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Forests and Forestry.

THE total wooded area in the United States is estimated at 1,094,514 square miles, or about 699,500,000 acres, which is 36 per cent, of the total land area, exclusive of Alaska.

The lumber industry is fourth among the great industries of the United States. The amount of lumber produced in 1905 was between 30 and 35 billion board feet, valued at from $475,000,000 to $500,000,000.

At the present rate of cutting the forest lands of the United States cannot long meet the enormous demands made upon them. The great pineries of the Lake States have been almost entirely eliminated, and great inroads have been made in the supply of valuable timber throughout all parts of the country.

The heavy demands for timber have been rapidly pushing to the South and West the great centres of lumber supply, in consequence the State of Washington now leads in lumber production, followed in turn by Wisconsin, Michigan, Louisiana, Minnesota, and the others. The annual increase in the cut of white pine and of yellow pine, which now reaches the enormous figure of 10 billion feet, has practically come to a standstill; and the lumbering of red fir in the northwest has brought that wood to third place.

A long step forward in the preservation of forests for purposes of permanent timber supply and the protection of watersheds and grazing lands was made, when, on February 1, 1905, the transfer of the administration of the National Forest reserves from the Department of the Interior to the. Department of Agriculture was made. Under the present system the management of the National forests, the area of which on November 17, 1906, was, approximately, 127,078,658 acres, is undertaken by the Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture.

A phenomenal saving has been effected to the naval stores industry by the Introduction of the cup and gutter system of turpentining, instead of the old destructive system of boxing, by insuring a larger product, a better quality, and, best of all, indefinitely prolonging the life of the industry by lessening the damage to the longleaf pine forests.

In 1905, 3,192,000 cords of wood were used in the manufacture of paper, of which an increased amount, 645,428 was imported from Canada. This demand is making a large drain on the spruce forests which furnish the principal supply, and investigations are now being made to determine what woods, such as poplar, fir, and the like, can be successfully used to insure a continued supply of material. A much larger drain upon our forest resources is caused in the production of railroad ties, of which 84,000,000, equivalent to three billion board feet, were used in 1905. White oak, hitherto the chief source of supply, is not plentiful enough tọ indefinitely meet this demand, and in many parts of the country the supply of chestnut, cedar, and cypress is becoming inadequate; however, seasoning and treating methods are being found by which cheaper and more plentiful woods, as lodgepole pine in the Northwest and loblolly pine in the South, are being prepared for these uses. Timber to the amount of two and one-half billion feet was used for mine timbers.


Forest Service" has been the name since July 1, 1905, of that branch of the Department of Agriculture which was previously called the "Bureau of Forestry," and, earlier still, the‘*Division of Forestry."

Since February 1, 1905, the Forest Service has been charged, under the direction of the Secretary of Agriculture, with the administration of the National Forests. About the management of the National Forests, therefore, the work of the Service now centres. The Forests, whose area on April 1, 1907, was 147,948, 685 acres, are of vital importance for their timber and grass and for the conservation of stream flow. They are so managed as to develop their permanent value as a resource by use.

Aside from the care and perpetuation of the National Forests, the Forest Service has to do with the practical uses of forests and forest trees in the United States, especially with the commercial management of forest tracts, wood lots, and forest plantations. It undertakes such forest studies as lie beyond the power or the means of individuals to carry on unaided. It stands ready to co-operate, to the limit of its resources, with all who seek assistance in the solution of practical forest problems, particularly where such co-operation will result in setting up object lessons to serve as encouraging examples for the general benefit.

Co-operative State studies are carried on with States which request the advice of the Service. Examples of this work are the studies of forest conditions in New Hampshire, which appropriated $7,000 toward the total cost, and California, which appropriated $25,000. Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Delaware, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, and Mississippi have also called upon the Service for expert assistance.

The fruits of its more important studies are published and distributed without charge upon request, or sold at a low price by the Superintendent of Documents.

The work of the Forest Service is organized under four branches and fourteen offices. The office of the Forester stands at the head, and the branches, which are grazing, operation, sylviculture, and products, report to the Forester.

The following is the organization of the Forest Service:

Forester-Gifford Pinchot; Associate Forester -Overton W. Price; Law Officer-P. P. Wells; Editor -Herbert A. Smith; Dendrologist-George B. Sudworth.

Grazing-Assistant Forester in Charge-Albert F. Potter.

Operation-Assistant Forester in Charge-James B. Adams; Chief Maintenance-Hermon C. Metcalf; Chief Accounts-George E. King; Chief Organization--C. S. Chapman; Assistant Chief-Clyde Leavitt; Chief Engineering-W. E. Heering; Chic of Lands-George F. Pollock.

Sylviculture-Assistant Forester, in Charge-William T. Cox; Chief Extension-Samuel N. Spring; Chief Sylvics-Raphael Zon; Chief Management-F. E. Carter; Assistant Chief-W. G. Weigle. Products-Assistant Forester in Charge-William L. Hall; Chief Wood Utilization-R. S. Kellogg; Chief Wood Preservation-Carl G. Crawford; Chief Publication-Findley Burns.

The work of the dendrologist includes dendrological studies proper, direction of the Services, forest photograph collection, and charge of the forest exhibits prepared by the Service. A leading branch of the dendrological studies is the making of an accurate forest map of the dis tribution of tree species in the United States, to show the extent, composition, and economic possi


bilities of our forest resources. Others of these studies concern the cedar forests of Texas, and important but little known trees indigenous to the United States, the growth of which may profitably extend to new localities for economic purposes. Prominent among the latter are the desert pines of California. An investigation is being made of the present and probable future supply of western tan bark oak, as well as of other trees the barks of which are used to adulterate tan bark, and the tannin contents of the barks are being determined by the Bureau of Chemistry. Included also is a study of basket willows. Experimental holts are established on the Arlington Experimental Farm, near Washington, D. C. Attention is given especially to the conditions under which high-grade basket rods may be produced. Approved basket willow cuttings are distributed free each Spring to applicants interested in willow culture,

A series of important publications in course of preparation will describe and illustrate the tree species of the different regions of the United States. The first of these bulletins embraces the trees of the Pacific Coast, and the second those of the Rocky Mountain States. One special use of these tree books will be the aid which they will give forest officers on National Forests in identifying species and in acquainting themselves with their habits, growth, distribution, and other important facts.

The dendrologist also gives technical information about trees, in response to inquiries, including the identification of the wood, seeds, foliage, etc., of native and exotic trees. A large and growing correspondence evidences the public demand for such information.

The Government forest exhibits prepared for State, National, and international expositions explain what foresty is and show its application to the problems with which the Service is dealing. Through these displays much public interest is aroused and Information given concerning our forests, their economic importance, and right and wrong methods of using them."


The section of planting in the department of Sylviculture, deals with all phases of forest planting within the National Forests. In the past two important problems have received special attention: (1) The reforesting of denuded watersheds where planting is needed in order to control and regulate the flow of streams directly supplying cities and towns; (2) planting within the treeless National Forests in the Middle West to provide for timber in the future and to serve as an object lesson to the people.

The trees used in planting are grown at eight Government nurseries in the following National Forests: San Gabriel, Santa Barbara, Gila, Dismal River, Pikes Peak, Salt Lake, Pecos, and Lincoln, The combined area of seed beds at the eight stations is 11 acres. They now contain over 5,000,000 trees, from one to three years old. The seed sown in 1907 should produce not less than 4,000,000 trees, giving a total of over 9,000,000 in 1908.

The planting stations are so situated that in addition to providing plant material for local use they also serve as distributing points for other National Forests.

The preliminary stage of forest planting within the National Forests is now past, and several of the planting stations have this year produced trees of sufficient size to plant directly on the permanent site. About 700,000 trees were planted during the Winter and Spring of 1907, the greater part in the Dismal River, Niobrara, North Platte, San Gabriel, Santa Barbara, and Pikes Peak National Forests. At the nursery in the Dismal River National Forest more stock has reached an age suitable for planting than at the other stations. This nursery contains approximately 2,500,000 trees. In the Spring of 1908 there will be about 1,000,000 trees ready for planting in the sandhills. The species largely in use up to this time in planting within this Forest are western yellow pine and jack pine. Other species, chiefly Scotch pine, Norway pine, and Douglas fir, are being tested in the nursery and in experimental plantations.

The Pasadena and San Marcos stations are being used as distributing points for some of the Southern California National Forests. These two stations have a combined capacity of about 6,000,000 trees annually.

Private owners of timberlands, large or small, may secure the aid of the Forest Service in the care of their lands under a plan of co-operation fully outlined in circular No. 21. Any owner who wishes to learn whether forestry might be profitable to him may apply to the Forest Service for a working plan. An agent of the Service is then sent to examine the forest. If the piece of woodland is small, as in farm wood lots, and management is practicable, a plan is outlined on the spot and carefully explained to the owner. In the case of large tracts the preparation of a working plan requires a more prolonged study on the ground. The agent sent to examine the tract therefore first finds out whether a sufficiently good opening for paying management exists to justify the outlay. His report is submitted to the owner, with an estimate of the cost of preparing the plan if a plan is found desirable. If the owner desires the working plan, a force of men is sent to collect the necessary data. A thorough examination of the tract is made both from the Forester's and from the lumberman's points of view. The merchantable and immature trees upon sample strips are counted and their diameter measured, and from these data the stand on the whole tract is calculated. Volume and rate of growth are ascertained for the important species through tree analyses that is, through measurements of felled trees and counts of their annual rings. Studies are made of reproduction, of the danger from fire. grazing, and insect attack, and of the best means of preventing such injuries, Market and transportation facilities are carefully investigated, and the yield of timber and the character and distribution of the forest are mapped.

When these facts have been collected they are worked up into the plan, which takes into account the special needs or purpose of the owner, as, for instance, to secure permanent supplies of mining timber, to maintain a game preserve, or to protect a watershed. The recommendations in the plan enable the owner to derive from the forest the fullest and most permanent revenue which is consistent with his special requirements,


New York has purchased and set aside 1,500.000 acres for a forest reserve. These lands are mainly in the Adirondacks, but partly in the Catskills. Patrol, to guard against theft of timber and especially against fire, is maintained under the Superintendent of Forests, who is the executive officer of the forest, fish and game commission. The planting of young trees on open places is now going forward at the rate of 500,000 seedlings annually.

Pennsylvania has recently been most active in taking measures for the preservation of its forests. In 1897, this State, to conserve the water supply, provided for the purchase of three forest reserves,



of not less than 40,000 acres each, at the heads of the three principal river systems of the State. accordance with this and other acts, land has been rapidly acquired, until, at the present time, the holdings of Pennsylvania amount to more than 700,000 acres. In 1901 Pennsylvania made its Bureau of Foresty a separate department. A school for forest wardens has been established at Mont Alto, and in connection with the protection and improvement of the forest reserves, the State is engaged in removing the mature timber.

Minnesota long took the lead in the excellence of a forest fire law, it being the first State to appoint a fire warden charged with responsibility for suppressing fires. New York, in 1900, also made provision for a chief fire warden. Maine and New Hampshire are other States possessing excellent fire laws. In 1899 Michigan appointed a commission to study the forest question, and to select land for a State forest reserve.

Under the supervision of a trained Forester, Wisconsin is selling mature timber from its forest reserve of 264,697 acres, which has been surveyed, mapped and placed under management. In co-operation with the office of Indian Affairs and the Forest Service the State Forester supervises the sale and cutting of timber on the Indian reservations in Wisconsin. On June 26, 1906, Congress passed a bill granting to Wisconsin, 20,000 acres of vacant Government lands.

Indiana took an important step forward when the State held forth encouragement to private owners to plant trees. Since 1904, Massachusetts has had a technically trained State Forester, who besides furnishing advice to landowners for the management of forest lands, delivers a course of lectures at the State agricultural college. In 1905, Maryland passed a law providing for a State Forester ander much the same conditions.

California has manifested great interest in forest preservation, Under an appropriation of the Legislature of that State a study of its forest resources has been undertaken, and is now in progress in co-operation with the Forest Service. A State Forester has recently been appointed.

The States now having officers charged with the care of forest interests are: California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana. Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

The Biltmore Forest School, at Biltmore, North Carolina, was established in 1898. Its directoris Dr. C. A. Schenck, forester to the Biltmore estate. The Yale Forest School, established in 1900, is a post-graduate school, whose head is Prof. Henry S. Graves. Harvard has had a forest school since 1903. The University of Michigan has a four-year undergraduate course in forestry. The lecturer is Prof. Filibert Roth.


The American Forestry Association whose headquarters are at 1311 G Street, N. W.. Washington, D. C. was organized in 1882, and incorporated in January, 1897, with the following objects: 1. The promotion of a businesslike and conservative use and treatment of the forest resources of this country.

2. The advancement of legislation tending to this end both by the States and the Congress of the United States, the inauguration of forest administration by the Federal Government and by the States, and the extension of sound forestry by all proper methods.

3. The diffusion of knowledge regarding the conservation, management, and renewal of forests, the proper utilization of their products, methods of reforestation of waste lands, and the planting of trees.

The Association desires and needs as members all who are interested in promoting the objects for which it is organized-all who'realize the importance of using the natural resources of the country in such a manner as not to exhaust them, or to work ruin to other interests. In particular it appeals to owners of woodlands, to lumbermen and Foresters, as well as to engineers, professional and business men who have to do with wood and its manifold uses, and to persons concerned in the conservation of water supplies for irrigation and other purposes.

The Association has over 5,000 members at the present time, residents of every State in the Union, Canada and foreign countries. The annual dues are two dollars; a magazine is published. The officers of the Association are:

President-Secretary of Agriculture, James Wilson; Vice-Presidents-at-Large-Dr. Edward Everett Hale, F. E. Weyerhaeuser, James W. Pinchot, Dr. B. E. Fernow; John L. Kaul; SecretaryThomas E. Will, Washington, D. C.; Treasurer-Otto Luebkert, Washington, D. C.

Local or State Forestry Associations have been formed in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Utah, Washington and Wyoming.


Individual States and Territories have striven to encourage the preservation of trees by setting aside a certain day each year for the purpose of tree planting. Every State and Territory, with the exception of Delaware and the Indian Territory, have set apart such an Arbor Day. [See Legal Holidays."]


The national parks were created during the period from 1872 to 1904. They have a total area of about 3,654,196 acres. The more important are the Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming and Montana; Sequoia National Park. General Grant National Park, and Yosemite National Park in California; Mt. Rainier National Park in Washington, and Crater Lake National Park in Oregon.

The reservation known as the Yellowstone National Park, set apart for public uses by an act of Congress passed in 1872, covers a tract of about sixty-five miles in length, from north to south, and about fifty-five miles in width, from east to west, lying chiefly in Northwestern Wyoming, and overlapping, to a small extent, the boundaries of Montana, on the north, and Idaho, on the west. This gives an area of 3,312 square miles, a tract that is nearly the area of the States of Rhode Island and Delaware combined, and nearly half as large as the State of Massachusetts. The Rocky Mountain chain crosses the southwestern portion in an irregular line, leaving by far the greater expanse on the eastern side. The least elevation of any of the narrow valleys is 6,000 feet, and some of them are from 1,000 to 2,000 feet higher. The mountain ranges which hem in these valleys are from 10.000 to upward of 11,000 feet in height, Electric Peak (in the northwest corner of the park, not far back of Mammoth Hot Springs) having an elevation of 11.155 feet, and Mount Langford and Turret Mountain (both in the Yellowstone Range) reaching the height of 11,155 and 11, 142 feet respectively,

Lumber and Timber Products of the United States.

(From Census Bulletin No. 77.)

Lumber and timber products, as defined by the Bureau of the Census, are manufactured in three classes of establishments-logging or timber camps, sawmills, and planing mills. The raw material of the logging industry is standing timber, and its leading product is saw logs. Among the other principal products are shingle, stave, and heading bolts, cooperage and excelsior stock, fence posts, hop and hoop poles, handle stock, tan bark, piles, paving stock, railway ties, rived or split shingles, masts and spars, ship knees, telegraph and telephone poles, wheel stock and charcoal. Logs and bolts, products of the logging camps, constitute the raw materials of the sawmills, and rough lumber is their leading product. The term "rough lumber" comprises all sawed products reported in thousand feet, board measure, such as planks, boards, scantlings, furniture stock, carriage and wagon stock, agricultural implement stock, bobbin and spool stock, and dimension stock. Among the other principal products of the industry are shingles, cooperage materials, veneers, cut, sawed and sliced, and laths. In the planing mill industry rough lumber forms the principal material, with hardware, glass, glue, etc., as other materials; while chief among its products are finished lumber, such as ceiling, flooring, etc., and sash, doors, blinds, and interior finish.

These three industries are so closely connected that often a single establishment includes a logging camp, a sawmill, and a planing mill. The Bureau of the Census recognizes this close connection, and, although it treats each branch as a separate industry, it gives the figures for the lumber and timber industry as a whole. Since, however, some of the products of the lumber camp are the raw materials of the sawmill, and some of the products of the sawmill the raw materials for the planing mill, a correct total for the lumber and timber industry can not be obtained by adding the figures for the three branches. Special figures are therefore given for Iumber and timber products. In determining these figures, moreover, planing mills not connected with sawmills have been omitted, because the products of such mills are not, accurately speaking, lumber and timber. Planing mills connected with sawmills would also have been omitted had it been possible to distribute accurately the costs of operation between the products of the saw and the products of the planer.


The figures given for the lumber and timber industry as a whole show that 19.127 establishments, with a combined capital of $517.224,128, were manufacturing lumber and timber products at the census of 1905. These establishments employed on the average 404,626 wage-earners, and they paid $183,021,519 in wages, consumed materials costing $183,786,210, and manufactured products valued at $580,022,690,

These establishments were widely distributed, for in 1905 lumber and timber products were manufactured on a commercial scale in every State and Territory except North Dakota. In nine States the production of lumber was the principal industry and in twelve it was second in importance. The six leading States in the industry, with the value of products manufactured in each, were, in 1905: Washington, $49,572,512; Wisconsin. $44,395,766; Michigan, $40,569,335; Louisiana, $35,192,374; Minnesota, $33,183,309, and Pennsylvania, $31,642,390.


In 1905 returns were received from 12,494 logging camps with a combined capital of $90,454,494. These camps employed on the average 146,596 wage-earners, paid $66,989,795 in wages, consumed materials costing $80,412,828, and manufactured products valued at $236,131.048.

Of the total number of logging camps, 11,644, or 93.2 per cent., were conducted by milling establishments, and 850, or 6.8 per cent.. were operated independently. The dependent logging camps reported 78 per cent. of the capital, 80 per cent. of the wageearners, 78 per cent. of the wages, 90 per cent. of the cost of materials, and 86 per cent. of the value of the products. While it is thus apparent that the bulk of the logging industry is carried on in conjunction with sawmills, the independent camps on an average are much larger. These independent camps follow closely the centres of heaviest lumber production.

In the amount of production, which can most accurately be measured by the number of thousand feet of saw logs produced, Washington ranked first, Louisiana second, Wisconsin third, Pennsylvania fourth, and Arkansas fifth. In the value of products, however, the five leading States were Wisconsin, Washington, Michigan, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania.

A comparison of the figures for 1905 with those for 1900 shows that growth in the industry since 1900 has been most rapid in the Southwestern States and in certain of the Pacific Coast States, while a substantial and, with respect to most of the items, uniform decline characterizes the Lake States as a group. That logging is relatively declining in the Central States is also clearly indicated, and this is due, of course, to the practical exhaustion in those States of merchantable timber in continuous bodies.


Throughout the country the value of log stumpage is increasing. The average value per thousand feet, board measure, for the United States increased from $2.18 in 1900 to $2.59 in 1905, a rise of 41 cents, or 18.8 per cent. This advance in the cost of stumpage added $11.472.115 to the total cost of sawmill material and increased the value of lumber proportionately. The increase is due not so much to a present shortage in the supply of lumber material in the country as a whole as to the fact that the available supply of log stumpage is rapidly being bought up and withdrawn from the market.

The conditions in certain of the States are noteworthy. In Maine, New Hampshire, and New York the great demand for spruce to be used as a raw material in the wood pulp industry has caused an increase in stumpage values far above the average increase


reported for the country as a whole. In Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, where little merchantable timber remains, the rise in stumpage values is due directly to the growing scarcity of sawmill material for immediate use. In Kentucky and Tennessee, where the supply is still relatively large, the sharp advances are due in large part to extensive buying for future use. On the Pacific slope is still to be found the cheapest high-grade stumpage in the country, though the values in this region show substantial increases over 1900.

Practically all species of merchantable timber have increased in stumpage value. Yellow pine, which was the species most used at both censuses, increased in value per thousand board feet from $1.12 to $1.68. White pine increased from $3.66 to $4.62; Douglas fir, the chief species converted into lumber in the States of Washington and Oregon, from 77 cents to $1.05; hemlock, from $2.56 to $3.51; oak, from $3.18 to $3.83; spruce, from $2.26 to $3.70, and cypress, from $1.58 to $3.42. Redwood, found only in California, advanced in value from $1.06 to $1.55, or 46.2 per cent.


The increased value of log stumpage is reflected in the increased value of the products of the lumber camps. Saw logs, the principal product of the industry, increased in quantity from 25,279,702 thousand feet in 1900 to 27,980,768 in 1905, a gain of 10.7 per cent.; but they increased in value from $158,880,352 to $210,074,486, a gain of 32.2 per cent. The number of railway ties reported increased from 22,524,640 to 36.445,308, or 61.8 per cent; while their value increased from $6,277,439 to $12,413,793, or 97.8 per cent. The average value of a tie rose from 28 cents in 1900 to 34 cents in 1905. In this connection it should be noted that the census figures do not include ties cut by farmers during the Winter months and sold directly to the railroads. It should also be noted that the figures are for hewn ties. Sawed ties are forming an increasing percentage of the total production of railway ties in the country, and they are reported by the mills in thousand feet under the heading of rough lumber. The other products of the lumber camp generally show an increase both in quantity and value. Hemlock bark, however, decreased in quantity from 471,802 cords to 391,691 cords, but it increased in value from $1,940,057 to $2,347,463. Charcoal decreased both in quantity and value.


At the census of 1905 the number of sawmills reported was 18,277, and their combined capital was $381.621,184. They furnished employment on the average to 223,674 warearners, paid $100,310,891 in wages, consumed materials costing $263,865,101, and many. factured products to the value of $491,524,662.

In this industry Wisconsin ranked first according to the value of products, wate ington second, Michigan third, Louisiana fourth, and Pennsylvania fifth. Li Wisconsin was second, Washington sixth, Michigan first, Louisiana eleventh Pennsylvania third.

A classification of the mills according to the quantity of lumber cut indicates that between 1900 and 1905 the capacity of the average mill materially increased. MI cutting 1,000,000 feet or more annually formed 33.3 per cent. of the total number i 19. as contrasted with 30.6 per cent. in 1900.

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The principal products of the sawmills, with their values, were as follow: lumber. $135.708.084; shingles, $24,009,610; hoops, $3,159,973; staves, $19,082,641, headings," $7,436,259, and laths, $5,435,968.


The increase in the average value of all lumber was from $11.14 per thousand feet in 1900 to $12.76 at the census of 1905, or 14.5 per cent. The advance extended to all species of both conifers and hard woods, and in the case of several of them was large. Among the conifers, yellow pine advanced from $8.59 per thousand feet to $10.10; white pine, from $12.72 to $14.92; hemlock, from $9.97 to $11.91; Douglas fir, from $8.67 to $9.51; spruce, from $11.29 to $14.03, and cypress, from $13.34 to $17.50. Oak increased from $14.02 per thousand feet to $17.51; poplar, from $14.22 to $18.90; maple, from $11.83 to $14.94; cottonwood, from $10.35 to $14.92; elm, from $11.57 to $14.45, and gum, from $9.75 to $10.87.


The number of planing mills reported in 1905 was 9,486, and their combined capital was $222.294.184. They employed 132,030 wage-earners, paid $66,434,440 in wages, consumed materials costing $273,276,381, and manufactured products valued at $404,650,282. In the value of products of this industry New York ranked first, Wisconsin second, Pennsylvania third, Minnesota fourth, and Illinois fifth. The high rank of New York in the planing mill industry is due almost entirely to the magnitude of the operations of its independent planing mills. Illinois is also important because of its large number of independent mills, as are also Ohio and Massachusetts.


Practically all the rough lumber imported into the United States comes from Canada, that country contributing 98.2 per cent. of the total in 1905. The following is a statement of the boards, planks, deals, etc., imported from Canada in the three years ending 1905: 1903. Quantity, 718,909,000 feet; value, $10,565.629. 1904. Quantity, 585,194,000 feet; value, $8,729,185. 1905. Quantity, 704,956,000 feet; value, $10,714,417,

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