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METRIC SYSTEM-Continued.

WEIGHT (AVOIRDUPOIS).

1.0.1543 1235, 274 1. 2. 20462 120.9842 2_0.3086 2.70.648 2 4. 40924 2.1.9684 30. 46303_105,822 3. 6.613863_2.9526 4.0, 6173 4.141. 0964c 8.818194_3,9368 5_0.7716 5-176.370 5 11.02311' 54.9210 60.9259 6-211, 644 6-3, 22773 65.9052 721.0803 7-246.918 7-15.43235 7-6.8894 8.1. 2346 8-282. 192 8_17, 63697 8_7.8736 9 1.3889 9-317.466 9.-19.84159 928.8578

1. 6.4799 1. 28. 3495 10.45859 1.1.0161 2. 12.9598 2 56.6991 2_0.90719 22.0321 3.19.4397 385.0486 3.1.36078 3.3.0482 4-25.9196 4.113.3981 4.1.81437 4.4.0642 5_32.3995 5.141, 7476 5_2.26796 5.5. 0803 6-38.87936_170, 0972 622.721566_6.0963 7-45.35927-198. 4467 7.3.176157_7.1124 8_51.83918_226.7962 8.3.62874' 88.1284 9_58.31909-255. 1457 9-4. 08233 9.9.1445

THE METRIC SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED. The following tables of the metric system of weights and measures have been simplified as much as possible for THE WORLD ALMANAC by omitting such denominations as are not in practical, everyday use in the countries where the system is used exclusively.

TABLES OF THE SYSTEM. Leagth.-The denominations in practical use are millimetres (mm.), centimetres (cm.), metres (m.), and kilometres (km.).

10 mm. _1 cm. 100 cm. 1m.: 1.000 m. - 1 km. Note. -A decimetre Is 10 cm. Weight.

The denominations in use are grams (5.), kilos* (kg.), and tons (metric tons). 1.000 g. 1 kg. ; 1.000 kg._1 metric ton. Capacity. The denominations in use are cubic centimetres (C. c.) and litres (1.). 1,000 C.C. 11. NOTE -A hectolitre is 100 1. (seldom used).

Relation of capacity and weight to length: A cubic decimetre is a litre, and a litre of water weighs a kilo.

APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS. A metre is about a yard; a kilo is about 2 pounds; a litre is about a quart; a centimetre is about Xinch; a metric ton is about same as a ton; a kilometre is about % inile; a cubic centimetre is about a thimbleful; a nickel weighs about 5 grams,

PRECISE EQUIVALENTS. 1 acre......... .40 hectar.. 40471 mile.

1.6 kllometres........ 1.609 1 bushel........... 35 litres ...........35.24 1 millimetre.

.039 inch....

0394 1 centimetre.

.39 inch......
3937 1 ounce (av'd)... 28

grams....

.28, 35 1 cubic centimetre .061 cubic inch... 0610 1 ounce (Troy)... 31

grams... ..31. 10 1 cubic foot......... ,028 cubic metre. 0283 1 reck

8.8
litres..

8. 809 1 cubic inch..... 16 cubic cent. t 16.39 1 pint...

. 17 litre.

4732 1 cubic metre...... 35 cubic feet....35.31 1 pound.

.15 kilo..

4536 1 cubic metre. cubic yards... 1. 308 1 quart (dry); 1.1

Jitres.........

1. 101 1 cubic yard.... .76 cubic metre... 7645 1 quart (liquid).. .95 litre.

9464 1 foot....... centimetres 30.48 1 sq. centimetre. .15 sq. inch.

. 1550 1 gallon.........

3.8 litres............ 3.785 1 sq. foot........... .093 sq. metre.. .0929 1 grain................. .065 gram.... 0648 1 sq. inch...

6.5 sq. c'timetr's. 6.452 1 gram..... 15 grains ...15, 43 1 sq. metre..

1.2

sq. yards. 1.196 1 hectar......

2.5 acres...... 2. 471 1 sg. metre.......... 11 sq. leet..... .10.76 1 inch............. millimetres, 25, 40 1 sg. yard.

.84 sq. metre. 1 kilo..........

2.2 pounds 2, 205 1 ton (2,000 lbs, .91 metric ton... 9072 1 kilometre...

.62 mile....

.6214 1 ton (2,240 lbs.) 1 metric ton... 1.017 1 litre.............. *****

.91 quart (dry)... 9081 1 ton (metric).... 1.1 ton (2,000 lbs.) 1.102 ilitre

1.1
quarts (lig'd) 1. 057 iton metric)....

.98

ton (2, 240 lbs. . 9842 1 metre....... 3.3 feet 3.281 li yard.

.91 metre.........

.9144 *Contraction for kilogram, t Centimetres,

1.3

30

25

.8361

.57

Minimum Teights of Produce. The following are minimum weights of certain articles of produce according to the laws of the United States : Per Bushel. Per Bushel.

Per Bushel. Wheat..

.60 lbs, White Potatoes.... ...60 lbs. Hungarian Grass Seed......50 lbs. Corn, in the ear..

.70
Sweet Potatoes.
..55 Timothy Seed.....

45 Corn, shelled. .56 Onions..

Blue Grass Seed.

44 Rye.... 56 Turnips..

Hemp Seed

44 Backwheal.........

48
Dried Peaches..

33

Salt (see note below).
Barley

48
Dried Apples.

26
Corn Meal......

48 Oats.... .32 Clover Seed. 60 Ground Peas

24 Pens. .60 Flax Seed.

56
Malt.....

84 White Beans...

.60
Millet Seed.........

.50

Bran............................... 20 Castor Beans....

46 SALT.-Weight per bushel as adopted by different states ranges from 50 to 80 pounds Conrse salt in Pennsylvania is reckoned at 80 pounds, and in Illinois at 50 pounds per bushel. Fine salt in PennAylvania is reckoned at 62 pounds,

in Kentucky and Illinois at 55 pounds per bushel

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Measures and TUeights of Great Britain.

THE measures of length and the weights are nearly, practically, the same as those in use in the United States. The English ton is 2, 240 lbs, avoirdupois, the same as the long ton, or shipping ton of the United States. The Euglish hundred weight is 112 lbs, avoirdupois, the same as the long hundred weight of the United States. The metre has been legalized at 39.37079 inches, but the length of 39.370432 inches, as adopted by France, Germany, Belgium, and Russia, is frequently used.

The Imperial gallon, the basis of the system of capacity, involves an error of about 1 part in 1,836: 10 lbs. of water 277. 123 cubic inches. The English statute mile is 1,760 yards or 5,280 feet.

MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
NAMES,
Pounds of

United States
Water.
Cubic Inches. Litres.

Equivalents.
4 gills
1 piut
1. 25

34.00

0.56793 1.20032 liquid pints. 2 pints 1 quart

2.5

69,32

1. 13586 1.20032 quart& 2 quarts 1 pottle

5
138.64

2.27173 2. 40064 2 pottles -l gallon

10.

277.27

4.54346 1. 20032 gallons 2 gallons - 1 peck....

20

554.55

9. 08692 1.03152 dry pecks. 4 pecks - 1 bushel

SO

2218, 19 36,34766 1.03152 ** bushels. 4 bushels -l coomb.

1320

8572.77 145.3%862 4. 12606 2 coombs - 1 quarter..... 1640

17745.54 200, 7813 18. 2521 A cubic foot of pure gold weighs 1,210 pounds, pure silver, 655 pounds, cast iron, 450 pounds, copper, 550 pounds ; lead. 110 pounds; pure platinum, 1,220 pounds; tin, 456 pounds i aluminuin, 163 pounds.

Dry m'sure

Domestic weights and Measures. Apothecarles' Weight: 20 grains - 1 scruple; 3 scruples - 1 dram; 8 drams=1 ounce: 12 ounces - 1 pound.

Avoirdupois Weight (short ton): 27 11-32 grains- 1 dram; 16 drams-1 ounce: 16 ounces - 1 pound; 25 pounds - 1 quarter; 4 quarters - I cwt. ; 20 cwt. - 1 101.

Avoirdupois Weight (long ton): 2711-32 grains - 1 dramı; 16 drams - 1 ounce; 16 ounces ! pound; 112 pounds lcwt. ; 20 cwt. -1 ton.

Troy Weight : 24 grains - I pennyweight: 20 pennyweights - 1 ounce: 12 ounces - 1 pound.

Circular Messure: 60 secondse 1 minute; 60 minutes - Idegree; 30 degrees - 1 sigo; 12 signs -l circle or circumference

Cubic Measure: 1.728 cubic inches -- 1 cubic foot; 27 cubic feet-1 cubic yard.
Dry Measure : 2 pints=1 quart; 8 quarts 1 peck; 4 pecks - 1 busbel.

Liquid Measuro: 4 gills - 1 pint; 2 pints - 1 quart; 4 quarts = 1 gallon; 31% gallons - 1 barrel: 2 barrels 1 hogshead,

Long Measure: 12 incher 1 font; 3 feet-1 yard: 546 yards - I rod or pole; 40 rods - 1 fur. long; 8 furlongs = 1 statute inile (1,760 yards or 5.280 feet); 3 miles-l league.

Mariner's Measure: 6 feet = 1 fathom; 120 fathoms- 1 cable length; 776 cable lengths - 1 mile; 5,280 feet-1 statute mile; 6,085 feet- i nautical mile.

Paper Mensure: 24 sheets - 1 quire; 20 quires - 1 ream (480 sheets); 2 reams - 1 bundle; 5 bundles - 1 bale.

Square Measure: 144 square inches - 1 square foot: 9 square feet-1 square yard: 304 square yards 1 square rod or perch; 40 square rods -l rood; 4 roods -l acre: 640 acres -1 square mile; 36 square miles (6 nailes square)-1 township.

Time Measure: 60 seconds al minute: 60 minutes - 1 hour; 24 hours-1 day: 7 days -1 week; 365 days - 1 year; 366 days - 1 leap year.

MEDICAL SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS, B(Lat. Recipe), take: åå, of each; td. pound; }, omuce: 3. drachm; . scruple; m, minim, or drop; O oro, pint;ij, fluid ounce; 13, Quid drachm; as, } ss, half an onnce: 31, one ounce: siss, one ounce and a hair; sij, two ounces; gr., grain; Q. S., as much as sutlicient; Ft. Mist., let a mix. ture be made; Ft. Haust, let a draught be made, Ad., add to, Ad lib. , at pleasure; Aq, water; M., mix: Mac., macerate; Pulv.. powder; Pil., pill; Solv , dissolve; st., let it stand; Sum., to be taken; D., dose; Dil., dilute; Filt., filter: Lot., a wash; Garg.. a gargle; Hor. Decub., at bed time; Inject , injection: Gti., drops; ss, one-half: Ess., essence.

TEXAS LAND MEASURE.

(Also used in Mexico. New Mexico, Arizona, and Callfornia ) 26,000,000

square varas (square of 5.099 varas) - I league and I labor 4,606.6 acres 1.000.000 square varus (square of 1.000 varas) - l labor

177.186 acres 25.000,000 square varas (square of 5,00) varas) -l league

4,428,4 acres, 12,500,000 square varas (square of 3,535 5 varas) - league

2,214,2 acros. 8,333,333 square varas (square of 2.886.7 varas) - league

1.476.13 acres 6,250,000) square varas (square of 2,500 Varas) sa league

1, 107.1 acres. 7, 225,600 square varas (square of 2.688 Varas)

1,280 acres. 3,612,800 square varas (Square of 1.900.8 varis) 1 section

640

acres. 1,800, 400 square varas (Square of 1,344 vars) = y section

320 acres, $3,200 square varas (square of 050.44 varas) 14 section

180 acres, 451.600 square varas (square of 672 varas) - 4 section

80 acres. 225.800 square varas (square of 475 varas) - 1 16 section

40

acres. 5, 645.376 senare varas (square of 75. 137 varas) en 4,840 square yards

1 acre. To And the number of acres in any number of square varas, multiply the latter by 177 (or to be more exact, by 17746), and cut off six decimals. 1 vara - 3349 iuches

1.900.8 varas -l mile. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE PHILIPPINES, 1 pulgada (12 llnea)

927 inch,
1 libra (16 onzo)

1.0144 lb. av. 1 pie 11.125 inches 1 arroba

25. 360 lb. av. 1 vara 83.375 inches 1 catty (16 tael)

1.394 Ib. av. 1 gantah .8796 gallon. 1 pecul (100 caity)

139.482 lb. Av. I caban

21.991 gallons

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Knots and miles.
THE Statute Mile is 5, 280 feet.
The British Admiralty Knot or Nautical mile is 6,080 feet.

The statute Knot is 6,082. 66 feet, and is generally considered the standard. The number of feet in a statute knot is arrived at thus: The circumference of the earth is divided into 360 degrees, each degree containing 60 knoty or (360x60), 21,600 kuots to the circumference. 21,600 divided into 131,385,456--the uumber of feet in the earth's circumference-gives 6,082.66 feet-the length of a standard mile. I knot -1.151 miles 4 knots - 4.606 miles | 20 knots — 23. 030 miles | 600 feet

1 cable 2 knots 2. 303 miles

- 1 5 kuots = 5.757 miles 25 knots -28.787 miles 10 cables 3 knots 3.454 miles | 10 knots -11.515 miles 6 feet

1 fathom

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Ancient Greek and Roman Heights and Measures,

WITH AMERICAN EQUIVALENTS.

WEIGHTS.
The Roman libra or pound - 10 oz. 18 pwt. 13 5-7 gr., Troy.
The Attica mína or pound - 11 oz. 7 pwt. 16 2-7 gr., Troy.
The Attica talent (60 minæ) - 56 lbs. 11 oz. Opwt. 171-7 gr., Troy.
DRY MEASURE,

The Grecian furlong = 504 ft. 41-5 lnches.
The Roman modus – 1 pk. 2-9 pint.

The Grecian mile - 4030 ft. The Attic chenix -- nearly 1% pints.

MONEY.
The Attic medinimus - 4 pk. 61-10 pints.

The quadrans-11-10 mills.
LIQUID MEASURE.

The as - 13-10 mills.
The cotyle - a little over 12 pint.

The sestertius - 3.58 + cents. The cyathus - a little over 1% pints.

Thesestertium (1.000 sestertii) - $35.806.
The chuse a little over 6% pinis.

The denarius - 14.35 + cents.
LONG MEASURE.

The Attic obolus - 2 39 + cents
The Roman foot - 11 3-5 inches.

The drachma - 14.35 + cents. The Roman cubit - 1 ft. 594 inches.

The mina (100 drachmæ) - $14.854 The Roman pace - 4 st. 10 inches.

The talent (60 minä). $861.00+. The Roman furlong - 604 ft. 10 inches.

The Greek stater mm aureus (same as the Romant) The Roman mile - 4,835 feet.

** $3.58,79. The Grecian cubit - 1 ft. 649 inches.

The stater -daricus - $7.16,66. *The modern drachma equals 19.3 cents. † Did not remain, at all periods, at this value, but this is the value indicated by Tacitus. BIBLICAL WEIGHTS REDUCED TO TROY WEIGHT.

Lbs.

Oz. Pwt. Gr. The Gerul, one-twentieth of a Shekel

0

0 12 The Bekah, half a Shekel...

6 The Shekel...

0 10 The Maneh, 60 Shekels..

2
6

0 The Talent, 50 manehs, or 3000 Shekels.

125 0

0 Electrical Units.

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Obm
R Resistance The electrical resistance of a col- 109 1 true ohm - 1.0112 Brit-

umn of mercury 106 centimetres ish Association ohms.
long, and of 1 square millimetre

section. Ampère 0 Current Is that current of electricity that 101 Deposits 1.118 milligrams

decomposes .01009324 gramme of of silver per second.

water per second. Volt

E Electromo- One ampère of current passing 108 .926 of a standard Daniel tive force through a substance baving 1 ohm Cell.

of resistance -l volt. Coulomb Q Quantity A current of 1 ampère during 1 101 Deposits 1.118 milligrams second of time.

or silver. Farad

K
Capacity The capacity that a current of 1 109 2,5 knots of D. U. S. cable.

ampère for 1 second (-1 coulomb)

charges it to potential of l volt. Microfarad 1-millionth of farad.

1015

1 Watt Pw. Power Power of 1 ampère current pass- 107 0013406 ing through resistance of 1 ohm.

horse power, Jou W.J. Work Is the work done by 1 watt ol 107 .238 unit of heat (Therm).

electrical power in 1 second. *C G. S. - Electro-magnetic units. Consult technical works in electricity.

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Foreign Moneys.
English Money: 4 farthings ** 1 penny (d); 12 pence- 1 shilling (8); 20 shillings- 1 pound (£).

21 shillings use one guinea; 5 shillings na one crown.
French Money: 10 centimes 1 decime; 10 decimes 1 franc
German Money: 100 pfenug --1 mark.
Russian Money: 100 copecks -1 ruble.
Austro-Hungarian Money : 100 kreutzer-1 florin.
For United States equivalents, see table of "Value of Foreign Coins in U. S. Money"

Table of Geometrical Progression. (WHEREBY any questions of Geometrical Progression and of Double Ratio may be solved by Inspec

tion, the Number of Terms not exceeding 56.) 1

1
15
16384 29
268435456 43

4398046511104
16
32768 30
636870913

8796093022108 3

17
60536 31
1073741824 45

17542186041416
18
131072 32
2147483648 46

8518-4372088832 16 19 262144 33 4294967296 47

70368744177664 32 20 521388 34 8589934592 48

140737488355328 64 21 1048576 35 17179869184 49

981474976710056 129 22 2097152 38 31359738368 50

562949953421312 256 23 4194304 37 68719476736 51

1125899906842624 lo 512 24 8388608 38 137438953472 52

9251799813685248 11 1024 25 16777216 39 274977906944 53

4503599627370496 12 2048 26 3:3554432 40 5-1975581.388

9007199254740992 13 4096 97

67108864
41
1099511647776 56

18014398509481984 14 8192 28 134217728 42 219902:255653 56

36008797018963968 ILLUSTRATIONS-The 13th power of 2-8192, and the the 8th root of 250-2.

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Standard Newspaper Measure. THE Standard Newspaper Measure, as recognized and now in general use is 13 ems pica. The standard of measurement of all sizes of type is the "em quad,'' not the letter "m."

The basis of measurements adopted by the International Typographical Union is the lower-case alphabet, from "a" to "z" inclusive, and the ems used are the same body as the type measured.

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Simple Enterest Table. (Showing at Different Rates the Interest on $1 from 1 Month to 1 Year, and on $100 from 1 Day to ! Year)

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YEARS IN WHICH A GIVEN AMOUNT WILL DOUBLE AT SEVERAL RATES OF INTEREST.

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1..

38 42 46 .50 .511 58 62 65 69 73 77 2...

.77 .85 92 100 1.08 1. 15 1. 23 1.31 1.38 1. 46 1.54 .. 1.16 1.27 1.38 1.90 1. 02 1. 73 1.85

1. 96
2. 08
2. 19

2,31 1.54 1.69 1.85 2.00

2. 15 2.31 2. 46 2. 62 2 77 2.92 3 08 5.

1 92 2. 12 2.31 2.50 2. 69 2.88 3.08 3. 27 3.46 3. 65 3.8.) 6.

2.31 2. 54 2. 77 3. 00 3.23 3.46 3. 691 3. 92 4. 15 4 38 4.62 7. 2 69 2 96 3. 23 8.50 3.77 4.04 4.31 4.58

4 85 5.12

5.38 8.

8. 08 3. 38 3.69 4.00 4.31 4. 62 4.92 5. 23 5.54 5.85 6.15 9. 3.46 3 81 4. 15 4.50 4.85

5.19 5.34 5.88

6. 23 6.58 6.92 10 3.85 4.23 4,62 5.00

5. 38
5. 77
6.15 6.54 6.92 7.31

7.69 11. 4.23 4.65 5.08 5.50 5.82 6.35

6.77 7.19

7.62
8.04

8. 46 12 4. 62 5. 08 5. 44 6. 001 6. 16 6.92 7.38

7.8.) 8.31 8.77

9. 23 13. 6.00 5.50 6.00 6.50

7.00 7.50

8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 14.

5.38 5.02 6.46 7.00 7.5+ 8. 08 8.62 9.15 9.69 10.23 10.77 15.

6.77
6.3) 6.92

7.50 8. 08 8 65 0.23 9.81 10. 38 10 96 11. 54 20.

7.69 8.16 9. 23 10.00 10.77 11.54 12 311 13.03 13.85 14. 62 15,38 1 month.

10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14 00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 2

20.00 22.00 24 00 26 00 28.00 30.00 32.00 34.00 36.00 38.00 40.00 3

30 00 33.00 36.00 39 00 42.00 45.00 48.00 51.00 51.00 57.00 60.00 4.

40.00 44,00 48 00 52.00 56.00 60.00 64.00 68.00 72.00 76.00 80.00 6

50.00 55.00 60 00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 6. 7.

70.00 77.00 84.00 9100 98.00 105.00 112.00 119.00 126.00 133. 00 140.00 8.

80.00 88.00 96.00 104.00 112.00 120.00 128.00 136.00 144.00 152.00 160.00 9

90.00 99.00 108.00 117.00 126.00 1:35, 00 144.00 153.00 162,00 171.00 180.00 10.

100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 140.00 150.00 160.00 170.00 180.00 190.00 200.00 11

10.00 121.00 132.00 143.00 151.00 165.00 176.00 187.00 198.00 209.00 220.00 ) year ......

120.00 132. 00 144.00 156.00 168.00 180.00 192.00 204.00 216.00.228.00 240.00 *Six working days in the week.

Roman and Arabic Numerals.

1 XI
11 XXX

30 CCCC....
2 XIL
12 XL

40 D.
3 XIII
13 L.

5) DC.
4 XIV
14 LX

60 DCC
5 XV
15 LXX

70 DCCC
6 XVI,

16 LXXX or XXC. 80 CM
7 XVII
17 XC

90 M
8 XVIII
18 C

100 MM.
9 X
19 CC

200 MCMVIII.
10.XX ................... 20 CCC...................300)

400 500) 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 1908

VI
VII
VII
IX

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