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1 Tu 2 W 3 Th 4'Fr 6 Sa 6S 7 M 8 Tu 9W 10 Th 11 Fr 12 Sa 13 S 14 M 15 Tu 16 IV 17 Th 18 Fr 19 Sa 20 S 21 M 22 Tu 23 W 24 Th 25 Fr 26 Sa 27 S 28 M 29 Tu 30 W 31 Th

7 10 4 28 A.M. 7 5 4 31 A.M. no 0 4 39 d.M.

6 45 4 54 A, M. 7 11 4 28 12 53 76 4 34 12 54! 7 1 4 39 12 55 6 46 4 54 12 59 7 13 4 28 2 5 7 4 34 2 5 7 2 4 39 2 5 6 46 4 54 2 4

13 4 28 3 16 7 8 4 31 3 15 7 34 30 3 14 6 47 4 54 8 10 7 14 4 28 4 27 9 4 33 4 25! 7 4 4 38 4 236 48 4 54 4 15 7 15 4 28 5 39 7 10 4 33 5 351 7 5 4 38 5 31 6,49 4 64 5 20 n 16 4 28 rises, 7 11 4 33 rises. 7 6 4 38 rises, 8 50 4 54 rises, 7 17 4 28 6 14 7 12 4 33 5 20 7 7 4 38 5 26 6 50 4 54 6 43 7 18 4 28 6 5 7 13 4 33 6 111 m 9 4 38 6 17 6 51 4 64 6 35 7 19 4 28 7 1 7 14 4 33 7 7 7 10 4 38 7 12 6 52 4 54 7 30 7 20 4 28 8 0 15 4 33 871 7 11 4 38 8 11 6 53 4 55 8 27 7 21 4 28 9 2 7 16 4 33 9 6 7 11 4 38 9 10 6 54 4 55 9 23 7 22 4 28 10 27 17 4 33 10 5 7 12 4 38 10 9 6 54 4 55 10 19 7 23 4 28 11 2 7 18 4 33 11 51 7 13 4 38 11 7 6 55 4 55'11 14 7 24 4 28' A. M. 7 18 4 34 A. M. ñ 13 4 39 A, M. 6 56 4 56' A.M. 7 24 4 28 12 2 7 19 4 34 12 4 7 11 4 39 12 56 57 4 56 12 8 7 25 4 29 1 27 19 4 34 1 2 7 14 4 39 1 3 6 57 4 57 1 8 7 25 4 29 2 4 7 20 4 34 2 3 7 15 4 40 2 2 6 58 4 57 1 59 7 26 4 29 3 7 7 20 4 34 3 6 7 15 4 40 3 21 6 58 4 58 2 56 7 26 4 29 4 13 g 20 4 31 4 10 7 15 4 40 4 7 6 59 4 58 3 56 7 27 4 29 5 22 7 21 4 34 5 171 7 16 4 40 5 13 7 0 4 58 4 59 7 27 4 30 6 31 7 21 4 35 6 261 7 16 4 41 6 20 7 0 4 59 6 4 7 27 4 30 sets, 7 22 4 35 sets. 7 171 4 42 sets, 7 0 5 0 sets. 7 28 4 31 5 471 7 22 4 36 5 53' 7 17 4 43 5 59 7 0 5 1 6 17 7 28 4 31 6 567 22 4 36 21 7 17 4 44 77 1 5 2 7 21 7 28 4 32 8 11 7 23 4 37 8 18 7 18 4 45 8 22 7 11 5 2 8 35 7 29 4 32 9 29 7 23 4 38 9 32 7 18 4 45 9 35 7 1 5 3 9 41 7 29 4 33 10 44 7 23 4 39 10 45 7 18 4 40 10 47| 7 2 5 3 10 52 7 29 4 34 11 56 7 23 4 40 11 561 7 18 4 46 11 577 2 5 411 58 7 30 4 35 A.M.7 24 4 41 A. M. 7 19 4 47 A. M. 7 2 5 4 A, M. 7 31 4 36 1 7' 7 24 4 421 1 6 7 19 4 48 1 5 7.3 5 5 1 2

SUN ON MERIDIAN.

DAY ON
MONTIL

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DAY OY
MONTH.

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1.700

Principal Elements of the Solar System.

Mean
Distance sidereal

Orbit
Mean

Gravity NAXE from Sun, Period,

Velocity,

Mass,
Diameter,

Volume, Density, at Sur-
Millions of

Miles per
Days,

Earth -1. Earth -1. Earth 21.
Miles.

face,
Second,
Miles,

Earth -1 Bun

866, 400 331100 1310000 0.26 27,65 Mercury 36.0 87.969 23 to 35 3,030 0.125 0.056

2. 23 0.85 Veous 67.2 224. 701 21.9

0.78 0.92

0.86 0.83 Earth 92.8 365, 266 18.6

7,918
1.00 1.00

1.00 1.00 Mars... 141.5 6

15,0

4,230 0. 107 0.162 0.72 0.38 Jupiter 483.3| 4332.68 8.1 86,500 316.0 1309

0.24

2. 65 Saturn 886.0 10759. 22 6.0 71,000 94.9

721

0.13) 1.18 Uranus 1781.9 30686.82 4.2 31.900 14.7

65

0.22 0.91 Neprone... 2791.6) 60181.11 3.4 34,800 17.1 86

0. 201 0.88 The number of asteroids discovered up to present date is about 465. A number of these small planets have not been observed since their discovery, and are practically lost. Consequently it is now sometimes a matter of doubt, until

the elements have been computed, whether the supposed new planet is really new, or only an old one rediscovered.

Our moon. Or all the secondary planets the earth's satellite is by far the most interesting and important, The moon completes her circuit around the earth in a period whose mean or average length is 27 days 7 hours 43.2 minutes; but in consequence of her motion in common with the earth around the sun, the mean duration of the lunar month, that is, the time from new moon to new moon, Is 29 days 12 hours 44.05 minutes, which is called the moon's synodical period. If the earth were motionless in space the moon's orbit would be nearly an ellipse, having the earth in one of the soci; hence her distance from the earth varies during the course of a lunar month. Her menni distance from the earth is 238,850 mlles. Her maximum distance, however, may reach 252.830 mlles, and the least distance to which she can approach the earth is 221.520 miles. Her dlanieter is 2.162 mlles, and if we deduct from her distance from the earth the sum of the two radil of the earth and moon, viz., 3,062 and 1,081 miles respectively, we shall have for the nearest approach of the surfaces of the two bodies 216,477 miles. Her orbit is a very intricate one, because the earth in moving around the sun carries the moon along with it, hence the latter is sometimes within and sometimes without the earth's orbit. Its form is that of a serpentine curve, always concave toward the sun, and inclined to the plane of the earth's orbit at an angle of 50 91, in consequence of which our satel. lite appears sometimes above and sometimes below the plane of the earth's orbit, through which she passes twice in a revolution. These points or positions are called nodes, and no two consecutive nodes occupy positious diametrically opposite on the lunar orbit. The nodes have a retrograde motion, which causes them to make an entire revolution in 18 years 218 days 21 hours 22 minules And 46 seconds. This motion was well known to the ancients, who called it the Saros, and was made use of by them in roughly predicting eclipses.

The moon always presents the same face to us, as is evident from the permanency of the various markings on its surface. This circumstance proves that with respect to the earth she revolves on an axis, and tbe time of rotation is exactly equal to the time of revolution around the earth, viz., 27.32166 days. The moon's axis is not perpendicular to the plane of her orbit, but deviates therefrom by an angle of about 60 41'. In consequence of this fact, and of the inclination of the lunar orbit to that of the ecliptic, the poles of the moon lean alternately

to and from the earth. When the north pole leans toward the earth we see somewhat more of the region surrounding it, and somewhat less when it leans the contrary way. This displacement is known by the name of llbatlon in latitude.

The moon's motion on her axis Is uniform, bat her angular relocity in her orbit is subject to slight varlations hy reason of the form of her orbit; hence it happens that we sometimes see a little more of the eastern or western edge at one time than at another. This phenomenon

is known as libration in longitude.

The moon's surface contains about 14,685,000 square miles, or nearly four times the area of Europe. Her volume is 1-49 and her mass 1-81 that of the earth, and hence her density is about 3-5 that of the earth, or about 3 2-5 that of water. At the lunar surface gravity is only 3-20 of what it is at the earth, and therefore a body which weighs 20 pounds here would weigh only 3 pounds there, The centre of gravity of the earth and moon, or the point about which they both actually

revolve in their course around the sun, les toithin the earth; it is 1,063 miles below the surface.

The attractive force of the moon acting on the water of our oceans is mainly instrumental in raising them into protuberances or tides in such a manner as to give the total mass a spheroldal figure whose principal axis would continually coincide with the line joining the centres of the earth and inoon, but in consequence of the resistance which this movement of the water encounters from continents and Islands, as well as from the liquid molecules themselves, the tidal wave can never arrive at any place until about one hour after the moon has crossed the meridian of the place.

The moon has no atmosphere and no water. The suddenness with which stars are occulted by the

moon is regarded as a conclusive proof that a lunar atmosphere does not exist, and the spectroscope furnishes negative evidence of ihe same character,

In remote ages the lunar surface was the theatre of violent volcanic action, being elevated into cones and ridges exceeding 20,000 feet high, and at other places rent into furrows or depressions of corresponding depth. The lunar volcanoes are now extinct. A profound silence relgns over the desolate and rugged surface. It is a dead world, utterly

unfit to support animal or vegetable life.

THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE The earth's sensible atmosphere is generally supposed to extend some forty mlles in height, probe ably farther, but becoming at only a few miles from the surface of too great & tenuity to support ille, The condition and motions of this aerial ocean play a most important part in the determination of climate,

modifying, by absorbing, the otherwise intense heat of the sun, and, when laden with clouds, hindering the earth from radiating its acquired heat into space. - Whitaker.

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Dec'ber. (November October. Septemb'r August.

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Full Moon.
Last Quarter.
New Moon.
First Quarter,

7
15
23
30

6 OP. M. 4 28 P.M. 7 5 A. M. 12 56 A.M.

4 18 P.M. 4 16 P. M. 6 53 AM 12 44 A, M.

4 36 P. M. 4 4 P. M. 6 11 AM 12 32 A, M.

4 25 P. M.

3 54 P.M. 3 53 P. M.

3 22 PM 6 30 A.M.

6 59 AM 12 21 A. M. 290 11 60 P.X.

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EXPLANATION. --The white spaces show the amount of moonlight each night. January 3. February 2, etc., the time of new moon, when there is no moonlight during the whole night: January 11, February 10, etc., the moon sets at or near midnight, when the former half of the night has moonlight; January 18, February 17, etc., the time of full nioon, when moonlight lasts the whole pight: January 26, February 25, etc., when the moon rises at or near midnight, and the latter half of the night has moonlighi.

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Astronomical Phenomena for the ¥ear 1908.

ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS AND SYMBOLS.
The Sun.
Mars.

Conjunction.
The Moon,
Jupiter.

Quadrature.
Mercury.
Saturn.

Opposition.
Venus.
Uranus.

Ascending Node.
The Earth.
Neptune.

Descending Node. Two heavenly bodies are in conjunction' (O) when they have the same Right Ascension, or are on the same meridian, i. e., when one is due north or south of the other; if the bodies are near each other as seen from the earth, they will rise and set at the same time; they are in 'opposition (8) when in opposite quarters of the heavens, or when one rises just as the other is setting. "Quadrature (O) is half way between conjunction and opposition. By "greatest elongation is meant the greatest apparent anguar distance from the sun; the planet is then generally most favorably situated for observation. Mercury can only be seen with the naked eye at this tine. When a planet is in its ascending () or “descending'' (U) node it is crossing the plane of the earth's orbit. The term “ Perihelion" means nearest, and Aphelion', farthest, from the sun. An “occultation" of a planet or star is an eclipse of it by some other body, usually the moon.

1.-ECLIPSES. In the year 1008 there will he three eclipses, all of the sun, and a lunar appulse.

1. A total eclipse of the sun January 3, visible as a partial one in certatu portions of the Sonthern States. The eclipse will not be visible north of a line drawn from a point near San Diego, Cal., to a point near Onawa City, Iowa, about sixty miles north of Omaha, Neb., thence by a curvedi line passing over or vear Burlington, Jowa; Springfield, 111 : Bloomington, Ind. ; Louisville, Ky. ; Athens, Tenn. Milledgeville, Ga., and Jacksonville, Fla. Along the former line the limbs of the sun and moon will be simply lo apparent contact, and along the latter the eclipse will begin at or very near sunset.

All places south of these lines will experience a small partial eclipse. The path of the total eclipse lies wholy in the Pacific Ocean. At Dallas, Tex. , the eclipse will begin at 4 hours 5.7 minutes P, M., and at New Orleans the eclipse will begin at 4 hours 30.2 minutes P. m., local mean time, the sun setting with the eclipse on it at both places.

2. An annulur eclipse of the sun June 28, vbible in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the northern portion of South America. The path of the annular eclipse passes over or very near Mexico City, Tampa, Fla., and the Bermuda islands; it then crosses the Ailantic Ocean and terminates in latitude 100 N. and longitude 108! W, in western Africa.

The duration of the entire eclipse is 6 hours 1.3 minutes, and of the annular eclipse 3 hours 60 minutes, during which latter period it traverses 1280 48'.8 of lorgitude.

The dates of beginning and eliding of the eclipse for important places in the United States are given in local mean time in the following table:

PLACKS.

Eelipse Begins.

Eclipse Ends.

Position Angle.

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D. H. M.

H. M. Boston.

June 28, 10 8.7 A.M. 1 14.5 P.M. 241.2 New York.

9 38.0 A. M.

12 50.1 P.M. 242.8 Washington.

9 27.4 A. M.
12 41.2 P. M.

243.8 Charleston.

859.9 A, M.

12 25.4 P. M. 250.8 Tampa.

8 38.7 A.M.

12 14.6 P. M. 256.9

Annulus begins 10 13 2 A. M. ends 10 14.4 A, M. Cincinnati,

June 28, 8 50.1 A.M. 11 52.3 A. M. 238,9 Shelbyville, Ind..

8 41.3 A. N. 11 43.3 A M. 237.6 Chicago.. .......

8 41.5 A. M. 11 29.7 A. M.

23 1.5 New Orleans..

8 3.0 A, M.

11 13.3 A. M. 247.8 Northfield, Minn.......

8 23.9 AM

10 52.8 A. M. 225.7 Dallas, Tex

7 37.4 A, M. 10 28.2 A. M 2:39.1 Denver.......

7 21.9 A M.

9 38.8 A, M. 224,2 Ogden

6 58.7 AM

8 56.0 A, M. 216,8 San Francisco.

6 12.7 A M.

7 35.5 A. M. 213.8 The position angle al beginning, given in the above table, is estimated from the north point of the sun'glimb toward the east.

3. A central eclipse of the sun December 23, invisible in North America. This eclipse will ha annular at the begioning and end, and total in the middle.

The path of the central pse crosses the southern part of South America, the South Atlantic, South Africa, and the southern portion of the Indian Oceau.

4. Alunar appulse December 7.

The nearest approa hof the moon to the earth's shadow will occur December 7, 4 hours 69 minutes P. M. New York mean time, and the computed least distance of the moon's limb from the shadow is only 121.

The moon in such cases is only immersed in the earth's penumbra.

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II.-PLANETARY CONFIGURATIONS, 1908.
( Washington Mean Time. )

D. H. M.
in perihelion. Jan. 14 6 A.M. Ó 8 superior.

19 9 48 A. M. 3.28. 21 8 10 331,
9 N. 45.

27 8 A.M. din 2 h N. 20 571.

29 4

P.M. 8 240
Feb. 3

1 19 A. M. Ở ®

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