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A party of over one hundred and fifty ladies and gentlemen left Willard's Hotel about 2 o'clock, P. M., in forty open carriages, and were driven over the following course : Out Fourteenth street to Thomas' Statue Circle, then west on Massachusetts avenue to Scott's Statue Circle, thence north out Sixteenth street to Boundary street, thence to Fourteenth street, thence across country to the Soldiers' Home and through the long drive of the Soldiers' Home. The entire party was photographed on the steps and in front of the Soldiers' Home. The return drive was as follows: From the Soldiers' Home back to Fourteenth street, thence over Little Road to Woodley Lane Road, thence out Woodley Lane Road past the President's private mansion to Tenleytown Road, thence to Georgetown, thence Road street to Twenty-eighth street, down Twenty eighth street to street, thence east to Dupont Statue Circle, past the Chinese Embassy Building, thence down Connecticut avenue, past the British Minister's Building to K street, thence returning to Willard's, passing the rear of the White House. The weather was delightful and the drive was thoroughly enjoyed.
The President called the meeting to order at 7.45 o'clock.
The President : A request was made by one of the delegates just as we were about to adjourn this morning. The Secretary will please state the request, and possibly some one may be able to give the information desired.
DISCUSSION CONCERNING ELEVATED CABLE RAILROADS.
The Secretary: Mr. W. C. Doubleday, on behalf of Mr. Bonn, the President of the North Hudson County Railway Company, desires information in regard to the relative advantages in operating an elevated cable over a surface cable road. That Company, as most of you know, operates an elevated cable road in Hoboken, N. J. It commences at the river and runs up to quite an elevation, a distance of over a mile altogether. The President of that Company desires to know whether there is any other elevated railroad run by cable power, and what the relative advantage is in comparison with the surface cable railroads.
The President: Is there any one in the Association who can give the information desired? If so, we shall be very glad to hear from him.
Mr. Wright, of St. Louis : I should say, among the advantages of an elevated cable road would be the freedom from street obstruction, which would permit a high rate of speed. They would be released from the expense of cleaning the conduit, and the pulleys would be accessible. They could use a larger carrying sheave, which would require less power. On the surface road, the tendency, in the first place, in our President's experience, was to use a large carrying sheave. Theoretically, the larger the carrying sheave, with the same axles, the less power it takes to propel the cable ; but, practically, as Mr. Holmes found, that leverage worked in two ways ; the snow and ice freezing on the pulleys pevented their turning, so that Mr. Holmes changed his larger carrying sheave to a twelve inch sheave ; and that is generally accepted now in cable practice as the best size sheave, considering all the points. On an elevated road, providing there is sufficient head-room, they could use a larger sheave and would require less power. Greater speed could be maintained with equal safety.
Mr. Lawless, of Kansas City : There is another important point which relates to elevated cable lines, and that is the freedom from mud, dirt and grit, which in a conduit is a matter of importance. The amount of mud, dirt, water and grit that gets into a conduit, although the opening is only three-quarters of an inch, is considerable ; and there is quite a degree of suction in the conduit whereby a great deal of dust is drawn into it, which gathers upon the bearings of the carrying pulleys ; and I can see upon an elevated line that that objection would be very trifling, while the item of cleaning the conduit would be entirely dispensed
The President: We will now listen to the next report.
REPORT OF TUE COMMITTEE ON LOCATION AND CON.
STRUCTION OF CAR-HOUSE AND STABLES.
Mr. C. Densmore Wyman, of New York, Chairman of the Committee, read the report as follows :
THE AMERICAN STREET-RAILWAY ASSOCIATION,
Mr. President and Gentlemen : -At the annual meeting of this Association, held in Chicago, in October, 1883, an able and exhaustive article upon the subject of Street Railroad Buildings, prepared by a committee of which Mr. Augustine W. Wright, C. E., was chairman, was read, and as the records of the Convention very correctly express it, was received with marked applause.
Made our permanent possession by incorporation in the published minutes of the proceedings of the Convention, and in a revised and enlarged form made a part of Mr. Wright's excellent manual, “ American Street-Railways,” the report has been a familiar hand book to all of us upon the subject of which it treats since the date of its issue. It urged with emphasis, supported by liberal and convincing quotations from eminent authorities, the primal necessity in all street car s'ables of abundant light, perfect ventilation and thorough drainage, reasoning rightly that the securing of these qualities in construction was dictated not only by humanity but demanded by economics.
The securing of the right of way and the getting of the tracks down in the streets is too often made the “ pièce de résistance" of street-railroad construction. Once this done, a stable and depot, without much reference to location, is constructed possibly from some old warehouse or unoccupied shed, and horses provided a domicile with stalls, sometimes underground, with poor light, incomplete drainage and imperfect ventilation. The manager confesses that his buildings are not what he would like, but are the best the Company could afford. Surely such a policy is short sighted, for, in the respects above cited, nothing but the best should be good enough, viewed simply as a matter of investment for interest. We shall consider mainly the stables in what follows, since the construction of car-houses and shop; follow such well-known and general rules that the discussion of this branch of our topic is comparatively unimportant.
Assuming an unhesitating assent to the statement that in the building of new, or the remodeling of old street car stables, the three qualities before mentioned are fundamental in their importance, it may, however, be well to consider what amount of light may be called abundant, and what shall be provided in construction, that the stable may be perfectly ventilated and drained. Technically considered, the answer to this question would lie within the province of the architect and sanitary engineer, but some general suggestions for our own guidance in regard thereto will not be amiss. As the weakest link is the point of test in the strongest chain, so the darkest day is the one to be provided against in the matter of stable light, and thus large win. dows and abundant sky-lights with reflectors, if necessary, are conceded. Sunlight is remedial ; it favors nutrition and nervous function ; it sustains chemically or physically the healthy state of the blood. The blue glass craze that swept over the country a few years since demonstrated this. Undoubtedly many persons were benefited by the treatment, but that benefit accrued by rea. son of the necessary subjection of themselves to the sunlight, not from any virtue in the glass or the color. In the case of epidemic and contagious diseases, affections which are greatly nurtured by uncleanliness, sunlight may almost be regarded a specific, and therefore, in large cities, where the horses of the street-railroad companies have no open lot or corral, in which they can run, and both winter and summer are housed for twenty out of every twenty-four hours, the admission of an abundance of sunlight is an indispensable requisite of good stable construction. The ranging of horses in stall rows along a wall and admitting light to these stalls by small windows opening upon the head or above the head of the horse, is in our opinion unfortunate both as to light and ventilation ; the light if admitted freely, is focussed in the face of the animal, or thrown beyond him without ample diffusion. A better plan, and one adopted in the principal street car companies, is to arrange that windows of ample size pierce the walls opposite the head of each row of horses and doors with sashes and fanlights open opposite the end of the aisles, between the horse rows. This arrangement in connection with roof lights, where the stable floor is wider than fifty feet, will ordinarily provide the light needed.
A safe rule to follow in this matter will be to provide in our horse homes for the admission of as much light as we arrange for in the living rooms of our own homes.
VENTILATION. Now, as to ventilation, what we want principally in our stables is an upward moving current of air without draughts. The best authorities tell us that the amount of air recessary for the healthy respiration of a horse is from five to six thousand cubic feet per hour. Assuming that ordinary construction advises stalls nine feet by four and a half feet, with aisles between rows, eight feet wide, and a height of ceiling of fourteen feet, we see that the space thus allotted to a horse is about eight hundred cubic feet, and it is plain that to furnish the animal with proper respirable air, the air of this space must be entirely renewed each nine to ten minutes. The windows and doors which have been suggested in such quantity as to admit abundant light, particularly if supplemented with fresh air ducts piercing the walls opposite the head of the stall rows, will be sufficient for the entering supply of air. What shall be the size of the exits or air shafts ? Not to detail the mathematical calculations by which an answer to this question is found, suffice it to say that where the air shafts run through not more than two stories, and are properly arranged above the roof, they should be made in the proportion of eighteen inches square to each horse. They should have above the roof movable slat sides, that may be shut against the direction of a blowing wind and opened with its current, so that downward draughts are avoided, and. suction for the removal of the heated and impure air promoted. In winter a costless system for the introduction of fresh air into the stable and one that is simplicity itself, is of the following construction :
The lower sash of each window is raised from three to six inches, and in the space between the sill and sash a piece of wood is introduced to fill up the , space. The lower sash at its upper part is thus brought a few inches above the lower part of the upper sash which it by so much overlaps. In this manner there is left in the middle between the two sashes an open space up which the air is constantly passing from the outside into the stable room, and thus at all times air is finding its way in, and, as the current is directed in an upward course, draft is not felt, even when the air is blowing in freely. Shaft ventila. tors with gas jets beneath, or air forced from a central fan through and out the pipes, extending along the ceiling, over the aisles between the horse rows are often used to increase and secure the proper ventilation.
In this connection let it be said that more care :han is usually observed should be given to the location and construction of the stable manure pit, or yard. This should be isolated and no passage for its gases, harmful chemically and disagreeable in odor, should be afforded to stable or car house. By carefully covering it and providing it with ample roof ventilation carried to a sufficient height above the roof of surrounding buildings, this secure isolation may be provided. At the stables of the Belt Line in New York City, with stall capacity for 1,600 horses, the manure pit is at the rear of the stable, a room upon the ground floor walled in on three sides with a driveway to the street. This room is 40x35 feet, having a height of ceiling of twenty feet. Light and air are admitted to it by two windows, opening upon an area, away from the building. Two large drains in its floor keep it dry, while a ventilating shaft 6 feet by 6 feet is carried twelve feet above the roof of the building, a total distance of fifty-six feet in height. In this shaft upon each floor of the three floors above are sliding doors three feet square, through which the refuse is thrown to the room below. These doors are weighted to close except when in actual use. The sun and rain thus being shut off from the inanure receptacle and good ventilation being given it, even when well filled, its contiguity is unnoticed in the adjoining buildings.
As to drainage, let it be said at the outset that main soil or drainage pipes should never be constructed of tile or brick, for with numerous joints, leaks and settlings are almost sure to occur. Only the best heavy cast iron pipes should