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must consist, not in “piling up the sha. dowy Babels of metaphysics,” but in ascertaining the real history of human" thoughts as they arise, first simple, then with the various combinations into which they enter; and, lastly, in the enumeration of the ultimate laws which regulate all their changes ?" Happily the inductive philosophy has now been applied to the science of mind no less than to that of matter ; but we are yet in the infancy of discovery, having wasted thousands of years in the mere accumulation of unprofitable theory, by which we have not only been detained from the real study of man, but put in a worse position for the interesting task, by the mists and darkness which have been thrown over the all-absorbing field of inquiry.
But it would seem as if erring mortals must ever approach the region of actual discovery, by the bewildering path of theory; and
pass through the twilight and its shadows to arrive at the full and perfect light of day.” Experience is in all things the great teacher ; and in the study of mind it is pre-eminently so. Man can only become acquainted with his own mental economy, by patient and persevering reflection on the working of his own mind. The marked tendency of mind is, to spread itself over all the objects by which it is surrounded; and the strict office of the mental philosophy is to compel us to turn inward on ourselves, that we may observe with steadfast gaze all our mental operations as they may be detected in the grand laboratory of thought, feeling, and actual resolve.
We can hardly express the pleasure we feel in finding Mr. Douglas embarked as a writer on the philosophy of mind. Equipped, by vast resources, for any subject on which he might think fit to appeal to his countrymen, he is pre-eminently qualified to write with effect on all topics connected with the history of mental science. He has not by any means produced a large book ; but we greatly mistake if he has not placed his subject in a clearer light than it ever stood before. First, we have a brief, but vivid sketch of speculative opinions touching the human mind ; in which the results of all the ancient systems of mental philosophy are accurately given ; and in which a broad line of demarcation is drawn between the mere theories of a by-gone age, and the inductive process of modern times. Then we have his own views of the inductive process, and of the best methods of applying it in prosecuting the infant science of the human mind. But no notice we could give of this volume would do justice to it. It must be bought and read; and we can assure our readers, especially students, that it will abundantly repay both the expense and labour which this will involve.
We give the following extract, upon the origin of our knowledge, as a specimen of the author's vigorous and discriminating mode of writing.
"". The origin of our knowledge, like every other subject respecting the mind, has been a fruitful source of endless dis. putes. Notwithstanding the number of sects, the theorists of the mind may be classed under two great subdivisions, according as their theories were chiefly drawn from the opposite world of matter or spirit. The first considered our ideas to be only the slender images of things received into the mind through the inlet of the senses ; the other conceived that tbe soul of man possessed within itself, though folded up till fitting occasion should expand them, faint copies or reflections of those models which existed from eternity in the Divine mind, and corresponding to which, as their pattern, the external world was fashioned.
“ Amid all disputes, we have at least the consolation of knowing, that the truth must lie somewhere between the contend. ing parties, especially in a controversy about the mind, where both sets of disputants must have some knowledge, however imperfect, of the subject of controversy. Yet it is not by halving the difference that we arrive at the truth. The truth stands apart from both opinions, but, when known, explains and reconciles both.
1. Those who contended that the mind derives its ideas from the impressions ou the senses, are now generally, and justly, allowed to be so far right, that unless the mind were awakened from without, for any thing we know to the contrary, it must remain in a perpetual slumber. The mind, to act, must first be acted upon; it must be passive before it can be active ; it must receive impressions from without, before it can originate thoughts from within. It cannot will any one of its own operations without a previous knowledge of itself and its powers.
It cannot possess thoughts previous to thinking.
“On the other hand, they who confined knowledge to the senses were still more widely mistaken. The impressions on the bodily organs are only the occasions of thought. There is no resemblance between any possible movement of the nerves, or the changes in external nature, and the thoughts which these changes excite in the mind.
“ The most remarkable part of the mental process consists in the arbitrary interval which occurs between the act of perception and the subjects perceived. It is not the changes of the brain,-it is not the changes in the nerves, which the mind attends to, it overlooks what is passing in the body with which it is connected, and its attention
is immediately directed, by the arbitrary, ject of profound interest to the rising gene but wise disposal of Providence, not to the ration, and thus advancing their own per. proximate causes, but to the ultimate phe- sonal happiness and usefulness in a still Domena. When we look through a tele- more enlarged and effective measure for scope, and receive into the eye the light of promoting the common salvation. On that a distant star, we perceive not, we think all Christians were imbued with the same not, of the impression of light upon the re- spirit towards each other, and towards the tina, of the irritability of the nerves, or of common object of their Christian charity the impression made upon the brain ; but a world of idolaters. We have been so our attention is directed to another world much delighted with the sentiments exmoving along the immense though distant pressed by the writer in her Preface, that path, which the hand of the All-wise has we wish them to speak for themselves. traced.
“No attempt has been made by the "This, of itself, is a refutation of ma. slightest exaggeration to heighten the interterialism or atheism. The whole of the est of this narrative. It is hoped that its process is evidently not the result of blind adherence to facts will be a strong recommatter or resistless destiny; not even mendation in the eyes of youth, who, while what we would naturally expect from the they much prefer narrative to didactic writ. asual laws by which the Deity governs the ing, show, by the earnest and oft-repeated world. It is one of those apparent anoma- inquiry, “Is it true?” that they value les that mark more strongly the Divine truth above fiction. As the habit of read. contrivance, while they appear to depart ing fiction tends to blunt this salutary prefrom the ordinary course of His pro- dilection, would it not be better to encouceedings, and what may be called the rage the young to seek relaxation in manual miracles of nature, not like the miracles employments, and in active sports, rather of religion, rare and temporary, but ever than permit them to indulge in this species constant and recurring; and while they of reading? A fondness for reading canarrest the attention by their deviation not be desirable, if that fondness extends from the more common mode of proced- to works that not only indispose to useful ure, they show that they deviate only to studies, but may be the vehicles of much reach more fully and speedily the end pro- evil. Many fabrications of tales, being posed." pp. 155-157.
destitute of principle, and having it in their power to describe the results of actious to be whatever they please, leave a false and
pernicious impression on the reader's mind. The Night of Toil; or, a Familiar Ac.
Even those writers of fiction who desire to count of the Labours of the first Mis
inculcate a good moral, may unintentionsionaries in the South Sea Islands.
ally misrepresent the dealings of God with Hatchard and Son.
But the narrator of facts walks on
firm ground. He, who undertakes to deTo render the early labours of our South lineate the dealings of God in his proviSea Missionaries familiar and impressive to dence, affords so many instances of the young persons, the lady who is the author truth of his word.” of this work sat down to the labour of We can assure our readers that the augoing through all the documents of this thor has truly accomplished her object. Missionary station, determined that truth The remarks interspersed in her narrative, alone and not fiction should be the basis of and the appropriate quotations from the her book, judging that the unvarnished his- scriptures, are admirably adapted to produce tory of the mission exhibits the glorious a good impression upon youth. results of patient labours, in a manner that The author has, also, in our judgment may lead some to become Missionaries, and done justice to the humble, laborious, and others to support them. We are fully war- persevering men who laboured so long in ranted in observing that as this lady avows faith under the most discouraging circumherself to be a member of the Church of stances. The book, perhaps, may show to England, she has exemplified her Christian some young minds that the boasted apostoliberality by doing ample justice to a Mis- lical succession is not indispensable to sucsion that does not belong exclusively to her cess in converting the savage heathen to own church. To us it is gratifying to see the faith and obedience of the glorious Gosthe labours of a society, which unites in its pel of the blessed God. We observe, too, fundamental principle, Episcopalians, Pres- with pleasure, that many delicate and diffia byterians, Independents and others agreed cult subjects respecting the manners of the in the grand essential doctrines of the Gos- people in their idolatrous state, which renpel, taken up by a lady who can have no ders some of the larger works unsuitable motive but that of rendering the cause of for children, are well disposed of here. Christian Missions to the heathen a sub- We wish our limits would allow us to
furnish a specimen of every kind of excel. of the misery of the poor Pagans, and who lence we have discovered. We must limit are willing to cross the ocean, and to spend ourselves to the following:
their days among savages. Your slender “ Mr. Henry, though suffering much offerings will assist to supply them with from the effects of old age, and toil, and food and raiment in those barbarous lands. the sultry air of the South Seas, cannot be “ Oh that all who are in the bloom of persuaded to forsake his beloved flock to
youth would begin without delay to be the dwell in a more refreshing climate. He
servants of God ! It is those who have fears lest the wolf should enter in and de- devoted their whole lives to God, who have stroy them; and therefore with his wife been the instruments of the greatest good and children, spends his latter years in in the world. Master Oberlin, through watching for their souls.
whose labours the inhabitants of five French “ Having now followed the faithful Mis.
villages were made partakers of the bless. sionaries through a long life of labour, ings of the Gospel, passed sixty years let us stop an instant, and contemplate the amongst them. It was in the morning of happiness they enjoy in the evening of their their days that Mr. Nott and Mr. Henry days. They look around, and behold the devoted themselves to that service, which children of Satan become the children of has filled hundreds of islands with peace God, through their preaching. They share and joy." the joy of Christ, who in heaven rejoices over the souls he purchased with his blood. These Missionaries have not suffered the The Ministry of RECONCILIATION. wrath and curse of God; as Christ did, Discourse, preached before the Tutors, from love to sinners ; but they have for- Committee, and Friends of the Hackney saken all, and borne shame, and endured
Theological Seminary, at Barbican Cha. toil, and exposed their lives; and they have
pel, on the Evening of Tuesday, the 18th not lost their reward ; neither shall they of September; including some Remarks lose it.
on the Subject of Apostolical Succession. “And now let me speak a word to those By John MORISON, D.D. young persons who have had the patience
Ward and Co. accompany me through the tedious, though well rewarded, labours of the Missionaries. Many of our readers are no strangers to Do you think it enough to admire their Hackney Theological Seminary, beperseverance, or even to rejoice at their longing to the Village Itinerary, or Eransuccess? Is there no other effect which gelical Association." But there are others, these events ought to have upon our minds ? and, perhaps, the greater number, who are There are still numerous dark corners of scarcely aware of its existence, and of the the earth, or rather, I should say, the earth great benefits which it has instrumentally still lies in darkness, and there are only a conferred, in providing our churches with few bright spots to be seen upon her. You able and efficient pastors, and our destitute were astonished at the cruelty of the Tahi- population with pious and devoted evantians in murdering their infants, and tortur- gelists, who, in their turn, have become ing their enemies, but how would your ears pastors over churches formed by them. tingle at the accounts of the barbarous selves, and gathered out of the world. To deeds, which are even now committed in these the following particulars will be in. heathen lands?
teresting :-Among the first members of “I know that many a youthful and com- the “ Association," the most conspicuous passionate heart is grieved at hearing of and endeared names are those of John these horrible practices; but it is not to Eyre, Matthew Wilks, and Rowland Hill. cause pain that I relate them. Could no. The founder of the college, which bears the thing be done to stop these atrocious cus- modest title of " seminary," was a pious toms, it would be better they should never and opulent friend of the distinguished be mentioned. But something may be persons we have mentioned. The name of done. Where the Gospel is preached, and Townsend will be had in everlasting rebelieved, there Satan, the author of all membrance. By his munificent endowcruelty, loses his power.
ment, and the subsequent benefactions of “ But, perhaps, some inquire, ' Can we, others since the commencement of the Inwho are so young and inexperienced, who stitution, in 1803, more than one hundred have no power and little property, can we and thirty have been prepared for the send the Gospel to the heathen?'
ministry; about twenty-four new congre“Yes, even you may bear a part in the gations have been raised ; and chapels blessed work. There are, even now, such erected, and more than twenty others have men in the world as those Missionaries, of been greatly enlarged by its ministers. In whom you have been reading, whose hearts addition to stated ministers, nine or ten are are stirred up within them at the thought occupied in county and other local asso.
ciations. Eight of its former students are design of this ministry, together with the now missionaries to the heathen; and four express character of its instrumentality. or five others are labouring with accept- This portion of the sermon is peculiarly ance in the colonies of Great Britain. valuable, especially that part of it which is Much more extensive would have been the devoted to the illustration of the proposisphere of its operations, and many more tion, “ That the ministry of reconciliation labourers would it have thrust into the has been committed to those who are to fields already white unto the harvest, had publish it for the recovery of a world at it obtained the means needful to assist its enmity against God.” The remarks upon laborious evangelists, especially in new apostolical succession are judicious and fields of labour; for these, we are inform- peculiarly seasonable, in this day when ed, it is chiefly dependent on the annual Protestant pretension identifies itself with contributions of its friends, which are, in a Popish arrogance-and we are scarcely able painful degree, unequal to the frequent and to distinguish between Oxford and Rome. pressing claims presented to the committee. We recommend the following observa
In behalf of this useful Institution, Dr. tions to the serious attention of all candiMorison has pleaded with his usual piety dates for the Christian ministry, and to and energy. The ministry of reconciliation those who preside in our theological semiis his appropriate theme, and the discourse naries, as well as to the churches who may is not only an effort of benevolent and holy desire to have pastors according to the true zeal, but its theological statements are re- apostolic pattern. markable for their accuracy ; the sentiments “ The only satisfactory credentials for which it embodies, are not only evangelical the Christian ministry, in an uninspired in their character, but apostolical in their age, appear to be something like the fol. spirit, and the tendency of the whole, as lowing; if they are rejected, as insufficient, well as the manifest and direct effort of the we must plunge at once into all the sacer. preacher is, to awaken his ministerial dotal pretensions of the man of sin. brethren to a deep sense of their respon
“1. True conversion to God, accompanied sibility, and, at the same time, to impress by its legitimate evidences, repentance, upon his general hearers their various obli. faith, love, and holy obedience; nor is it gations to the "ministry of reconciliation,' too much to urge, that the piety of a miand to those who sustain its all-important nister of reconciliation should be of an fanctions. We can well imagine the awe elevated character. which pervaded the assembly, when, after “ 2. Natural gifts, constituting that quaannouncing his subject, in the few simple lification of aptness to teach, which Paul words of his text, Dr. Morison at once contends for in his letters to Timothy. observed, “ Eternity alone will adequately “ 3. Such a measure of acquired knowreveal the import of this brief but signi- ledge as the character of the age, and the ficant sentence. There only will the entire condition of the church may seem legitiresults of the ministry of reconciliation be mately to demand. presented to the admiring contemplation of " 4. Strong and marked predilection for redeemed men, and holy angels. "Nor will the office of the ministry, prompting the the revolution of countless ages exhaust a candidate for sacred work to surmount all theme which belongs to the unfathomable the obstacles which may lie in the way of depths of Divine love to a guilty race." the accomplishment of his object.
* As, however, the entire practical work- " 5. Concurring providences in the aping of the ministry of reconciliation, is con- proval of devoted ministers and experienced fined to the present world, and as its effects Christians. And, in eternity will correspond to the influence “ 6. Orderly appointment to the work of which it has exerted in time, it is of the God, by the prayers and solemn designautmost importance that we should acquire tion of those who have been wise to win the most accurate and enlarged conceptions souls, and whose standing in the Church of a theme which involves our immortal in. entitle them to the respect and confidence terests to an extent which no mind can of their younger brethren in the vineyard perfectly conceive, no tongue can fully of the Lord.” atter."
The third part is exceedingly solemn and In furtherance of this, his principal de. awakening, and is an endeavour to estimate sign, Dr. Morison divides his discourse the responsibility of those on whom the into three parts. In the first, he traces ministry of reconciliation has been conthe origin of the ministry of reconciliation. ferred. This announcement is rather equi. Here he combats the cardinal error in vocal. This does not refer to those who theology, which represents the death of sustain the ministry, but to those for whom Christ as the procuring cause of God's its advantages are provided, and on whom love to perishing sinners. In the second they are bestowed. And to all these we bead is examined, the grand and merciful seriously commend the faithful admonitions
and exhortations thus affectionately ad. we are frank to confess, that all our anticidressed to them. The conclusion of the pations are now more than realized. Our sermon, is an appeal in behalf of the special author has gone thoroughly into his subobject for which it was delivered ; and, with ject; and has treated it as a scholar, a an extract from this appeal, we close our philosopher, a theologian, and a Christian. brief notice of this excellent discourse. We sincerely trust that the size of the
“The Village Itineracy and Evangeli. work, in this age of penny literature, will cal Association for the Spread of the Gos. not stand in the way of its extensive circu. pel in England,' has ever aimed at two dis- lation. We can assure our readers that tinct though harmonious objects the main. there is nothing dry, or dull, or tedious in tenance of the Hackney Theological Semi. the volume ; its dimensions being solely the nary, under the care of wise, holy, and de. result of the vast range of subjects into voted tutors; and the assistance of poor, but which the author's mind has been conactive ministers, with other kindred charities. ducted in the legitimate treatment of the Of its whole income, arising from funded theme which he had undertaken to discuss. property and voluntary contributions, two. The volume will repay the most patient thirds are to be annually devoted to the investigation. Replete with sound informsupport of the Theological Seminary at ation, it will enlighten the judgment; and, Hackney, and one-third to the other objects breathing in every page a catholic spirit, it contemplated by its original founders. ...
will elevate and improve the heart. When I look at the list of faithful and The author has divided his subject into devoted pastors, who have been trained in two parts; the first, on unity, and the the Theological Seminary, connected with second, on schism. Under the former this Institution, under the distinguished head, we have the unity of the unfallen labours of the revered presidents and his creation—the apostacy from universal love excellent colleague, t I cannot but lament -the re-uniting tendency of the dispensathat the gross annual receipts of the Insti.
tion of mercy-the founding of Christiantution, from its various sources of income, ity, as a system of benevolence-Chris. should not exceed the small sum of 10001.; tianity in the Apostolic age—who is a and I grieve to say, that of that sum, less Christian-what is the Church-unity of than 1001. is realized from annual subscrip- the Church. The last of these chapters tions.
(the VIIIth) contains a mass of solid in. “ Suffer me, then, very earnestly to urge struction, not to be found in any one pub. its claims upon the friendly notice of my lication extant. The third section of the present anditory, and to beseech the com- chapter in particular, we recommend to the mittee and trustees to take such early steps attention of Christians, who wish to be as may tend more fully to realize the hopes disenthralled from prejudice and error, on of those men of God, who now sleep inthe a subject vitally connected with the right dust, and who devoted their best energies understanding of the true principles of to the establishment and promotion of this unity in the church of Christ. It is headed, excellent object."
6. Relation of the Form and Order of the Cordially do we echo this appeal, and Church of Christ, to its essential Unity, we hope that, spreading as it does by means and Manifested Union." Here the author of our publication through the length and bas shown, with much energy of thought the breadth of the land, it will be heard and and force of diction, that uniformity of felt by the opulent and influential in our church-order, oecumenical or national, is not churches, and that the Theological Semj. essential to unity; that uniformity in forms, nary, at Hackney, may equal in support, as rites, ceremonies, liturgies, vestments, poswell as in character, the most honoured of tures, creeds, confessions, can never be the our unchartered institutions.
basis of a scriptural union ; that uniform.
ity of church government ought not to be Schism, as opposed to the Unity of the
made essential among Christians; and that
no exclusive claim is due to episcopacy, as Church, especially in the Present Times. Royal 12mo, pp. 620.
a particular form assumed by a large branch
of the church of Christ. We also recomHamilton, Adams, & Co.
mend to the careful notice of our readers, If any thing could reconcile us to the the sixth section of this chapter, entitled, delay which has taken place in the publica- “ The Visible Unity of the Church of tion of this work of Professor Hoppus, it Christ, not dependent on human authois the talent, learning, and research by rity;" and the last section, which shows, which it is distinguished. From what we " Wherein the true Unity of the Church had heard of the MS. from the lips of consists." those who had read it, we were led to ex- The second part of the work is devoted pect something of a very high order ; but to a very masterly discussion of “Schism;" • The Rev, G. Collison. + The Rev. S. Ransom. in which its nature-causes-evil conge