad to go, because they have faith in THE WORLD and THE WORLD has faith in them.
On December 10, 1890, occurred the formal opening of the Pulitzer Building in the presence of the most notable assemblage that ever came together for such a purpose. Among those present were Governor Hill, of New York; Governor Beaver, of Pennsylvania; Governor Abbett, of New Jersey; Governor Bulkeley, of Connecticut; Governor Campbell, of Ohio; Governor Davis, of Rhode Island; Governor-elect Amsden, of New Hampshire; Gov. ernor-elect Morris, of Connecticut, and Governor-elect Pattison, of Pennsylvania; Senator Calvin A. Brice, Congressmen Mills, McMillin, Blount, Crisp, Wilson, Tarnsey, Caruth, Springer, Flower, Allen, Cooper, Turner, McCarthy, Dunphy, Cummings and Fitch; Mayor Grant and the heads of the various city departments; Warner Miller, George W. Childs, Joseph C. Hendrix, Col. Charles H. Taylor, and many other eminent men, irrespective of political affiliations, from all parts of the country. In all, some 7,000 persons inspected the great bullding that night, being guided through it by members of the staff of THE WORLD, a collation being served in the reception-rooms on one of the upper floors.
The speech-making included addresses by Governors Hill, Abbett, Beaver, Campbell Davis and Bulkeley, Governors-elect Pattison and Amsden, Mayor Grant, Daniel Dougherty, Colonel Taylor, of the Boston Globe, Murat Halstead, Warner Miller, St. Clair McKelway, and Congressmen Flower, Mills, McMillin, Wilson, Caruth, Allen, Cooper and Turner, and Judge Manson, of St. Louis.
Since that memorable early Winter day seventeen years ago the Pulitzer Bullding has been visited by people from every clime, and hundreds of thousands have viewed from its dome the marvellous panorama stretching in all directions, and have also witnessed in THE WORLD'S various departments the making of a great newspaper.
THE NEW WORLD'S FIRST ACCOMPLISHMENT. As hundreds of thousands of eyes daily turn with admiring gaze to the Bartholdi Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World in New York Harbor, and as millions of eyes daily see the emblem chosen nearly twenty-five years ago to fittingly grace the first page of THE WORLD, older readers remember with pride the incident which gave THE WORLD the proud right to adopt this emblem-an incident of International interest.
Three days after Mr. Pulitzer had assumed control, THE WORLD. attempted to raise funds by a popular subscription to build a pedestal for the Bartholdi Statue, the beautiful and colossal bronze figure given by the people of France to the people of America as a token of endearing friendship between two liberty loving nations. The American committee had failed to arouse the public from apathy as to the project, and the press sneered at the situation. THE WORLD'S early efforts also failed, as its limited circulation did not reach the masses, which it was confident would respond when called upon to aid so patriotic and worthy a cause. Twenty months later, on March 16, 1885, it again took up the work with energy, being able to appeal to thousands where it had before appealed to hundreds. The rich had remained indifferent and failed to contribute, but in four months, through THE WORLD, the people gave more than $100,000, which represented the free-will offerings of 120.000 men, women and children, With this money was built the noble pedestal, on which "Liberty' has stood for nearly twenty-two years at the gate of the nation's metropolis. The inauguration ceremonies
October 22, 1886, were attended by President Cleveland and his Cabinet, the Governors of many States, members of diplomatic corps, and many distinguished American guests; also by a notable deputation from France, including M. Auguste Bartholdi, the statue's creator; Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, Admiral Jaures, General Pelissier and other high representatives of French official and civil life. There was a naval parade in the harbor and a huge land parade, the latter being reviewed by President Cleveland and the French guests at Madison Square. On Bedloe's Island, the site of the statue, Count de Lesseps,' on behalf of the Franco-American Union, made an address. Senator William M. Evarts made the presentation speech, and President Cleveland the speech of acceptance. The French plenipotentiary, M. Lefaivre, also made an address, and the commemorative oration was by Chauncey M. Dépéw. The Rev. Dr. R. S. Storrs offered a prayer, and the benediction was pronounced by Bishop Henry C. Potter.
THE ELECTION OF CLEVELAND AS PRESIDENT... The most striking example of THE WORLD'S loyalty to Democratic tenets at a time when such an illustration was sadly needed was its advocacy of the nomination of Grover Cleveland, then Governor of New York, by the National Democratic Convention for Pregfdent of the United States. Mr. Pulitzer, realizing that a turning point in national history had been reached, and that opportunity for success was knocking at every true Democratic door, had, before obtaining control of THE WORLD, steadily urged in his St. Louis PostDispatch the nomination of Cleveland. The new WORLD, daily gaining influence in New York, found itself bitterly opposed in its Cleveland attitude by John Kelly, of New York, Tammany Hall and others to whom the independence of Governor Cleveland was decidedly distasteful. Nothing daunted, THE WORLD threw down the gauntlet and followed its challenge with a vigorous battle for Cleveland's nomination.
John Kelly declared that Tammany Hall would not attempt to help elect Cleveland It he was nominated. THE WORLD said Kelly did not mean what he said and continued its fight. When Samuel J. Tilden was the Democratic leader and Cleveland was Mayor of Buffalo THE WORLD had picked Cleveland as Tilden's logical successor and as a Presidential candidate, and it did not propose to strike its colors to Tammany. Kelly's threat, however, had influenced delegates from other States, as Kelly was the New York leader, and they felt that success in New York was a vital necessity. THE WORLD took upon
itself the task of disproving Kelly's statement, exposed the pretence that Tilden opposed Cleveland, and brought forth every item of evidence to show that Cleveland, by his steady independence of the party bosses, had made himself the strongest man in the State before the people.
On the eve of the National Convention THE WORLD told why it favored the independent Governor for President in an editorial under the head, "Why THE WORLD Likes Cleveland.". It said:
"He is a poor man.
"He has no so-called aristocratic lineage or illustrious ancestors, but owes everything he is to his own efforts and own character.
"He has clean hands and a spotless record.
Mr. Pulitzer's heart and soul were in this first great public service to the whole American people, and he went to the convention as a reporter for his own paper, and his graphic dispatches from the convention scene gave primacy to THE WORLD'S reports.
The New York delegation had been divided by the State convention between Tammany Hall and its traditional opponents, but the persistent work of THE WORLD finally brought the opposing camps together to cast the entire vote of the Empire State for Cleveland, insuring his nomination.
It has always been generally conceded that THE WORLD, more than any other agency, contributed to Cleveland's success. From convention day to election day it was persistent, insistent and indefatigable in Cleveland's behalf. History has told how Cleveland won by a narrow margin after what was perhaps the fiercest campaign ever waged in the United States. A change of 700 votes in New York State would have elected James G, Blaine. Mr. Blaine frankly expressed the belief, after the election, that the use instantly made by THE WORLD of the millionaires' banquet to him, which it cartooned "Belshazzar's Feast," and of the tactless "Rum. Romanism and Rebellion" speech of the Rev. Dr. Burchard on the eve of election influenced far more than enough votes in this city to decide the result.
Writing to the twentieth anniversary number of THE WORLD, Mr. Cleveland said:
"The New York WORLD is just closing twenty years of work under its present ownership and management. I have quite often differed with it very broadly, both as to things advocated and its methods of advocacy. It has condemned and still deprecates some of my public and official acts which to the day of my death I shall recall with the greatest satisfaction, and though it has quite recently dealt with me in such a kind and partial manner as to challenge my grateful appreciation, even in this I must insist that to some extent at least it has been led away from a correct estimate of actual conditions.
“I would, however, be ashamed if any differences between us made it difficult for me to cheerfully testify to the notable service which this great newspaper has rendered within the last twenty years to the cause of Democracy. Concerning this I can speak largely from personal knowledge and observation. I never can lose the vividness of my recollection of the conditions and incidents attending the Presidential campaign of 1884, how thoroughly Republicanism was intrenched, how brilliantly it was led, how arrogant it was, and how confidently it encouraged and aided a contingent of deserters from the Democratic ranks. And I recall not less vividly how brilliantly and sturdily THE WORLD then fought for Democracy; and in this, the first of its great party fights under present ownership, it was here, there and everywhere in the field, showering deadly blows upon the enemy. It was steadfast in zeal and untiring in effort until the battle was won; and it was won against such odds and by so slight a margin as to reasonably lead to the belief that no contributing aid could have been safely spared. At any rate, the contest was so close it may be said without reservation that it it had lacked the forceful and potent advocacy of Democracy at that time by the New York WORLD the result might have been reversed."
Daniel S. Lamont, private secretary to Grover Cleveland, Secretary of War in the second Cleveland Administration and manager of Mr. Cleveland's earlier campaign, contributed this "appreciation" of THE WORLD'S part in the Cleveland Presidential campaign of 1884;
"In the campaign THE WORLD was the great Democratic newspaper in New York City battling for Mr. Cleveland's election. It took the lead in the fight. Mr. Pulitzer personally participated in the campaign, and in the result, which was decided by a narrow margin of 600 votes, too much credit cannot be given THE WORLD. It bore the leading share among the newspapers."
OTHER NOTABLE POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS, Five days after Mr. Pulitzer assumed direction of THE WORLD he commenced, in a leading editorial, a fight for an income tax, declaring it to be “the fairest and most democratic tax a goveróment can impose," and saying: "An income tax exempting incomes below $4,000 or $5,000 could not touch anybody to whom payment could be a serious burden." Many newspapers and individuals denounced this new idea as revolutionary and socialistic. THE WORLD, however, patiently and forcefully urged it as "essentially a people's tax," and slowly but surely the proposition grew in popular favor, until eleven years afterward President Cleveland signed a law providing for just such an income tax as THE WORLD had advocated for more than a decade. The friends of this law praised THE WORLD for having secured its passage by Congress, and the enemies of the new statute were severe in their criticism, blaming THE WORLD for their defeat and thus paying it a high compliment. The United States Supreme Court, by a vote of 5 to 4, declared the law unconstitutional because of its construction. Subsequent Congresses have been hostile to a revival of the measure in constitutional form, but THE WORLD'S attitude remains unchanged, and THE WORLD believes that the day is not far distant when an income tax will add to the nation's revenues and permit a reduction of other taxes.
When Judge Maynard was nominated for the Court of Appeals he had been guilty of a gross offence to the law by abstracting an election return from the Secretary of State's office two years before in the interest of a political master. THE WORLD began the agitation in favor of "taking the bench out of politics and politics out of the bench." It called upon the people to defend the honor of the State and preserve the purity of the bench by defeating Maynard. And they did defeat him by a majority of 101,000 votes.
So firmly had this WORLD idea of a non-political bench since become fixed in the public mind that when the Republicans refused to indorse the renomination of Judge Gray in 1902, although their candidate was an exceptionally good man, he was defeated, and that at an election when the rest of the Republican ticket was successful.
With an earnestness that commanded the respect of the thinking men of the land, THE WORLD used its utmost power to avert the growth of the free silver movement, and when the Chicago National Convention, in a fit of hysterics, nominated William J. Bryan, THE WORLD, which during all its eighty-three years of existence had never supported any but Democratic candidates for President, refused to yield to popular hysteria and repudiated both Bryan and free silver. It declared that “the proposal to debase the currency to the standard of a few half-civilized countries against the standard and experiences of the most enlightened nations cannot stand the trial of a four months' discussion." In the face of great party enthusiasm, and with great financial loss involved, it made an uncompromising campaign against political heresy, a heresy which meant national disaster and disgrace. THE WORLD put country above party and won. And it foretold in "A Judicial Forecast" on October 21, two weeks before election, the exact result in the Electoral College, naming the States that were “certain for McKinley."
THE WORLD predicted the nomination of President Roosevelt to succeed himself in 1904, and urged the nomination of Grover Cleveland as the logical candidate to oppose him and as the only man likely to defeat Roosevelt. When, instead, Judge Alton B. Parker was nominated, THE WORLD, while it supported him as the Democratic standard-bearer, read and truthfully reflected the signs of the hour and never prognosticated his success. It fought for him on principle, regardless of result, recognizing no connection between political success and moral convictions. Toward President Roosevelt THE WORLD has always been fair, while opposing much that he has stood for most conspicuously as his party leader. It praised him for maintaining the peace in Venezuela, defended his hospitality to Booker T. Washington, applauded his independence in the Northern Securities warfare, and has supported him whenever his attitude or achievement in the interests of the public have deserved commendation.
A GREAT INTERNATIONAL SERVICE BY THE WORLD. The consistency of THE WORLD in its never-ending fight against jingoism and the splendid results of sticking to its colors was demonstrated in 1895, when stern duty to itself and to humanity compelled it to instantly and passionately oppose President Cleveland's attitude in the Venezuelan crisis. It saw his serious error and the unhappy consequences to which it might speedily lead. It mattered not that THE WORLD had done so much toward twice making Mr. Cleveland President. His message to Congress had aroused a war clamor contrary to reason and common-sense, and there was grave danger that America and Great Britain might become engaged in conflict. The voice of the jingoes here and in England grew daily louder-raving for war-because of a boundary dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain. THE WORLD called the message "a grave blunder," and declared that Cleveland had falsely interpreted the Monroe Doctrine. He had asked the Senate for a commission to settle the dispute which he had not been asked to settle. The paper appealed to the sanity and common-sense of the people, and its editor sent 500 cable and telegraphic messages to the leaders of thought in the British Isles and in America. Next day It published responses from the leading public men, prelates and statesmen of England, messages of peace and good will. Gladstone said, "Only common-sense is necessary." The Prince of Wales, now King Edward VII., forsook traditions of royal etiquette and addressed a friendly message to America through THE WORLD, expressing his hope of a peaceful settlement of the imbroglio. Peace was restored, and the plaudits and thank offerings of the whole English-speaking race poured in upon THE WORLD for staying the hands of the two nations just ready to Imbrue them in each other's blood. Mr. Cleveland's Venezuelan commission made no report. The dispute was arbitrated, and England and America joined in organizing an International Court of Arbitration.
THE WORLD'S service in averting "bloody war” was recognized by the Peace and Arbitration Societies of Great Britain, and in evidence of the gratitude of that portion of the Englisa-speaking people who live in the British realm for that service these societies waited upon Mr. Joseph Pulitzer, then in London, and presented an address to him, the late Cardinal Vaughan being the spokesman.
OF THE WORLD'S fight Joseph Chamberlain said:
"THE WORLD led public thought when it secured expressions of opinion from the leading men of America and Great Britain. It performed an inestimable service to the English-speaking people of the whole world."
The cause of universal arbitration was far advanced by the triumph thus won, and hastened the movement which culminated in the establishment of the International Arbitration Commission at The Hague.
NATIONAL CREDIT RESTORED BY THE WORLD. On another vitally important occasion in 1895, when THE WORLD realized that the bond policy of President Cleveland was inimical to the interests of the people, it did not hesitate to show the President's error. THE WORLD still classes among its greatest triumphs Its action at that time in the smashing of the “bond ring" and the restoration of the national credit by turning the searchlights of "publicity" upon the project of the Administration to sell $100,000,000 worth of bonds to the Morgan syndicate of capitalists at a figure many millions lower than similar bonds were held at in the market was one of THE WORLD'S greatest trlumphs.
It was announced from Washington that this issue of 4 per cent. bonds had been sold in bulk to the Morgan syndicate “at about the same price" paid for an issue of $63,300,000 worth the year before. The country was shoeked, for THE WORLD had pointed out that these bonds, sold to the same syndicate at 104%, were quoted on the market at 118 or more, and the new bonds would surely bring as much. The sale, as planned, would not only involve a great loss to the Treasury, but the very suggestion impaired the national credit at home and abroad. It printed “An Appeal to the President." It showed him the nature of the blunder he was making, and entreated him to abandon the arrangement and “trust the people," offering the bonds to them, assuring him that the people would quickly subscribe for the whole issue and pay a higher price for them. In evidence of its own faith in the people THE WORLD pledged itself to take $1,000,000 worth at the highest market price. THE WORLD stood alone for fourteen days in defence of the nation's honor and credit, printing from thirty to forty columns dally of arguments and appeals. It sent meg. sages to 10,370 bankers in all parts of the country. It received 7,130 replies, offering to take more than $300,000,000 in bonds at the market price. That settled it. President Cleveland rejected the syndicate's contract. The “bond ring" was smashed. The bonds were offered at public sale, and the people bid for almost six times the amount of the issue, or, to be précise, wanted to buy not $1,000,000 worth of bonds, but $558,269.850. Over 800 bids at 110 or better were received, where Mr. Morgan had offered only 1044. The head of the smashed syndicate betrayed the "deal" by bidding 110.6877 for all or any part of the issue$6,000,000 more than his syndicate would have paid under the "arrangement." The whole issue was disposed of at an average price of nearly 112, netting $6,888,836 more to the