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of liberty, which their fathers had ite-to the moderation of a pacific bequeathed to them, and although monarch, the rage of an inhuman all the provinces of Spain successive- conqueror--and thus, without prinly struggled to defend it, our evil ciples, without an established and stars which now began to pursue us, fixed system to which public meahave rendered useless those generous sures and dispositions can be affixed, efforts. After having silenced rea- the ship of the state floats without son and justice, the laws from that her sails, without a helm or direction, time forward, have been nothing else until, as has happened to the Spathan an expression more or less ty- nish monarchy, it is dashed to pieces rannical, or more or less beneficent on some rock by the hurricane of of a particular will.-- Providence, as tyranny. if to punish the loss of that beauti. The evils which are derived from ful prerogative of freemen, has sen- so vicious a beginning cannot be tenced us to be unhappy, and para- calculated, when they are accumulised our valour, arrested the pro- lated in such a manner, that nothing gress of our understanding, protract- less than a revolution can destroy ed our civilization, and after having them. The junta itself, in the midst blended and exhausted the fountains of the power which you had placed of prosperity, we have come to that in its hands, a power which makes condition, that an insolent tyrant them tremble on account of its unhas formed a project of subduing un- limited extension, frequently meets der his yoke, the greatest nation of in those ancient vices, insuperable the globe, without reckoning upon difficulties in the execution of its its will, and despising its resistance. wishes.
In vain have there been some in- If the disorders of the government stances within these last three ages in the last twenty years had been of disasters, in which the best di- less, believe, Spaniards, that your rected will of the prince has at- evils at this moment would not be tempted to remedy this, or the other so great-believe, that our enemies plagues of the state-In vain the would not enjoy the advantages they increased illustration of Europe has obtained, not over the zeal and prulately inspired our statesmen with dence of your government, nor over projects of reforms, both useful, and the valour and constancy which necessary.- Buildings cannot be erec- every moment are greater in you, ted upon sands, and without funda- but over the ruinous and miserable mental and constituted larrs to defend state to which the many years of arthe good already done, and to prevent bitrary government which has been the eral which is intended to be done, passing over us, has brought us to. it is useless for the philusopker in his Thus it is, that when the supreme study, and the public man in the thee- junta took upon itself the supreme tre of business, to cart Riimself for authority; it did not deem itself less the geed of the people. The most called upon to defend you from the useful meditations, the best com- enemy, than to procure and establish bined projects, are either not put in your interior felicity on a solid basis. execution, or if they should be, they It announced this solemnly to you immediately fall to the ground. - In from the beginning, and as solemnthe moment of a happy inspiration, by obliged itself in the face of the sucerits another of an unfortunate world to the performance of this saone to the spirit of economy and cred duty The events of the war erder, a spirit of proeligality and ra- prevented at that time the commenpineato a prudent and mild mini- cing the grand work, to which it is ster, an avaricious and mad taivur now going to put its hand, and the
unexpected commotions which have mies and without resources; the succeeded, one after another, seemed same, in a word, which inspired you to require the suspension of any with invincible horror against that other object, and to wait for more tyrant who has thrown upon you all serene and tranquil times. But, the the plagues of misfortune. Know junta never lost sight of this grand then, that this institution of happithought, the same chain of evils, ness shall not be defrauded of its with which fortune, when roused, hopes. Let us take from our dedelights in proving our constancy, is tractors every protest for calumniathat which precipitates its execution. ting us; they say that we are fightHow other ways can be recom- ing incessantly to defend our apcient penced those floods of blood which abuses, and the inveterate and enorrun through every corner of the pe- mous vices of our corrupted admi. ninsula!- thosc sacrifices which at 'nistration. But let them know, from every instant the Spanish loyalty this moment, that your battles, alpresents without being over fatigued though for independence, are also by them, that moral resistance, as for the felicity of your country. Let universal, as it is sublime, which them know that you do not wish to disconcerts, and renders desperate depend henceforward on the uncerour enemies, even in the midst of tain will, or the variable temperatheir victories. He must have a ment, of one man only; that you breast of brass, who, to a people that do not wish to continue to be the so magnanimously resists so cruel a plaything of a court without justice, calamity, should not point out to under the controul of an insolent him immediately a crown of happi- favorite, or of a capricious woman; ness, which awaits him as a recom- and that on the renewal of the aupence for his heroic fatigues. When gust edifice of your ancient laws, this dreadful contest is concluded, you wish to place an eternal barrier no less beautiful for our people, between the death-bearing despotism when persecuted by misfortune, than of your sacred rights. This barrier, when crowned by victory, the Spa- Spaniards, consists in a good conniard shall say to himself, with that stitution, to aid and to support the full pride which his situation ought operations of the monarch, when to inspire him, “ My fathers have they are just, and to restrain them "left me for an inheritance, slavery when he follows evil counsels. With"and misery-I leave to my de- out a constitution, all reform is pre"scendants liberty and glory.” This carious, all prosperity uncertain; withsentiment of future happiness, which, out it, the people are no more than by reflection in some, and by in- flocks of slaves, put in motion at stinct in all, animates you at pre- the order of a will, frequently unjust, - sent, Spaniards, is the same which and always unrestrained; without it, has made you abhor the former ty- the forces of the entire society, inranny, which has reduced you to tended to procure the greatest advanthe deplorable state in which you tages for all its members, are employed see yourselves; the same which filled exclusively to satisfy the ambition, or you with enthusiasm and with hope satiate the phrenzy of a few, and perwhen you should be able to destroy haps of only one. It is absolutely it, and raise to the throne that in- necessary that you should have a nocent prince, who most sincerely constitution, by which a reform of wished to make you happy; the all the branches which are to con. same which gave you valour and tribute to your prosperity, are solida boldness to declare war against the ly secured; from whence the basis most powerful nation, without ar- and principles of a social organixation, worthy of men like you, may the liberty, and lasting happiness of be derived, This constitution, Spa- the Spanish nation. The supreme niards, ought to be the principal ef- junta has taken the rudder of the fect of your toils, a comfort for the monarchy, in the midst of the storm, desolation you have suffered, the re- and will only keep it, whilst danger ward of your labour, and the hopes and uncertainty exist, contributing of your victories. It certainly will by these direct and principal ways not exhibit the infamous characters to cast this grand anchor, which so which are contained in the infamous materially contributes to save the code published by Napoleon at Bay- country from danger, in doing which onne, and framed long before in the it believes, that it fills one of its must deposite of his intrigues. With it religious obligations. they wanted to legitimate the most 'This should not be less glorious monstrous usurpation, known in the in the eyes of the nation, and of its annals of the world. With ours, it political interests, than the extirpais intended to secure the public pros- tion of its enemies, and the triumph perity of the state, and the particu- of the Spanish arms; and when the lar one of the citizens, performing day coines, that it shall lay down bona fide, what all the nation wishes; the authority now invested in them in that there was not time to delibe- into the hands of that government, rate, nor liberty to resist, nor powers which the constitution shall apto establish. In ours, the actual re point, it will be for them the most presentatives of the nation will ex- glorious day of their political exiscite wise men to expose freely what tence. Then they will think them. they think; they will call thein to selves rewarded for their watchfulexamine, and discuss the same po- ness, their cares, and the dangers to litical truths, and the best form of which they are subject, by exercisits application; and the work of ing a power to which they were not their knowledge, their zeal, and their elevated by ambition, nor called by experience, shall be presented before intrigue, but by the unanimous and the free sanction of the nation, so determined vote of the provinces of lemnly assembled in Cortes. The in- the kingdom, that have sworn to be sidious forms of the constitution of independent of all foreign dominion, Bayonne are not sufficient to disguise and within themselves free and hapthe legalised despotism that appears py. Such have been the considerain every part of it. In the Spanish tions the supreme junta had in view, constitution, the Public Will, law- in agreeing to the following decree; fully and sufficiently expressed, shall . - ROYAL DECREE. be the Law; government limiting its! The supreme governing power of functions, within the terms which the kingdom, considering it to be its nature has pointed out in the politi- primary obligation to free the councal order. The consequences of the try from the evils which have until pne, worthy in every respect of the now afflicted it; all which have been fountain of iniquity from whence occasioned by the arbitrary laws to they spring, have been, the plunder, which it has been subject; pursuing the perdition, the ruin, and the de- the just and mild intentions of our plorable desolation of the men, and very beloved King Ferdinand the of the people, for whose felicity it VIIth, who was desirous to re-conwas said to be intended. The other, stitute the Monarchy, re-establishing founded on the basis of virtue, and in it the national representation of purchased at the expence of the its ancient Cortes, desirous that the most glorious efforts of patriotism, nation should take before the eyes will have for its undeniable results, of Europe and of the Universe, the noble and strong acts of a people the wish and desire of the nation has worthily and legally constituted, de- irrevocably resolved, and from which sirous that this great work should nothing that can be written or disbe performed, which the circum- cussed on the subject of reform, can stances command, and the heroic alter. Those principles are reduced sacrifices of the people require, an- to the following: xious that it should approachto that The catholic, apostolic, Roman degree of perfection to which men religion, is the only religion of the are allowed to obtain, when they State. The constitution of Spain is proceed with good faith, and with a to be a monarchy, hereditary in desire of doing right, has decreed as Ferdinand the VIIth. his descenfollows:
dants, and those called by the law to Ist. All wise Spaniards who have succeed them. The nation is to be meditated on projects of reform with governed henceforward by the laws respect to the constitution of the freely deliberated, and administered. kingdom in general, as well as on There shall be a national cortes, the particular branches of public in the manner and form which may administration, are invited by the be established, taking into considerajunta to communicate their ideas tion the difference and alterations with full liberty, and as they may which have taken place since the judge may answer best for the good time when they were lawfully held. of their country. Ni!
--Our Americas and other colonies 2. Those writings shall be sent to shall be the same as the metropolis the junta through the secretary's of- in all rights and constitutional prerafice, within the term of two months gatives. The reform which our lefrom the date of this decree, and the gal codes, administration, and recor authors will subscribe their names, very of public rents, and every thing or a mark by which they may be belonging to the direction of comknown in proper time.
merce, agriculture, arts, education, 3. These writings after being exa- as well national, marine, and warmined in a summary way, the wri- like, are to undergo, shall be only ters of those which are found to be and exclusively directed to obtain really useful by the observations, or the greatest ease, and the better il by the knowledge they contain, shall lustration of the Spanish people, so be called upon, in order to take a horridly teazed until now. part in the commission of reform, 7. The nation which shall be lewhich shall be immediately created. gally and solemnly constituted from 4. These commissions shall be
On that day, the general presided each by a member of the Cortes of the Spanish monarchy, afjunta, and in them will be examined ter being so long neglected, shall and prepared the works which are meet together for the first time. to be presented for approbation.
5. The projects approved of by the junta shall be presented to the
ITALY. national sanction, and from it will receive the character, the authority,
DEPOSITION OF THE POPE. and force of law.
Rome, June 10.-This morning, 6. The junta does not anticipate about ten o'clock, under a salute of its judgment, to prepossess the pub- the artillery in the castle of St. Anlic opinion with respect to these gely, the decree of his Majesty the projects; it only believes that it 'Emperor and King, by which the ought to announce from this mo- states of the Pope are to be united ment certain principles, upon which with France, was announced, in the principal squares of this city. Art. I; The States of the Pope are This happy change was effected with united with the French empire. the greatest tranquillity, and the 11. The city of Rome, the first see of inhabitants of Rome manifested the
w christendom, so famous for the remem
brances which it affords, and the monuhighest degree of joy and the most me
ments it contains, is declared an impelively gratitude for an event which rial and free city. Its government and puts an end to all the uncertainties internal policy shall be regulated in a of their political existence. The separate decree. decree though it completely dis- III. The monuments of Roman gran solves the temporal government of deur shall be preserved and maintained the Pope, still leaves the spiritual at the expence of our imperial treasure.
IV. The public debt is declared to be power entire, and assigns him a the debt of the empire. revenue of two million of franks V. The net revenue of the papal see (above 100,000l. sterling,) free from shall be reduced to two millions of francs. all imposts and deductions. He will free of all burdens and taxes. continue to reside in the Vatican. VI. The possessions and palaces of T'he decree, dated from the imperial his holiness shall be subject to no hurhead-quarters, May 17, 1809, is as
dens or taxes, and shall enjoy besides
various exemptions. follows:
VII. An extraordinary consultum of Napoleon, Emperor of the French, the 1st of July next, shall, in our name, &c. considering, that when Charle take possession of the papal states, and magne, Emperor of the French, and shall make such arrangements that the our illustrious predecessor, presented constitutional government may comto the bishops of Rome various mence its operations there on the 1st lands, he resigned them only to of January, 1810.
NAPOLEON. them as leaseholds, to strengthen
H. B. MARET. the loyalty of his subjects, and with . No sooner was the extraordinary a view that Rome should form a consulta appointed and organized, part of his empire:
than it issued to the city and states Considering that as the union of of Rome the following the two powers, the spiritual aad
PROCLAMATION. temporal, has been since that period, Romans! The will of the greatest as it is still at this day, the source of of heroes unites you with the greatest of incessant disputes ; that the spiritual empires. It was just that the first peo princes have studied nothing but to ple of the world should divide the ad. augment the influence of a power
vantages and benefits of their laws, and which enabled them to support and
the honour of their name, with that
people that, formerly preceded them in maintain the assumption of others; the paths of glory. When your foreand for that reason the spiritual fathers conquered the world, such were powers, which were invariable in the decrees of their power, and the their policy, have interfered with effects of their military superiority. The the temporal, which change accor- desire of promoting your happiness has ding to the circumstances and policy
suggested the decree for your union.
The moment that has been adopted to of the times:
carry the same into effect, discovers to · Considering finally, that all that you the motives
idering ninally, that all that you the motives that have suggested it. we have proposed to reconcile the You are become a part of the French safety of our armies, the tranquillity empire at the moment that the sacrifices of our people, the interests and secu- which were required to establish and rity of ourempire, with the temporal confirm it are no longer necessary. You pretension of the spiritual princes
se are called to the triumph, without ha
ving participated in its dangers. has proved in vain
Peruse the annals of your country. . We have decreed, and do decree You will find that they have long preas follows:
... sented only a picture of your misfor