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Thermometers. Rules for foretelling the Tuleather. COMPARATIVE SCALES.

ADAPTED FOR USE WIT ANEROID BAROMETERS.

A KISING BAROMETER, Rent- Centl Fahr.

A RAPID rise indicates unsettled weather.
mir,
grade, Jenheit,

A gradual rise indicates settled weather.
100.
... WATER BOILS

A rise with dry air and cold increasing in Summer indicates
AT SEA-

wind from the northward; and if raiu has fallen, better weather 76 05 203 LEVEL.

may be expected. 90 191

A rise with moist air and a low temperature indicates wind and 68 85 18)

rain froin the northward. 78.91 17

A rise with southerly winds indicates fine weather. 60 75 167 Alcohol Boils.

A STEADY BAROMETER, 56 70 158 52 65

With dry air and seasonable temperature indicates a continuance 149

of very fine weather. 48 60 140 131

A FALLING BAROMETER. 42. 2 52.8 127 Tallow Melts.

A rapid fall indicates stormy weather. 40 122

A rapid fall with westerly wind indicates stormy weather from 36 45 113

the northward. 33 8 42.2 108

A fall with a northerly wind indicates storm, with rain and hall 32 40 104

in Summer, and snow in Winter, 29.3 36.7 98 Blood Heat.

A fall with increased moisture in the air, and heat increasing, 28 35 95

indicates wind and rain from the southward. 25.8 32.2 90

A fall with dry air and cold increasing in Winterindicatessnow. 24 30 86

A fall after very calm and warm weather indicates rain with 21.3 26.7 80

squally weather, 20 25 77

The barometer rises for northerly winds, including from north16 20

west by north to the eastward for dry, or less wet weather, for less 15.3 60 Temperate.

wind, or for more than one of these changes, except on a few 10. 2 55

occasions, when rain, hail, or suow comes from the northward with 8 10 50

strong wind. 5.8 7.2 45

The barometer falls for southerly wind, including from south6 41

east by south to the westward, for wet weather, for stronger wind 1.3 1.7 35

or for more than one of these changes, except on a few occasions, 0 O 32 WATER

when moderate wind, with rain or snow, comes from the north0.9 - 1.1 30 FREEZES.

ward. 5 23

The above printed rules are in use by the Seawanhaka-Corin5.3 6.71 20

thian Yacht Club of New York. -8 - 10 14 - 9.8 -12.2 10

DURATION OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF WEATHER IN THE SEVERAL -12 -15 5

STORMS-VICINITY OF NEW YORK. -14.2 -17.8 O ZERO Fanr. -16 20 4

Clear Cloudy Ruin Clearing -20 -25

CRITICAL WINDS. 13

Hours. Hours. llours. Hones, -24 30 22 South to Southwest..

9 8 8.3 14 -28 31 South to Southeast.

14 13.4 15.6 15.4 -32 40 40 East to Northeast....

20

17.6 31 20.6

68

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or moon.

WEATHER WISDOM. SUNSET COLORS.--A gray, lowering sunset, or one where the sky is green or yellowishgreen, indicates rain. A red sunrise, with clouds lowering later in the morning, also indicates rain. HALO (SUN DOGS).-By halo we mean the large circles, or parts of circles, about the sun

A halo occurring after fine weather indicates a storm. CORONA.-By this term we mean the small colored circles frequently seen around the sun or moon. A corona growing smaller indicates rain; growing larger, fair weather.

RAINBOWS.-A morning rainbow is regarded as a sign of rain; an evening rainbow of fair weather.

SKY COLOR.-A deep-blue color of the sky, even when seen through clouds, indicates fair weather; a growing whiteness, an approaching storm.

FOGS.-Fogs indicate settled weather. A morning fog usually breaks away before noon,

VISIBILITY.-Unusual clearness of the atmosphere, unusual brightness or twinkling of the stars, indicate rain,

FROST.-The first frost and last frost are usually preceded by a temperature very much above the mean,

OBJECTS VISIBLE AT SEA-LEVEL IN CLEAR WEATHER.
The following table shows the distance at sea-level at which objects are visible at certain elevations:
ELEVATION-FEET.

Miles.
ELEVATION FEET.

Miles.
ELEVATION--FEET.

Miles.

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Ligh-Tide Tables.

FOR GOVERNOR'S ISLAND (NEW YORK HARBOR). (Specially prepared from the Tide Tables of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey for

THE WORLD ALMANAC.)
New York Mean Time. To express in Standard Time, subtract 4 minutes.

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HIGH-TIDE TABLES-Continued.

TIME OF HIGH WATER AT POINTS ON THE ATLANTIC COAST. The local time of high water at the following places may be found approximately for each day by adding to or subtractiug from the time of high water at Governor's Island, N. Y., the hours and minutes annexed.

M.

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H. Albany, N. Y.

H. M. ..add 9 31 New Haven, Ct....

.add 3 1 Annapolis, Ma..

..add 8 57 New London, Ct... Atlantic City, N. J...

.add 1 22 ...Sub.

20 Newport, R.I. Baltimore, Md.......

...sub.

22 ..add 10 52 Bar Harbor, Me.............

Norfolk, Va.........

..add

58 ..add 2 46 Norwich, Ct.......

.add 2 Beaufort, S. C..

.sub.
8 Old Point Comfort, Va..

.add

39 Block Island, R. I...

.sub.

34 Boston, Mass...

Philadelphia, Pa......

.add

6 41 ..add 3 22 Plymouth, Mass.

..add

3 12 Bridgeport, Ct.. and 3 2 Point Lookout, Md.

.add

4 49 Bristol, R.I.

..sub.
14 Portlaud, Me...

.add 3 10 Cape May, N, J....

ada

10 Portsmouth, N. II. Charleston, S. (...

...add

3 16 .sub,

42 Eastport, Me..

Poughkeepsie, N. Y

add 3 51 .add 3 0 Providence, R. İ..

adid

7 Fernandina, Fla...

..sub.

18 Richmond, Va.... Gloucester, Mass..

add

8 48 add 2 55 Rockaway Inlet, N. Y

..sub.

25 Hell Gate Ferry, East River, N. Y..add 1 53 Isles of Shoals, N. H.

Rockland, Me...

add add 3 11 Rockport, Mass..

add Jacksonville, Fla...

.add
37 Salem, Mass...

.add
Key West, Fla...
.....add 1 24 Sandy Hook, N. J.

sub, League Island, Pa.

..add

5 23 Savannah, Ga... Marblehead, Mass..

add ..add

Southport (Smithville), N. C... ..... sub. 43 Nahant, Mass...

..add
Vineyard Haven, Mass.....

...add 3 36 Nantucket, Mass...

.add
4 21 Washington. D. C.

.add 12 Newark, N. J....

...add

54 New Bedford, Mass.....

Watch Hill, R. I.

add
.sub.
10 West Point, N. Y

.ada 2 Newburyport, Mass... ...add 3 16 Wilmington, N. C......

.add

0 EXAMPLE. - To find the approximate time of high tide at Atlantic City, N. J., on any day, find first the time of high water at New York under the desired date, and then subtract 20 minutes, as in the above table; the result is the time of high water required.

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3
4
4

Baltimore, Md....

3 New London, Ci...

3 9 San Diego, Cal... Boston, Mass.

9

& New Orleans, La..... None None Sandy Hook,N, J.... Charleston, S.C. 5 1 Newport, R. I.

9 8 San Francisco, Cal.. Eastport, Me..

18 2 New York, N. Y.... 4 4 Savannah, Ga... Galveston, Tex.

1 1 Old Point Comi't, Va. 2 5 Seattle, Wash.. Key West, Fla.. 1 2 Philadelphia, Pa...

O Tampa, Fla.. Mobile, Ala.. 1 2 | Portland, Me.....

i Washington, D.C..... Highest tide at Eastport, Me., 218 inches. Lowest tide at Galveston, Tex., 13 inches.

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Earthquake Areas of the Earth. MAJOR DE MONTESSUS DE BALORE, after years of labor, has drawn up a catalogue of 130,000 shocks, of which trustworthy details have been procured, and this indicates with some scientific accuracy how the symptoms of seismic activity are manifested over the earth's surface.

The period of observation iucludes generally the last fifty years; but there is no reason to suppose that a longer time would materially affect the proportionate numbers. The appended figures, drawn from M. de Montessus'sstatistics, will give an idea of the general result:

AREA.
Earth-
Earth-

Farth-
AREA.

ARRA.
quakes.
quakes.

quanes. Scandinavia...... 646 Greece.... 10,306 Atlantic Coast....

937 British Isles. 1,139 Russia......

258 Mexico,

• 5,586 France.. 2,793 Asia Minor. 4,451 Central America.

2,739 Spain and Portugal. 2,656 India...

813West Indies..

2,561 Biritzerland.. 3,595 Japan............ 27,562 South America.

8,051 Italy 27,672 Africa....

179 Java....

2,155 Holland and North Ger

Atlantic Islands.

1,704 Australia and Tasmania. 83 many....... 2,326 United States, Pacific

New Zealand....... 1,925 Sicily.... 4,331 Coast......

4,467 The most shaken countries of the world are Italy, Japan, Greece, South America (the Pacific Coast), Java, Sicily, and Asia Minor. The lands most free from these convulsious are Africa, Australia, Russia, Siberia, Scandinavia, and Canada. As a rule, where earthquakes are most frequent they are most severe. But to this general statement there are exceptions-Indian shocks, though less numerous, being often very disastrous. Loss of life in many cases depends, however, on density of population rather than on the intensity of the earth movement. Numerically, also, France has registered more seismic tremors than Spain and Portugal, but France in historictimes has experienced no earthquake disaster approaching the havoc wrought by the one calamity at Lisbon,

Table of Magnetic Declinations,

OR VARIATION OF COMPASS FOR JANUARY, 1908. - WITH THE ANNUAL CHANGE IN 1906 FOR THE

PRINCIPAL PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES. A plus (+) sign to the annual change denotes that the declination is increasing, and a minus (-) sign the reverse. (Specially prepared for THE WORLD ALMANAC in the Ofice of the United States Coast and

Geodetic Survey.)

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Ala.......

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1 Montgomery .... 32 22 86 18 2 50 E Mobile.....

30 42 88 34 32 E Huntsville, 34 14 86 35 3 58 E 1 Alaska... Sitka.

67 3 135 20 30 8E+ Kodiak.

57 48 152 34 24 10 E St. Michael.. 63 29 162 1 21 30 E Dutch Harbor.. 53 53 166 32 17 45 E

Kiska....... 61 69 152 28 8 OE Ariz...... Prescott...... 34 34 112 30 14 10 + 3 Yuma

32 44 114 37 14 15 E + 3 Nogales.

31 20 110 56 13 0E + 3 Ark....... Little Rock... 34 44 92 16 6 50 E + 2 Dal........ Sacramento.. 39 34 121 30 16 55 E + 4

San Francisco. . 37 48 122 25 17 50 E+ 4
Los Angeles...... 34 4 118 15 15 20 E + 4

San Diego. 32 43 117 1c 14 l0 E + 3
Col
Denver....

89 45 105 0 14 20 E + 2 Conn Hartford..... 41 46 72 40 10 50W + 3

New Haven. 41 18 72 58 10 15W + 3 Del. Dover..

39 975 31 6 52 W + 3 Dist. of Col..

Washington. 38 53 77 0 5 10W + 3 Florida... Tallahassee 30 26 84 17 2 15 E

Jacksonville 30 2081 39 1 10 E

Key West... 24 33 81 48 2 27 E Georgia. Atlanta. 33 44 84 21 37 E

Savannah. 82 6 81 5 0 35 E Idaho...... Boisé

43 87 116 12 19 16 E + 3 Illinois... Springfield. 39 50 89 39 4 15 E Chicago.

41 54 87 37 3 50 E Indiana.. Indianapolis.. 39 47 86 8 1 18 E Fort Wayne..

41 385 3 0 5 E Ind. Ter.. Atoka.

34 24 96 9 8 30 E + 2 Iowa. Des Moines. 41 36 93 36 8 0E+1 Keokuk.

40 23 91 23 6 0E+ Kansas... Topeka... 392 95 43 9 17 + 2

Ness City.. 38 28 99 51 11 22 E + 2 Ky.... Lexington...

38 4 84 30 0 29 E Paducah.. 37 5 88 37 4 20 E

Louisville... 38 15 85 46 1 15 E La

Baton Rouge.... 30 27 91 11 6 0 E + 2 New Orleans. 30 0 90 5 5 35 E+ Shreveport..

32 30 93 45 7 5 E+ Maine.... Bangor

44 48 68 48 17 33 W + Portland,

43 39 70 17 15 0W Eastport.

44 51 66 59 19 22W+ Md... Annapolis. 38 59 76 29 6 OW

Baltimore 39 16 76 35 60W Mass....... Boston..... 42 23 71 413 5W + 3

Pittsfield. 13 27 78 17 11 25 W Mich.... Lansing,

42 44 84 321 0 2011 Detroit..

42 21 83 3 1 30 W Marquette.. 46 83 87 22 2 5 E Minn.... St. Paul...

44 58 93 5 8 45 E + Duluth.

46 46 92 412 35 E+ Miss.......... Jackson......... 32 191 90 12 6 5 E' +1

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1 Miss. Oxford...

34 22 89 33 5 40 E 1 Mo. Jetferson City... 38 35 92 9 7 40 E +3

St. Louis. 38 33 90 16 5 15 E +9

Kansas City 39 794 38 9 10 E + 2 Mon.... Helena...

46 37 112 219 55 E +3 Neb.. Lincoln........ 40 49 96 42 10 19 E + 2

Omaha..... 41 16 95 58 9 46 L + 2 Nevada...Carson City 39 10 119 46 17 10 E + 3 Eureka.

39 31 115 58 16 57 E + 3 N. H. Concord.

43 12 71 29 12 45W + 3 N. J Trenton.

40 13 74 44 8 15W + 3 N. Mex... Santa Fé

35 41 105 57 12 55 E + 9 N. Y Albany..

42 40 73 45 11 15W + 3 New York.. 40 43 74 0915\V + 3 Ithaca.........

42 27 76 29 7 3411 + 3 Butlalo.......... 42 55 78 54 6 22 W + 2 N. C......... Raleigh,

35 4778 38 2 40113 Wilmington .. 34 13 77 56 2 20 W + 3 N. Dak... Bismarck. 46 48 100 47 15 20 E + 2

Pembina.... 43 58 97 14 11 30 E + Ohio.... Columbus 40 083 010W + 2

Cleveland 41 30 81 43 3 34 W

Cincinnati.. 39 8 84 25 0 59W + 2 Okla... Guthrie

35 63 97 25 9 40 E ** Oregon... Portland.... 45 31 132 41 22 53 E4 Pa.

Harrisburg 40 16 76 53 6 43W8
Philadelphia 39 58 75 10 7 52W

Allegheny 40 29 80 1 4 10W + R. I Providence. 41 50 71 34 12 15 W +3 $. c. Columbia. 34 0 81 2 0 9W +1

Charleston, 3:2 47 79 56 0 44W + 8. Dak... Pierre..... 44 22 100 22 13 5 E3

Yankton.......... 42 63 97 25 11 22 E + Tenn....... Nashville. 36 986 48 3 47 E

Kuoxville... 35 58 83 55 0 14W+1

Memphis. 35 8 90 3 5 25 E 0 Tex. Austin

30 17 97 44 8 24 E + 3 San Antonio..... 29 27 98 28 9 3 E 42 Houston.. 29 47 95 20 8 OE + 2 Galveston 29 18 94 47 7 82 E + 2

El Paso..... 31 46 106 29 12 11 E + 3 Utah. Salt Lake. 40 46 111 64 16 50 E+ Ogden.

41 13 112 017 47 E' + 3 Vt... Montpelier 44 15 72 32 14 20W + 3

Burlington, 44 28 78 12 12 65W + 3 Va.

Richmond... 37 32 77 26 4 5W + 3
Norfolk

36 52 76 17) 4 45W Lynchburg. 37 25 79 92 45 W 3 Wash. ... Olympia 47 2 122 64 23 26 E + 3

Walla Walla.. 46 4118 21 21 45 E W.Va..... Charleston 38 21 81 38 2 29 W

Wheeling. 403 80 44 1 38W+ Wis....... Madison. 43 4 89 25 4 65 E

Milwaukee. 43 4 87 53 3 30 E 0

La Crosse.... 43 60' 91 14 5 30 E 0 Wyo...... . Cheyenne 41 8104 49 15 3 Et!

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Per Sq.

Facts About the Earth. ACCORDING to Clark, the equatorial semi-diameter is 20,926, 202 feet-3963.296 miles, and the polar semi-diameter is 20,85 1,895 feet- 3950. 738 miles. One degree of latitude at the pole-69.407 miles. One degree of latitude at the equator=-68. 704 miles.

POPULATION OF THE EARTH BY CONTINENTS.
(From Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society.)
INHABITANTS,

INHABITANTS,
CONTI-
A ren in

CONTI

Area in
NENTAL

Per sq.
Number.

NENTAL
Square Miles.
DIVISIONS.

Number.
Mile. DIVISIONS.
Square Miles.

Mile. Africa

11.514,000 127,000,000 11. Australasia 3,288.000 4.730.000 1. 40 America, N.. 6,146,000 89,250,000 13. SO Europe..

3,555,000 380, 200,000 106.90 America, S.. 6,837.000 36, 420,000 5.30 Polar Reg... 4,888.800 300,000 0.07 Asia 14,710,000 850,000,000 57.70||

Total....... 51,238,800 1,487,900,000 29, 00 The above estimate was made by Ernest George Ravenstein, F.R.G.S., the geographer and statistician, and is for 1890. The population of North America, 1900, had increased to over 100,000,000.

An estimate of population of the earth, made by Drs. Wagner and Supan, editors of " Bevölkerung der Erde (Perthes, Gotha, 1891), is as follows: Europe, 357, 379,000; Asia, 825,954,000; Africa, 163, 953, 000: America, 121, 713, 000; Australia, 3, 230,000; Oceanic Islands, 7, 420,000); polar regions, 80, 400. Total, 1,479,729,400. The estimate of area of the continents and islands by the same authorities is 52,821,684.

Ravenstein's estimate of the earth's fertile region, in square miles, is 28, 269, 200; steppe, 13,901,000; desert, 4, 180,000; polar regions, 4,888.800.

The population of the earth at the death of Emperor Augustus, estimated by Bodio, was 54,000,000. The population of Europe hardly exceeded 50,000, 000 before the fifteenth century. - Mulhall.

The area and cubic contents of the earth, according to the data of Clark, given above, are: Surface, 196, 971,984 square miles: cubic contents, 259, 944,035,515 cubic miles.

Murray (Challenger expedition) states the greatest depth of the Atlantic Ocean at 27,366 feet; Pacific Ocean, 30,000 feet; Indian Ocean, 18,582 feet; Southern Ocean, 25, 200 feet; Arctic Ocean, 9,000 feet. The Atlantic Ocean has an area, in square miles, of 24,536,000; Pacific Ocean, 50, 309,000; Indian Ocean, 17,084,000; Arctic Ocean, 4,781,009; Southern Ocean, 30, 592,000. The highest mountain is believed to be Deodhunga or Everest, one of the Himalayas, 29, 002 feet. For population of the earth according to creed, see RELIGIOUS Statistics.

POPULATION OF THE EARTH ACCORDING TO RACE.

(Estimated by John Bartholomew, F.R.G.S., Edinburgh.)
RACE
Location. Number.

RACE

Location. Number. Indo - Germanic or Europe, Persia,

Hottentot and BushAryan (white).

etc.........

545,500,000 man 'black).. South Africa 150,000 Mongolian or Turain

Malay and Polynes- Australasia ian (yellow and Greater part of

ian (brown).

& Polynesia 35,000,000 brown).

Asia...... 630,000,000 American Indian North & So. Semitic or Hamitic North Africa,

(red)......

America...... 15,000,000 (white).

Arabia

65,000,000 Negro and Bantu

Total......

1,440,650,000 (black)..

Central Africa... 150,000,000 The human family is subject to forty-nine principal governments. As to their form they may be classified as follows: Absolute monarchies, Abyssinia, Afghanistan, China, Korea, Morocco, Siam, Turkey; Limiled monarchies Austria-Hungary, Belgium, British Empire, Denmark, Ger. many, Greece, Italy, Japan, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Persia, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Servia, Sweden, Spain ; Republics, Argentine Republic, Boliviu, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Hayti, Honduras, Liberia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador, Switzerland, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela. Besides these are the undefined despotisms of Central Africa, and a few insignificant independent States.

The average duration of human life is about 33 years. One-quarter of the people on the earth die before age 6, one-half before age 16, and only about 1 person of each 100 born lives to age 65.

EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN:
PROPOR

PROPOR-
NUMBER OF PERSONS TION OF

NUMBER OF PERSONS TION OF
LAN-
SPOKEN BY.

LAN
SPOKEN BY.

THE
GUAGES
WHOLE, GUAGES.

WHOLE. 1801, 1901. 1801, 1901.

1801.

1901, 1801. 1901 English 20,520,000 130,300,000 12.7 29.2 Portuguese 7,480,000 15,000,000 French 31,450.000 52,100,000 19.4 11.7 Russian ...... 30,770,000, 85,000,000 19,0 19,0 German...... 30,320.000 81,200,000 18.7 18.8 Italian 15.070,000 34,000,000 9.3

7.6

Total 161,800,000 447,100,000 100.0 100.0 Spanish 26, 190,000 46,500,000 16.2 10.4

These estimates (that for 1801 being by Muhall) exhibit the superior growth of the English language in the laut century.

TIE

4.7

3.3

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