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acquainted with the Sovereign's will, expected, that, uuited with the numerbut strongly impressed with the calami- ous and brilliant army of Great Britain, ties with which the kingdom was afflic they would soon accomplish the enemy's ted, and the still greater ones with which destruction, and drive them beyond the It was threatened, the council repeatedly lofty Pyrennees; and, to-day, we are addressed the provincial juntas, and on the point of being abandoned by our pressed upon them the uryency of esta generous benefactors, our warlike allies, blishing a legal government. Its repre. Such was the faithful picture of our sentations, however, were disregarded; situation a short time ago; and what is and the council, sensible, that under it at present? Ah! the armies which such extraordinary circumstances, pru- defend us, and the people who are fully dence recommended, and the necessity acquainted with it, could describe it fur of providing for the safety of the country better than the council; and, if possible, justified, a deviation from the rule pro- a still more correct representation might posed, that the juntas should exercise be given by the wretched inhabitants of a power which the law had not given Estremadura, La Mancha, aud Madrid, them, and themselves appoint a govern- who are already made to pay for their ment ad interim. This proposal was premature exultation, by a fresh plunder acquiesced in, and the central junta of their property, and the ignominious met at Aranjuez. Thus-far did the wish kind of death they suffer on scaffolds ? *** of preventing still greater evils carry the This cruel change we see, wonder at, council; but ever mindful of its duties and inourn for; but we do not feel the as the guardian and depository of the effects of it at present, and from our laws of the monarchy, scarcely was the contemplating it at a distance arises our new government organized, when it cal incredulity. These unexpected strokes. led the attention of its members to the not only depress the minds of the peonecessity of speedily substituting, to ple, but damp their patriotic zeal, which, forms unknown to the institutions of the if once extinguished, woe to us, to our country, and diametrically opposite to religion, and to our existence!
those of the monarchical government, The people are indulging in unre, a regency composed of the number of strained coinplaints, and make thein
individuals prescribed by the law depatknown by libellous and inflammatory rida in cases of ininority or of the Soven placards. Their daily conversations, in · reign's inability to discharge the ligh du- places of the greatest resort, suppose ties of his dignity:
different parties, views, and interests, It is but a short time since we obtain among their governors, and 'threaten ed victories which held out the prospect soine, while they insult others, forgetful of a speedy deliverance, and of the re- of the respect due to the supreme austoration of happiness to our capital and thority, and regardless of the conseto the monarchy; but, to-day, we are quences to the public peace and union. covered with mourning, and have to la. The council shudders upon contemment the loss of many of the gallant sons plating the danger in which it sees the and defenders of the country. Our ar- country, because it cannot foresee the mies were at the gates of the capital; possible results of this ferment, which, and, to-day, we see them beaten, mostly while it meets with its utmost disapprodispersed, and compelled to fall back bation, as contrary to the law, at the nearly upon the same points whence the same time excites its apprehensions on enemy threatened us about the latter account of the opposite interests of the end of March.
juntas, and of the variety it observes in Supported by the zeal of the nation, their opinions; and also, because it is and at the expence of the most painful generally known, that the law, in cases sacrifices of our youth to the love of onr like this, directs that the gavernment country, we had succeeded in organizing, be entrusted to one, three, or five inditraining, and increasing our army, con- viduals. The supreme junta is, theresiderably reduced by foriner losses; and, fore, bound by the most sacred duty to to-day, we see the hopes of that country lay these truths before your Majesty, in disappointed, and the skill, merit, and order to ward off the dangers by which authority of its most worthy comman- we are threatened, and to prevent the ders exposed to obloquy and wounded. excesses of a people, who think their
Two large national armies inspired as defence and protection unattended to. with the most Battering hopes; and we
In your Majesty resides the sovereign quisite that our American settlements power-the remedy is in your own hands.' should have a principal share in this naA generous self-denial will perpetuate tional body, as they derive such strong the memory of the services of the su- titles to our regard from their fidelity, preme junta, and iminortalize its mem- loyal services, donations, attachment to bers. May it please your Majesty to the Kiny, patriotic zeal and great imrestore to the law its authority, and there portance. This supreme tribunal rewill be an end of the uneasiness to which serves to itself to give its opinion upon we are a prey, and which will be suc- the justice of their intervention, which ceeded by tranquillity and applause.. it will do after the most mature delibe
The immediate appointinent of a pro- ration. visional government will pacify the peo- It is supposed, that the four indiviple; the nation will indulge in the most duals to be appointed by the supreme flattering hopes; and the supreme will junta until the meeting of the national of Ferdinand VII. who requires it, and congress, will bear a liigh character for who suffers most, will be fully complied probity, religion, loyalty, skill in their with.
respective professions, impartiality and The whole nation will applaud the disinterestedness. The supreme junta measure; and it is the opinion of the itself, which they are to succeed in the council, that, in order to rouse its spirit, exercise of the sovereignty, will secure depressed by the present load of evils, the opinion of the public, and provide it would be proper to establish a legal for its own safety, by appointing indivigovernment, with a Bourbon at its head. duals endued with these qualities : for, And the perfidy of our infainous eneiny if the persons elected should not rank having left in Spain none but the most high in the public opinion, government reverend Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo would scarcely succeed in suppressing and Seville, it seems as if heaven had the present popular complaints and suspreserved him to support the nation un- piciups. By so doing, no doubt will der her calamities, and continually to remain in the miods of the people about call to our minds the beloved sovereign the upright intentions of the supreme for whom we are fighting
junta; the superior ones will cease to Policy points out the urgency of iin- exercise their powers--they will obtain mediately filling up that seat, until the the applause of the whole monarchywished-for return of our monarch. and pusterity will ever be grateful for
His eminence's elevated character their services, leaves no roon for competition, and si- Nay it please your Majesty to lend a lences all possible pretensions of either gracious hearing to this representation, natives or foreigners. Spain and the which has no other object than your Indies will obey hin with enthusiastic Majesty's glory, and the extermination devotion; all rivalry will be at an end; of the tyrant by whom we are oppressed, and the Spaniards will see in his excel Seville, August 20, 1309. lency a branch of the family of the King whom they so passionately love. The better to ensure the success of
RUSSIA AND SWEDEN. his administration, and also to ease him of part of the burden, four adjuncts ought to be given him, of different ranks
TREATY OF PEACE. and professions, provisionally to compose In the name of the holy and in: the government until the next meeting divided Trinity... of the cortes. Whatever matter comes under discussion, every question should .
a. Ilis Majesty the King of Sweden be decided by a majority of votes; and and his Majesty the Emperor of all they should swear to observe our laws, the Russias, equally animated by which are not to be altered without the the desire of causing the advantages concurrence of the cortes, which the go- of peace to succeed to the calamities vernment should convene as soon as cir- of war, and of re-establishing har. 'cumstances permit. Upon this subject, the supreme coun
mony and good understanding becil of Spain and the Indies will prepare
tween their states, have, to this chits observations, and lay them before ihe fect, appointed their plenipotentia. government as usual. It is just and re- tics; namely, his Majesty the King
of Sweden, Baron Count Louis Bo- which, on his part, may tend to the aislas ; Christopher de Stedinck, one proinpt conclusion of peace between him or the Nobles of the Kingdom of and his Majesty the Emperor of the
French, King of Italy, and his Majesty Sweden, General of Infantry of the
ne the King of Denmark and Norway, by Swedish armies, Knight and Com- the means of the direct negociations alinander of the Swedish Orders, Grand ready commenced with these powers. Cross of the Order of the Sword, · III. His Majesty the King of Sweden, Knight of the Order of St. Andrew, in order to give an evident proof of his of St. Alexander Newsky, and of desire to renew the most intimate relaSt. Ann of the first class; and M.
in tious with the august allies of bis Majes Andrew Frederick Skjolderand, Co
ty the Finperor of all the Russias, pro
mises to adhere to the continental syslonel and Cominander of the Order teni, with such modifications as shall be of the Sword : and his Majesty the more particularly stipulated in the neEmperor of all the Russias, Count gociation which is about to be opened Nicholas Romanzoff, Actual Privý between Sweden, France, and Denmark. Counsellor. Member of the Council Meanwhile, his Swedish Majesty enof State, Minister for foreign Affairs,
irs gages, from the exchange of the ratifica
tions of the present treaty, to order that Minister of Commerce, Senator, Ac
the ports of the kingdom of Sweden shall tual Chamherlain, Knight of the be closed, both to the ships of war and Orders of St. Andrew, St. Alexan inerchantmen of Great Britain, with the der Newsky, Grand Cross of the exception of the importation of salt and Order of St. Wladimir, and of St. colonial productions, which habit has Ann, of the First Classes; Grand
rendered necessary to the people of Eagle of the Legion of Honour of
His Majesty the Emperor of all the France, Knight of the Royal Prus
Russias promises before hand, to consent sian Orders of the Black Eagle and to every modification which his allies Red Eagle, and of the Royal Dutch may consider just and fit to be admitted Order of the Union, and M. David in favour of Sweden with respect to Alopeus, ActualChamberlain,Knight commerce and mercantile navigation. of the Grand Cross of the Order of
IV. His Majesty the King of Sweden, St. Wladimir of the Second Class,
as well for himself as for his successors and of St. Anne of the First ;-who,
to the throne and kingdom of Sweden,
renounces irrevocably and in perpetuity after the exchange of their respective in favour of his Majesty the Emperor of full powers, found to be good and all the Russias, and his successors to in due forn, have agreed upon the the throne and empire of Russia, all his following articles
rights and titles to the governments hereArt. I. There shall henceforth be after specified, which have been conpeace, friendship, and good understand- quered from the crown of Sweden by the ing between his Majesty the King of arm's of his Imperial Majesty in the preSweden, and his Majesty the Emperor sent war, wamely, of all the Russias. The high contract- The governments of Kymenagard, Ny. ing parties will make it their chief study
land and Tavastchus, Abo and Bjorneto maintain a perfect harmony between
bory, with the isles Aland, Savolax, and themselves, their stetes, and subjects,
Corelia, Wasa, Uleaborg, and part of and will carefully avoid' whatever may
West Bothnia extending to the river of hereafter disturb the union so happily Tornea, as shall be fixed in the subsere-established.
quent article in the demarkation of the II. His Majesty the Emperor of all frontiers. the Russias having manifested the inva
Those governments, with all tlie inhariable resolution not to separate his in
bitants, towns, ports, fortresses, villages, terests from those of his allies, and his and islands, as well as all the depenSwedish Majesty wishing to give, in fa
dencies, prerogatives, rights, and emovour of his subjects, all the extent pos luments, shall henceforth belong in full sible to the advantages of the peace, property and sovereignty to the empire promises and engages in the most solemn of Russia, and shall remain incorporated and binding manner, to neglect nothing with it.
To this effect his Majesty the King of the above respects in favour of his former Sweden promises, in the most solemn subjects. and obligatory manner, as well for bim- VII. On the signature of the present self as for his successors, and all the treaty, information thereof shall be kingriom of Sweden, never to make any transmitted inmediately, and with the claim, direct or indirect, on the said greatest celerity, to the generals of the governments, provinces, islands, and respective armies, and hostilities shall territories, all the inhabitants of which, entirely cease on both sides both by sea shall, in virtue of this renunciation, be and land. Those acts of hostility which relieved from the homage and oath of may in the mean time be committed, fidelity by which they were bound to the shall be regarded as null, and shall not crown of Sweden.
infringe this treaty. Whatever inay be, V. The sea of Aland (Alands Haf) during the intervening period, taken or the Gulph of Bothnia, and the rivers of conquered on the one side or the other, Tornea and Muonio, shall hereafter shall be faithfully restored. form the frontier between Russia and VIII. Within four weeks after the exthe kingdom of Sweden.be
change of the ratifications of the present The nearest islands at an equal dis- treaty, the troops of his Majesty the tance from the main land of Aland and Emperor of Russia shall evacuate West Finland shall belong to Russia, and those Bothnia, and repass the river Tornea. which are nearest to the Swedish coast During the said four weeks, there shall belong to Sweden.
I shall be made no requisition of any kind The most advanced points of the Rus- whatever on the inbabitants; and the sian territory at the mouth of the river Russian army shall draw its supplies and of Tornea, shall be the isle of Björken, subsistences from its own magazines es the port of Reatehamn, and the penin- tablished in the towns of West Bothnia. sula on which the town of Torpea stands. If during the negociations the Imperial The frontier shall then be extended along troops have penetrated in any other dithe river Tornea to the confluence of the rection into the kingdom of Sweden, two branches of that river near Kengis, they shall evacuate the countries they It shall then follow the course of the ri- bave occupied in virtue of the before stiyer Muonio, passing in the front of pulated conditions. Muonioniska, Muonio Ofrehy, Palajoens, IX. All the prisoners of war made on Rultane, Enoutekis, Kelottijorfoi, Pai- either side, by sea or land, and all the tiko, Nuimaka, Rannula, and Kilpis- hostages delivered during the war, shall jaure to Norway.
be restored in mass, and without ransom, In the course of the rivers Tornea and as speedily as possible; but at the latest Muonio, such as it has been described, within three months, reckoning from the the islands situated to the east of the exchange of the ratifications; but if any Thalwag shall belong to Russia, and prisoners may be prevented by sickness those to the west of the Thalwag to Swe- or other cause from returning into their den. Immediately after the exchange country within the period specified, they of the ratifications, engineers shall be shall not thereby be considered as having appointed on each side, who shall pro- forfeited the right stipulated above. They ceed to the before-mentioned places to shall be obliged to discharge or to give fix the limits along the rivers Tornea security for the debts they may have and Muonio, according to the above de- contracted during their captivity with scribed line.
the inhabitants of the country in which VI. His Majesty the Emperor of all they may have been detained. the Russias having already given the The expences which may have been
most manifest proofs of the clemency incurred by the high contracting parties - and justice with which he has resolved for all subsistence and maintenance of
to govern the inhabitants of the countries the prisoners shall be reciprocally rewhich he has acquired, by generously, nounced, and provision shall respective and of his own spontaneous act, assuring ly be made for their subsistence, and to them the free exercise of their religion, the expence of their journey to the frontrights, property, and privileges, his Swe- tiers of both places, where commissiondish Majesty considers himself thereby ers from their sovereigns shall be direct dispensed from performing the otherwise ed to receive them. Sacred duty of making reservations in The Finland soldiers and seamen are,
on the part of his Majesty the Emperor
of Russia, excepted froin this restitu ly removed, and the property shall be. tion, with reference to the capitulations reserved to the owners; it being well which have taken place, if they grant understood that such as become subjects them a different right. The military of either of the two powers, in virtue of and other officers natives of Finland, the preceding article, shall hare no right who inay wish to remain, shall enjoy to claim from the Sovereign of whom that privilege, and the full exercise of they have ceased to be a subject the all their rights over their property, debts, annuities or pensions which may have and effects, which they now or may been obtained in virtue of acts of grace, hereafter have in the kingdom of Swe, concessions, or appointments for preceden, on the footing of the 10th article ding services. of the present treaty.
XII. The titles, domains, archives, X. The Fins now in Sweden, as well and other documents, public and prias the Swedes now in Finland, shall be vate, the plans and charts of fortresses, at full liberty to return into their re- towns, and territories, devolved by the spective countries, and to dispose of present treaty to his Majesty the Empetheir property, moveable and unmove- ror of all the Russias, including the able, without paying any duty of remo- charts and papers which may be deposival, or any other imposts due on the like, ted in the surveyors office, shall be faithoccasions.
fully delivered up within the space of The subjects of the two high powers six months; or if that period should be established in either country, Sweden found too short, at the latest within one or Finland, shall have full liberty to year. establish themselves in the other during XIII. Immediately after the exchange the space of three years, from the date of the ratification, the high contracting of the exchange of the ratification of the parties shall remove all sequestrations present treaty; but shall be held to sell which may have been placed on the or alienate, during the said period, to property or revenues of the respective any subject of the power whose doini- inhabitants of the two countries and the nions they desire to quit. i s public establishments therein situated.
The property of those who, at the ex- XIV. The debts, both public and piration of the above term, have not private, contracted by the Fins in Swecomplied with this regulation, shall be den, and, vice versa, hy the Swedes in sold at a public sale by authority of the Finland, shall be discharged on the terms magistrate, and the produce thereof de and conditions stipulated. livered to the owners.
XV. The subjects of either of the high During the three years above fixed, contracting parties, to whom inheritanit shall be allowable to all to make such ces may fall in the states of one or the use as they may please of their property, other, may without obstacle take posthe peaceable enjoyment of which is for- session of the same, and enjoy it under mally secured and guaranteed to thein.. the protection of the laws. The exer
They may, themselves or their agents, cise of this right, however, in Finland, pass freely from one state to the other is subject to the stipulations of article in order to manage their affairs, without X. in virtue of which the proprietor experiencing any obstacle whatever in shall either fix his residence in the counconsequence of their quality of subjects 'try, or sell the inheritance within three of the other power. : : years. ;
XI. There shall henceforth be a per-:- XVI. The duration of the treaty of petual oblivion of the past, and a genes commerce between the high contracting ral amnesty for the respective subjects, - parties being limited to the 17th (29th) whose opinions, in favour of one or the October, 1811, his Majesty the Empeother of the high contracting parties du- ror of Russia consents not to reckon its ring the present war, may have rendered interruption during the war; and that them suspected or liable to punishment. "the said treaty shall continue in force No trial" shall hereafter be instituted until the 1st (13th) of February, 1813, against them on such grounds. If any with respect to every thing not contrary process have been cominenced, it shall to the dispositions of the commercial be annulled and superseded, and no manifesto issued at St. Petersburgh, Janew proceeding shall be cominenced. nuary 1st, 1809. All sequestrations of property or reve-' ' XVII. The territories incorporated aues shall in consequence be inmediate-, with the Russian Empire in virtue of