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be used. In a majority of the recently constructed street car and private stables, stall drainage is effected as follows: The stall Hoor is laid solid in asphalt and level to a length three feet from its headı; from this point the solid floor pitches with an inclination of three inches at the foot of the stall. This inclined space is laid with racks three quarters of an inch apart, each slat three inches wide (of spruce or maple generally), tapering on the floor side so that their upper surface corresponds with the head of the stall. This construction gives the horse a level surface to stand upon, while the spaces between the rack, having a three inch inclination toward their outlet, give drainage-way for fluids to a gutter running transversely to the foot of the stall. This gutter should be of cement where the stable floor is next the ground, but where horses are kept above stairs, this may be made of timbers scooped out to a pitch of at least one sixth of an inch to the foot towards the catch basin and drain pipe. This gutter is usually coated with pitch and covered either by iron plates perforated for stall drainings, or with a two inch oak plank notched on its under side opposite the spaces between the stall racks to admit their contents to gutter, and having rings on its ends to lift it from its place, that the gutter may be swept, flushed and disinfected daily. It is well to carry overflow pipes from water troughs, of which in passing we would recommend an abundance, into these gutters which well serve for flushing purposes. All sewer connections ought to be thoroughly trapped and ventilated to the roof of the buildings.
These few suggestions touching stable construction in reference to light, ventilation and drainage, are presented mainly as addenda to what has already been so fully stated by Mr. Wright in the report and his manual, to which we have heretofore alluded.
LOCATION OF STABLE.
In the matter of the location of stable buildings, we note that it is usually the custom of Street Car Companies to fix upon a place for their stables at or near one of the termini of their lines. In large cities where the route lies from a central point in the city outward to the suburbs, the selection of a location is often properly dictated by the lessened cost of outlying property, coupled with the fact that a location uncrowded with other buildings promises purer air and better light. One other consideration should be allowed weight in this selection, namely, from what point on the line can the horses be worked to the greatest advantage. Since the matter of light and air may be made to depend so much upon mechanical construction, in the last analysis, the determining of the best place for building comes to be a question of cost, affected on the one side by the first cost of property, and on the other by the subsequent and continual cost of the motive power to be used. A deal of thoughtful investigation has been given to the question as to the cause of the great loss by death and inefficiency of street car horses. Selected as thev usually are with care, acclimated to their work by easy stages, and used but four or five hours at the most out of twenty-four, watched and carefully tended, care on the part of their drivers duly impressed by rule and discipline, it seems strange that the average life of the street car horse should so seldom rise above five years and so frequently fail below it. In our opinion the most fertile cause of this early disability of our horses is the jarring which they get upon the hard rock pavement in the cities while traversing a continuous route of twelve or fifteen miles at a rapid pace.
A distinguished medical authority has said with reference to such jarring of the human city dweller, that "Few realize that we, who were designed to tread upon soft mother earth, have become a race of dwellers upon rocks and stones. In walking, the jar of the fall of our 150 pounds comes entirely upon the heel, since it first strikes the ground, the ball of the foot and the instep serve only to raise us for another downfall, small it is true, but equal to the weight of our bodies falling through one-half to one inch in a little less than one second. The ill effect of these thousands of daily concussions accumulate, and after a time concur with other causes in producing that state of disability called nervous exhaustion."
If the jarring effect of the concussion between the heel of a man protected as it is by the rubber-like mass of cartilage there placed, and this again shielded by the boot heel, that is itself not entirely unelastic, be injurious, how harmful must this jarring be to the horse, who has no fulcrum or lever-like action in his foot, and who at the point of contact with the pavement is shielded by no more elastic a substance than an iron shoe. Nervous exhaustion means an invitation to all sorts of ailments which run riot in the weakened system of the animal and destroy him.
low the location of the stable usually determines the length of time to which each horse shall be subjected to this harmful jar, and therefore we suggest that on this score, that location be selected which shall permit the strain of this pounding on the pavement to operate for two or three short periods rather than during one long one per day's work.
Again, in the majority of northern cities, during the summer months, it is necessary to establish horse relief stations upon most of the lines and frequent changes of horses. At these stations, if protected at all, the horses stand under an open-sided shed and are there sponged and watered ; but a sudden shower drenches them, a change of temperature inducing founder and colic occurs before they can all be brought in ; the flies, harness and restless companionship, fret and bother them, and all together the relief station becomes but a choice of evils. If their trip could be shortened and they could be put into a stable about midway of a two to three hour journey, for example, the harness taken off and rest and quiet with proper water applications afforded them, it is probable that they would be able to resume their journey in safety after a short time, and be effective for a much longer one than they would have been without the depot change. By way of illustration : In the city of New York a street railroad line has two divisions running from the same depot ; one is eight miles long, making sixteen miles for the round trip, called the Eastern Division; the other is five miles long, or miles to the round trip, called the Western Division. The horses selected for the Eastern or long service are the best in the stable, weighing from 1,075 to 1,150 lbs. They make but one trip per day, requiring, including rest at the terminus, only three hours, and, moreover, rest one day per week. The horses on the Western Division or short service are smaller and proportionately inferior in point of strength and physique. Resting one day per week as are those
upon the 16-mile division, they make two round trips per day, that is 20 miles, but have a stable rest between the trips, and the mortality and disability from their ranks is by the statistics 33 per cent. less than that from those of the East. ern or 16-mile division. Moreover, many horses taken from the Eastern Division, because unable to make a round trip thereon, when put upon the Western, do full work and regain health and strength. If a fair allowance be made for the increased loads pulled continuously over the sixteen miles as against the ten, it is still the experience of the Company in question that their horses which have a stable rest during their time of duty are effective for 20 per cent. more of work than those which do not. Therefore where the horses of a Company must travel upon a stone pavement and in localities of sharp climatic changes, we have no hesitation in urging the economy so far as motive power is concerned of locating the stable at such point on the route as shall permit the horses to be afforded a stable rest at the end of at least eight to ten miles of work ; less would be better.
CONSTRUCTION OF STABLE. Passing from location to construction, in addition to proper light, ventilation and drainage, another desirable feature to be sought in stable construction is quietness for the horses. “An injurious influence which pertains exclusively to city life is incessant noise. This may not be very intense at any time, but when continuous it acts as certainly upon the nervous system of the horse as water falling upon a harder or softer stone. Recent experiments upon animals b. jected to the sound of a continuously vibrating tuning fork for a number of hours, one or two days in all, show that the first effect is that of an irritant to the nerve centres, as certainly as an acid or an electric shock is to the muscle fibre. A secondary visible effect is opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye. The most perfect are the most noiseless machines, and this applies to horse homes as well as to social organisms.”
On the score of noise, stone floors, unless they are deadened with a covering either of wood or a layer of litter, are to be condemned, and iron gutter covers for the same reason. Where iron mangers are used, the tie rings should be so fastened that the chains of halters will not rattle against the manger, double stalls with swing bars besides being more generally comfortable for their inmates, afford less pounding surface and therefore give less noise. The horseshoeing shop, mills, hay cutters, and repair shops should be separated from the stable proper in such manner as to admit to it little or none of their din. Where the horse room is a large one, cross walls to such an extent as will not interfere with light and ventilation will diminish noise. At the principal veterinary colleges of Europe, it is customary to arrange the floors of the hospital connected therewith, that not only the stalls but all passageways may be covered with a thick layer of peat moss to deaden sound, and the exclusion of noise is certainly a desirable thing in our hospitals, wherein idiopathic nd febrile diseases that debilitate especially the nervous system are treated.
The location of the hospital, therefore, should be apart from the stable floor, and in construction and fittings it should ensure quietness to patients. The main horse room should also be arranged so that horses going to or returning from work may pass to or from their respective stalls quietly.
Some companies have separate stables for their day and their night torses, that those used during the day may be undisturbed during the night, and those which work at night may take their rest in quietness during the day. So much has been said in previous reports and publications, concerning specific stable Attings, that we will not pause to speak of them except to mention the drying racks for the straw bedding, which are now adopted by not a few companies.
In the stable recently built under the writer's supervision in New York, racks ten feet long, four feet wide, with slatted sides and bottoms, there being four inches of space between the slats, are apportioned one to each row of eighteen horses. These racks with the damp straw taken from the stalls in the morning are suspended at the ceiling by ropes and pulleys over the horse aisles, during the day, and besides dissipating the odor from the straw, dry it thoroughly.
The comfort of a dry bed to the horse, and the economy in material these racks afford, it is needless to comment upon.
Every stable should be planned in structure with reference to disinfection. We have already pointed out when speaking of quietness, the benefit of separating the hospital from the main horse floor, and for purposes of disintection such separation is also urged. The spores of infectious and contagious diseases are not destroyed by the ordinary so-called disinfectants, most of which are in reality nothing more than deodorants. To positively kill disease germs, the room containing them must be hermetically sealed and saturated with some life-killing agent. Where it is possible to run cross walls or partitions so that the stable floor may be divided into a series of rooms, a sliding door which shall successively close these rooms that the horses may be removed from them, and that each room in turn may be sealed up and then properly disinfected, is recommended.
At any rate, some room aside from the general hospital should be so fitted that to it any horse of which suspicion of infection or contagion is had may be sent, and after removal by death or otherwise of the suspected animal or animals, it may be sealed up as before suggested and disinfected.
PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE.
Protection against fire is another feature to be provided for in our buildings. The oil and lamp rooms ought to be fire-proof. When the repair and paint shops connect directly with car house and stable, they should be shut from them by fire-proof doors and cement sills. The runways for the exit of horses should also be fire-proof, and, of course, of sufficient number and location to empty the stable quickly in case of necessity. The dust-room of mills is especially dangerous and should be amply protected. The different good sprinkler systems by means of which every five to eight feet of surface in the buildings may be drenched from small sprinklers dependent from a pipe system fed by tanks upon the roof afford a very good automatic fire protection. In New York City four railroad companies have already furnished their buildings with sprinklers. We will not speak of other fire apparatus which the carefulness and good sense of railroad managers will suggest as necessary to the safe furnishing of the buildings under their charge.
For grain rooms and hay lofts, we stop only to urge good ventilation and separation from the dust and gases of the stable, and we bespeak these require. ments for car-houses.
ROOMS FOR EMPLOYEES.
The rooms for conductors and for drivers (for they should where possible be separate), ought to be cheerful and comfortable, with lockers for caps and clothing, ample washing accomodations, boot-blacking boxes, shelves for books and racks for papers.
We have but cursorily glanced at some of the main principles and their constructive suggestions, which should, in our opinion, find expression in the plan, arrangement and equipment of our street car buildings, and yet we have exceeded the limit set for this paper. Concluding, we have only to say that the furnishing of a horse railroad company with a depot and stables that shall be architecturally pleasing, healthful to its occupants and convenient and economic in use, is a work, the successful accomplishment of which will involve the comparison and investigation of a wide range of personal experiences, patient study and the exercise of independence and good judgment.
Applause followed the reading of the report.
The President: The question is now before the house, and the paper is open for discussion by any gentleman who will favor us with his views.
REMARKS CONCERNING ROOMS FOR EMPLOYEES.
The Secretary : Mr. President, perhaps it is somewhat aside, and yet not altogether so, in connection with the subject of furnishing a railroad depot, the question of the equipment of the depot with reading room facilities for, conductors and drivers, and others employed upon the line and in connection with the depot. It has come to my knowledge, for instance, that the road which the President of this Association has charge is so furnished, and as I learned incidentally, from the lovely wife of our President, the influence of such facilities over the men is of the highest order in developing allegiance on the part of the employees towards the Company. It makes the employee feel that the employer has an interest in him beyond simply receiving labor and paying therefor; and it is appreciated in no small degree. I think from my experience in the business, that there are just as smart men in the employ of the Company on the cars as there are in the office ; and indeed, some of the most successful managers