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UNITED STATES PENSION STATISTICS-Continued.

PENSION AGENCIES AND GEOGRAPHICAL LIMITS, JUNE 30, 1907.
AGENCIES
Geographical Limits.

Pay Places Nasal

Disbursements.

Pensioners. Augusta. Maine

Boston

$2,686,558. 13 Boston. Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island.

Boston.

7.630,854. 68 Buffalo. Western New York.

New York City 6.176,317.15 Chicago Illinois..

Chicago

10,691, 686.14 Columbus Ohio...

Chicago..

14,634,797.72 Concord.. New Hampshire, Vermont.

Boston

2,562,625, 25 Des Moines.. Iowa, Nebraska....

Chicago

7.706,530, 20 Detroit... Michigan..

Chicago.

6,352,187.88 Indianapolis. Indiana...

Chicago

10.092, 201. 20 Knoxville... Southern States

Washington 8,545,151.74 Louisville. Kentucky

Chicago

3,842,306.70 Milwaukee... Minnesota, Dakotas, Wisconsin

Chicago.

7.018.817.72 New York... East New York, East New Jersey

New York City

6.991,041.70 Philadelphia. East Pennsylvania, West New Jersey.

Philadelphia 7,654,515. 46 Pittsburgh West Pennsylvania....

Philadelphia 6.287,191, 48 San Francisco Pacific Coasi..

San Francisco. 5,607,014.91 Topeka .. Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico.

Chicago

15,807.638, 24 Washington.. Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, W.Va., D. C., Foreign Washington 7.743,527.62 Total, including agency expenses...

$138,030,894, 22 * Excepting the States in the Louisville and Washington districts,

The expenses of the Pension Bureau and of pension agencies in disbursing the pension fund during the fiscal year were $3,309, 110.44. From 1866 to 1907 inclusive, this expense has been $110.051,513, 73. The names of the pension agents will be found in the list of oficials of the Federal Government.

TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS FOR PENSIONS FOR ALL WARS, AND FOR REGULAR

ESTABLISHMENT. War of the Revolution (estimate) $70,000,000; war of 1812 (on account of service without regard to disability) $45,625,899. 24;

Indian wars (on account of service without regard to disability) $8.822,387. 20, war with Mexico (on account of service without regard to disability) *39,397,733.57; civil war, $3.389, 135, 449.54 war with Spain and insurrection in the Philippine Islands, $18,909,512.43; regular establishment, $9,864,344.67; unclassified, $16, 260,307.04. Total disbursements for pensions, $3,098,015,723. 69.

PENSIONERS IN EACH STATE AND TERRITORY. Alabama... 3,824 Idaho....... 2, 205 Michigan 40,831 | N. Cara.. 4,133 Utah

1,048 Alaska T... 68 Illinois ... 68,707 Minn 15,107 N. Dak... 2,011 Vermont...

8, 105 Arizona T. 801 Indiana 59.669 Miss... 4,813! Ohio. 95.683 Virginia.... 8.894 Arkansas.. 10,760 Indian T. 4,206 Missouri.. 49,335 Okla.

9,315 Washing'n 10,393 California. 26,448 Iowa ...... 84,091 | Montana 2.059 Oregon 7.798 West Va.... 12,156 Colorado.. 8,838 Kansas... 38.108 Nebras'a 15,766 Penn'a 96,592 Wisconsin. 26,603 Conn ...... 12,528 Kentuc'y 26,695 Nevada.. 463 R. Island 5,392 Wyoming

918 Delaware.. 2,664 Louis'a... 6,519 N. Hamp 7,978 S. Cara... 2, 044 Insul. Pos.

124 D. of Col..... 8.6971 Maine.. 18,255 V. Jersey 24,144 S. Dak 4.373 Foreign.

5.090 Florida.... 3,786 Maryla'd 12,698 N. Mex... 2, 166 Tenn 18.898 Georgia..... 3,519 Mass....... 40,325 N York.. 82,818 Texas ..... 8,850 Total..... 967,371 DAUGHTERS OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS ON PENSION ROLLS JUNE 30, 1907.

NAME.

Age.
Name of Soldier. Service of Soldier.

Residence.
Hurlbutt, Sarah C..

89 Weeks, Elijah... Massachusetts Little Marsh, Pa, Thompson, Rhoda Augusta.. 86 Thompson, Thaddeus. New York. Woodbury, Ct, Wooley, Phoebe M., now Palmeter

86 Wooley, Jonathan..... N. Hampshire. Brookfield, N. Y. Daniel F. Bakeman, the last survivor of the War of the Revolution, died in Freedom, Cattaraugus County, N. Y., April 5, 1869, aged 109 years. Esther S. Damon, the last surviving widow of a Rey. olntionary soldier, who died at Plymouth Union, Vt., November 11, 1906, aged 92 years, was the wife of Noah Damon, who served at various periods as a private in Massachusetts troops from April 19, 1775. to May 11, 1780.

The last survivor of the war of 1812 who was on the pension rolls was Hiram Cronk of Ava, N. Y., who died May 13, 1905, aged 105 years. He served in the defense of Sacket Harbor in 1814.

The number of enrolled pension attorneys in 1907 was 24, 433.

The following are the ratings per month for disabilities incurred in the service:

Army.-Lieutenant-colonel and all officers of higher rank, $30; major, surgeon, and paymaster, $25: captain and chaplain, $20; first lieutenant and assistant surgeon, $17; second lieutenant

and enrolling officer. $15; enlisted men, $8.

Navy.-Captaln and all officers of higher rank, commander, surgeon, paymaster, and chief en. gineer, $30, lleutenant, passed assistant surgeon, surgeon, paymaster, and chief engineer, $25; masterprofessor of mathematics, and assistant surgeon, $20;

first assistant engineer, ensign, and pulot, $15; cadet midshipman, passed midshipman, midshipmon, warrant oficers, $10; enlisted man, $8.

Reciprocity Treaties and Agreements.
(List of reciprocity treaties between the United States and foreign countries since 1850.)
COUNTRIES WITH Wuch RECIPROCITY TREATIES AND

Signed.
Took Effect.

Terminstad.
AGREEMENTS HAVE BEEN MADE.
British North American Possessions (treaty).

June 5, 1854. March 16, 1853....

March 17, 1866. Hawaiisa Islands ( treaty).

January 30, 1875.... September 9, 1876....

April 30, 1900. Brazil (agreement)....

January 31, 1891.. April 1, 1891..
Santo Domingo (agreement)..

June 4, 1891 September 1, 1891......
Great Britain :
Barbados (agreement).

February 1, 1899... February 1, 1899..
Jamaica (agreement),..

February 1, 1892.... February 1, 1899... Iceward Islands (agreement),

February 1, 1892.... February 1, 1892. Trinidad (including Tobago) (agreement).

February 1, 189... February 1, 1892. Windward Islan.is (excepting Grenada) (agreement). February 1, 1892.... February 1, 1892..

August 91, 1894. British Guiana (agreemeut)

February 1, 18:2.... April 1, 1892, Salvador (agreement).....

December 20, 1891. February 1, 1899 (provisional) Nicaragua (agreement)..

March 11, 189.. March 12, 1892. Honduras (agreement).

April 29, 1892. May 25, 1892 (provisional).. Guatemala (agreement).

December 30, 1891..May 30, 1892. Spain, for Cuba and Porto Rico (agreement)

June 16, 1891 Beptember 1, 1891 (provisional) Austria-Hungary (agreement)..

May 25, 1892. May 26, 1892 France (agreement).

May 28, 1-98.. June 1, 1898.

still in force. Germany ingreement)

January 30, 1892. February 1, 1892.

August 24, 1894. Portngal and Azores and Madeira Islands (agreement).. May 22, 1900.. June 12, 1900

still in force. Italy (agreement)...

February 8, 1900. July 18, 1900.

Still in force. Switzerland (treaty of 1850)...

Julie 1, 1898.

March 23, 1900. Switzerland...

January 1, 1906..

Still in force. Cuba (agreement).

December 17, 1903.. December 27, 1903.

Stili in force. Spain (Agreement)

Angust 97, 1906..... Septem' er 1, 1908.

still in force. Bulgaria (agreement).

September 15, 1906.. September 15, 1906.

Still in force. Germany (agecement)..

April 22, i907...... July , 1907.

still in force. Reciprocity treaties or agreements were also negotiated and signed under authority of section 4 of the act of 1897, with the following governments: United Kingdom, for Jamaica, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bermuda, and British Guiana; Dominican Republic; Nicaragua; Ecua lor; Argentina; France-but the United States Senate has not acted upon them. The treaty with Cuba, which went into operation December 27,

1903, gives a reduction of 20 per cent. duty on all dutiable articles from Cuba entering the United States, aud a reduction ranging from 20 10 40 per cent, on articles from the United States entering Cuba.

arbitration Treaties. TREATIES of arbitration were negotiated in 1904 and 1905 by the President with Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Norway and Sweden, Switzerland, Portugal,

and Mexico. They were in exactly the same language and provided that differences

of a legal nature or relating to the interpretation of treaties which cannot be settled by diplomacy shall be referred to the permanent court of arbitration established at The Hague " provided, neveriheless, that they do not affect the vital interests, the independence or the honor of the two contracting states and do not concern the interests of third parties." The United States Senate ratified these treaties February 11, 1906, butnotwithstanding the remonstrance of the President-with an amendment requiring that each specific proposal to arbitrale shall be put in the form of a treaty to be referred to the Senate for approval. The President, holding that the amendment vitiated the force of the treaties, decided not to submit them to the countries with which the original conventions were signed.

The Senate on January 28, 1905, ratified a treaty with Guatemala, San Salvador, Peru and Hone duras providing for the submission to arbitration at the Permanent Court of the Hague of all claims for pecuniary loss or

damage which may be presented by their respective citizens and which cannot be amicably adjusted through diplomatic channels, and when said claims are of sufficient importance to warrant the expenses of arbitration," the treaty to remain in force five years from the date of its ratification by the last signatory government (the United

States). The Monroe Doctrine. “THE Monroe doctrine”' was enunciated in the following words in President Monroe's message to Congress December 2, 1823 :

* In the discussions to which this interest has given rise, and in the arrangements by which they may terminate, the occasion has been deemed proper for asserting, as a principle in wbich rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power.

We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing hetween the United states and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of th hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing

colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not intersered and shall not interfere. But with the governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them or controlling in any other manner their destiny by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States."

Secretary of State Olney in his despatch of July 20,1895, on the Venezuelan Boundary Dispute, said:

"It (the Monroe doctrine) does not establish any general protectorate by the United States over other American States. It does not relieve any American Statefrom its obligations as fixed by international law, nor prevent any European power directly interested from enforcing such obligations or from inflicting merited punishment for the breach of them."

President Roosevelt in a speech in 1902 upon the results of the Spanish-American war, said:

" The Monroe doctrine is simply a statement of our very firm belief that the nations now existing on this continent must be left to work out their own destinies among themselves, and that this coulinent is no longer to be regarded as the colonizing ground of any European power. The one power on the continent that can make the power effective is, of course, ourselves; for in the world as it is, a nation which advances a giveu doctrine. likely to interfere in any

way with other nations, must possess the power to back it up, if it wishes the doctrine to be respected."

Commercial Agreement with Germany. A Commercial Agreement between the United States and Germany was signed at Washington April 22, 1907, and at Levico May 2, 1907. The following are its terms:

The President of the United States of America, on the one hand, and His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, in the naine of the German Empire, on the other, animated by a desire to adjust the commercial relations between the two countries until a comprehensive commercial treaty can be agreed upon, have decided to conclude a temporary commercial agreement, and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries for that purpose, to wit;

The President of the United States of America, the Honorable Elihu Root, Secretary of State of the United States; and

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, His Excellency Baron Speck von Sternburg. His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States of America,

Who, after an exchange of their respective full powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following articles:

ARTICLE I. In conformity with the authority conferred on the President of the United States in Section 3 of the Tariff act of the United States approved July 24, 1897, it is agreed on the part of the United States that the following products of the soil and industry of Germany imported into the United States shall, from and after the date when this agreement shall be put in force, be subject to the reduced tariff rates provided by said Section 3, as follows:

Argols, or crude tartar, or wine lees. crude, 5 per centum ad valorem.

Brandies, or other spirits manufactured or distilled from grain or other materials, $1.75 per proof gallon.

Champagne and all other sparkling wines, in bottles containing not more than one quart and more than one pint, $6 per dozen; containing not more than one pint each and more than one-half pint, $3 per dozen; containing one-half pint each or less, $1.50 per dozen; in bottles or other vessels containing more than one quart each, in addition to $6 per dozen bottles on the quantities in excess of one quart, at the rate of $1.90 per gallon

Still wines, and vermuth, in casks. 33 cents per gallon; in bottles or jugs, per case of one dozen bottles or jugs containing each not more than one quart and more than one pint, or twenty-four bottles or jugs containing each not more than one pint. $1.25 per case. and any excess beyond these quantities found in such bottles or jugs shall be subject to a duty of 4 cents per pint or fractional part thereof, but no separate or additional duty shall be assessed upon the bottles or jugs.

Paintings in oil or water colors, pastels, pen and ink drawings, and statuary, 15 per centum ad valorem.

ARTICLE II. It is further agreed on the part of the United States that the modifications of the Customs and Consular Regulations set forth in the annexed diplomatic note, and made a part of the consideration of this agreement, shall go into effect as soon as possible and not later than from the date when this agreement shall be put in force.

ARTICLE III, Reciprocally, the Imperial German Government concedes to the products of the soil and industry of the United States enumerated in the attached list upon their importation into Germany the rates of duty indicated therein.

ARTICLE IV. The Provisions of Articles I. and III. shall apply not only to products imported directly from the country of one of the contracting parties into that of the other, but also to products which are imported into the respective countries through a third country, so long as such products have not been subject to any further processes of manufacture in that country.

ARTICLE V. The present agreement shall apply also to countries or territories which are now or may in the future constitute a part of the customs territory of either contracting party.

ARTICLE VI. The present agreement shall be ratified by His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, as soon as possible, and upon official notice thereof the President of the United States shall issue his proclamation giving full effect to the respective provisions of this agreement.

This agreement shall take effect on July 1, 1907, and remain in force until June 30, 1908. In case neither of the contracting parties shall have given notice six months before the expiration of the above term of its intention to terminate the said agreement, it shall remain in force until six months from the date when either of the contracting parties shall notify the other of its intention to terminate the same.

Done in duplicate in English and German texts.

In testimony whereof the plenipotentiaries above mentioned have subscribed their names hereto at the places and on the dates expressed under their several signatures.

The agreement is signed by Elihu Root on behalf of the United States, and Speck von Sternburg on the part of Germany.

About one hundred and fifty products-agricultural, mechanical and artistic-are enumerated in the list alluded to in Article III. of the above agreement.

It is provided that special agents, confidential agents, and others sent by the Treasury Department to investigate questions bearing upon customs administration shail be accredited to the German Government through the Department of State at Washington and the Foreign Office at Berlin, and such agents shall co-operate with the several chambers of commerce located in the territory apportioned to such agents.

Forests and Forestry. The total wooded area in the United States is estimated at 1,094,514 square wiles, or about 699,500,000 acres, which is 3648 per cent of the total land area, exclusive of Alaska.

The limber industry is fourth among the great industries of the United States. The amount of lumber produced in 1905 was between 30 aud 35 billion board feet, valued at from $475,000,000 to $500,000,000.

At the present rate of cutting the forest lands of the United States cannot long meet the enormous demands made upon them. The great piperies of the Lake States have been almost entirely eliminated, and great inroads have been made in the supply of valuable timber throughout all parts of the country.

The heavy demands for timber have been rapidly pushing to the South and West the great centres of lumber supply, in consequence the State of Washington now leads in lomber production, followed in turn by Wisconsin, Michigan, Louisiana, Minnesota, and the others. The annual increase in the cut of white pine and of yellow pine, which now reaches the enormous figure of 10 billion feet, bas practically come to a standsull; and the lumbering of red tir ju the northwest has brought that wood to third place.'

A long step forward in the preservation of forests for purposes of permanent timber supply and the protection of watersheds and grazing lands was made, when, on February 1, 1905, the transfer of the administration of the National Forest reserves from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture was made. Under the present system the management of the National forests, the area of which on November 17, 1906, was, approximately, 127,078,658 acres, is undertaken by the Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture.

A phenomenal saving has been effected to the naval stores industry by the introduction of the cup and gulter system of turpentining, instead of the old destructive system of boxing, by insuring a larger product, a better quality, and, best of all, indefinitely prolonging the life of the industry by lessen. ing the damage to the longleaf pine forests,

In 1905, 3, 192,000 cords of wood we used in the manufacture of paper, of which an increased amount, 615,428 was imported from Canada. Thus demand is making a large drain on the spruce forests which surnish the principal supply, and investigations are now being inade to determine what woods, such as poplar, tir, and the like, can be successfully used to insure a continued supply of material. A much larger drain upon our forest resources is caused in the production of railroad ties, of which 84,000,000, equivalent to three billion board feet, were used in 1905. White oak, hitherto the chief source of supply, is not plentiful enough to indefinitely meet this demand, and in many parts of the country the supply of chestnut, cedar, and cypress is becoming inadequate; bow. ever, seasoning and treating methods are being found by which cheaper and more plentiful woods, as lodgepole pine in the North west and loblolly pine in the South, are being prepared for these uses, Timber to the amount of two and one-half billion feet was used for mine tiinbers.

THE FOREST SERVICE. **Forest Service” has been the name since July 1, 1905, of that branch of the Department of Agriculture which was previously called the " Bureau of Forestry,'' and, earlier still, the Division of Forestry."

Since February 1, 1905, the Forest Service has been charged, under the direction of the Secretary of Agriculture, with the administration of the National Forests, About the management of the National Forests, therefore, the work of the Service now centres The Forests, whose area on April 1, 1907, was 147,948,685 acres, are of vital importance for their timber and grass and for the conservation of stream flow. They are so managed as to develop their permanent value as a resource by use.

Aside from the care and perpetuation of the National Forests, the Forest Service has to do with the practical use of forests and forest trees in the United States, especially with the coumercial manngement of forest tracts, wood lots, and forest plantations. It undertukes such forest studies as lie beyond the power or the means of individuals to carry on unaided. It stands ready to co-operate, to the limit of its resources, with all who seek assistance in the solution of practical forest problems, particularly where such co-operation will result in setting up object lessons to serve as encouraging examples for the general benefit.

Co-operative Sale studies are carried on with States which request the advice of the Service. Examples of this work are the studies of forest conditions in New Hampshire, which appropriated $7,000 toward the total cost, and California, which appropriated $25,000. Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Delaware, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, and Mississippi have also called upon the Service for expert assistance.

The fruits of its more important studies are published and distributed without charge upon re quest, or sold at a low price by the Superintendent of Documents.

The work of the Forest Service is organized under four branches and fourteen offices. The of fice of the Forester stands at the head, and the branches, which are grazing, operation, sylviculture, and products, report to the Forester.

The following is the organization of the Forest Service:

Furester-Gifford Pinchot; Associate Prester -Overtou W. Price; Law Officer-P. P. Wells; Editor -Herbert A. Smith; Denuirologist-George B. Sudworth.

Grazing-Assistint Forester in Charge - Albert F. Potter.

Operation - Assistant Forester in Charoe --James B. Adams; Chief Maintenance-Hermon c. Metcalf; Chief Accounts-George E. King: Chir! Organization--C.S. Chapman; Assistant Chief-Clyde Leavitt; Chief Engineering-W. E. Heering; Chini of Lords - George F. Pollock.

Sylviculture -- Assistant Forester, in Charge-William T. Cox: Chief Ertrusiom-Samuel N. Spring; Chief Sylvics-Raphael Zon; Chief Management-E. E. Carter; Assistant Chief W. G. Weigle.

Products --- Assistant Forester in charge-William L. Hali; Chief Wood Urilization-R 8. Kellogg; Chief Wood Preservuion-Carl G. Crawford; Chief Pihlication-Findley Burns,

The work of the dendrologist includes dendrological studies proper, direction of the Services, forest photograph collection, and charge of the forest exhibits prepared by the service.

A leading branch of the dendrological studies is the making of an accurate forest map of the dis. tribution of iree species in the United States, lo show the extent, composition, and economic possi.

FORESTS AND FORESTRY-Continuda. bilities of our forest resources. Others of these studies concern the cedar forests of Texas, and important but little known trees Indigenous to the United States, the growth of which may profitably extend to new localities for economic purposes. Prominent among the latter are the desert pines of California An investigation is being made of the present and probable future supply of western tan bark oak, as well as of other trees the barks of which are used to adulterate tan hark, and the lannin contents of the barks are being delermined by the Bureau of Chemistry. Included also is a study of basket willows. Experimental holts are established on the Arlington Experimental Farm, near Washington, D. C. Attention is given especially to the conditions under which high-grade basket rods may be produced. Approved basket willow cuttings are distributed free each Spring to applicants interested in willow cultire,

A series of important publications in course of preparation will describe and illustrate the tree species of the different regions of the United States. The first of these bulletins embraces the trees of the Pacific Coast, and the second those of the Rocky Mountain States. One special use of these tree books will be the aid which they will give forest officers on National Forests in identifying specirs and in acquainting themselves with their habits, growth, distribution, and other iinportaut facts.

The dendrologist also gives technical information about trees, in response to inquiries, including the identification of the wood, seeds, foliage, etc., of native aud exotic trees. A large and growing correspondence evidences the public demand for such information.

The Government forest exhibits prepared for ylate, National, and international expositions explain what foresty is and show its application to the problems with which the Service is dealing. Through these displays much publicinterest is aroused and information given concerning our forests, their economic importance, and right and wrong methods of using them.

FOREST PLANTING. The section of planting in the department of Sylviculture, deals with all phases of forest planting within the National Forests. In the past two important problems have received special attention: (1) The reforesting of dennded watersheds where planting is needed in order to control and regulate the flow of streams directly supplying cities and towus; (2) planting within the treeless National Forests in the Middle West to provide for limber in the future and to serve as an object lesson to the people.

"The trees used in planting are grown at eight Government nurseries in the following National Forests: San Gabriel, Santa Barbara, Gila, Dismal River, Pikes Peak, Salt Lake, Pecos, and Lincoln, The combined area of seed beds at the eight stations is 11 acres. They now contain over 5,000,000 trees, from one to three years old. The seed sown in 1907 should produce not less than 4,000,000 trees, giving a total of over 9,000,000 in 1908.

The planting stations are so situated that in addition to providing plant material for local use they also serve as distributing points for other National Forests.

The preliminary stage of forest planting within the National Forests is now past, and several of the planting stations have this year produced trees of sufficient size to plant directly on the permanent site. About 700,000 trees were planted during the Winter and Spring of 1907, the greater part in the Dismal Rirer. Niobrara, Worth Platte, San Gabriel, Santa Barbara, and Pikes Peak Naiional Forests. At the nursery in the Dismal River National Forest more stock has reached an age suitable for planting than at the other stations. This nursery contains approximately 2,500,000 trees. In the Spring of 1908 there will be about 1,000,000 trees ready for planting in the sandhills. The species largely in use up to this time in planting within this Forest are western yellow pine and jack pine. Other species, chiefly Scotch pine, Norway pive, and Douglas fir, are being tested in the nursery and in experimental plantations.

The Pasadena and San Marcos stations are being used as distributing points for some of the southern California National Forests. These two stations have a combined capacity of about 6,000,000 trees annually.

Private owners of timberlands, large or small, may secure the ald of the Forest Service in the care of their lauds under a plan of co-operation fully outlined in circular No. 21. Any owner who wishes to learn whether forestry might be profitable to him may apply to the Forest Service for a working plan, Aungent of the Service is then sent to examine the forest. If the piece of woodland is small, as in farm wood lots, and management is practicable, a plan is outlined on the spot and carefully explained to the owner. In the case of large iracts the preparation of a working plan requires a more prolonged study on the ground. The agent sent to examine the tract therefore first finds out whether a sumciently good opening for paying management exists to justify the outlay. His report is submitted to the owner, with an estimate of the cost of preparing the plan is a plan is found desirable.

If the owner desires the working plan, a force of men is sent to collect the necessary data. A thorough examination of the tract is made both from the Forester's and from the lumberman's points of view. The merchantable and immature trees upon sample strips are counted and their diameter measnred, and from these data the stand on the whole tract is calculated. Volume and rate of growth are ascertained for the important species through tree analyses--that is, through measurements of felled trees and counts of their annual rings. Studies are made of reproduction, of the danger from fire, grazing, and insect attack, and of the best means of preventing such injuries, Market and transportation facilities are carefully Investigated, and the yield of timber and the character and distribution of the forest are mapped.

When these facts have been collected they are worked up into the plan, which takes into account the special needs or purpose of the owner, as, for instance. to secure permanent supplies of inining timber, to maintain a gume preserve, or to protect a watershed. The recommendations in the plan enable the owner to derive from the forest the fullest and most permanent revenue which is consistent with his special requirements,

FOREST PRESERVATION BY THE VARIOUS STATES. New York has parchased and set aside 1, 500.000 acres for a forest reserve. These lands are mainly in the Adirondacks, but partly in the Calskills. Patrol, to guard against theft of timber and especially against fire, is maintained under the Superintendent of Forests, who is the executive officer of the forest, tisli and game commission. The planting of young trees on open places is now going forward at the rate of 500.000 seedlings annually.

Pennsylvania has recently been most active in taking measures for the preservation of its forests. {p 1807, this Stute, to conserve the water pply, provided for the purchase of three forest reserves,

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