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been accepted, and the incorporation

of the grand duchy of Finland with PROCLAMATION.

the Russian empire has been con- My beloved subjects, and even my firmed. The town of Torneo and enemies know that I did not engage in the river of the same name forna the the present war from motives of ambi- fees

frontiers of the two states. tion, nor a desire of conquest. Selfpreservation, and independence, a peace

Thus has a war been ended, the consistent with the honour of my crown, various events of which have covered and with the safety and tranquillity of the Russian armies with immortal my people, constituted the exalted and glory, and the termination whereof sole aim of my exertions. The chance has added to the Russian empire a of war disappointed my expectations, country inhabited by an industrious the enemy penetrated into the interior

people, celebrated on account of its of my dominions, and over-run them

progress in agriculture, its markets ed at the same time to appreciate the important fortifications, and the for public spirit of my people, and the va- tress of Sweaburgh, which has been lour of my armies. This experience, enlarged, and has secured for ever which he dearly bought, and my con- on that side the frontiers of our 11astant solicitude to promote the prospe- tive land. rity of my dominions, led to negocia- . While weareoffering unant thanks tions for peace. My ministers, impowered for that purpose, have met those

to that Divine Being which has

to of the French Emperor. My wish is vouchsafed to favour Russia, and an honourable peace: a peace, the sti- crowned her arms with success, we pulations of which offer a prospect and hasten to acquaint you with this the possibility of duration. The va- fortunate event, feeling perfectly salour of my armies, their unshaken cou- tisfied that all our faithful subiects rage, their ardent love of their country,

will join us in offering up thanks to their desire strongly pronounced, not to lay down their arms till an honourable the Most High, for the happy con peace shall have been obtained, could clusion of a much wished for peace, never allow me to agree to conditions For the rest, after the ratifications which threatened to shake the very foun- shall have been exchanged, the dation of the monarchy, and disgrace treaty of peace will be publicly made us. The high spirit which animates our known by a distinct manifesto. troops affords us the best security, that should the enemy yet mistake our sen

I remain your affectionate, &c. timents and disposition, we shall cer

ALEXANDER. tainly obtain the reward of perseverance. St. Petersburgh, Sept. 7.

Comorn, Aug. 16. 1809.



the Civil Governor of Livonia and acting Counsellor of State, Repiel. Joachim Napoleon King of the Two

On the 5th of this month, a treaty Sicilies. of eternal peace between Russia and Considering that the motives which Sweden was concluded, signed at induced our illustrious predecessor Fredericksham, by our minister ple- to suppress certain religious orders nipotentiary, Count Romanzow, and by the law of the 13th of October, Baron Stedink on the part of Sweden. 1807, still retain their force with re.

All the propositions by us made, spect to the existing religious insti. with regard to the said peace, have tutions

• Considering that the suppression Throughout our whole kingdom of these orders is imperiously called the following religious orders are for from present circumstances, and suppressedthat it ought to operate not only. The Dominicans and all the detached without prejudice to the individuals monks of their order, the Minorites, who compose them, but even to ame- the third order of St. Francis, the liorate their condition, by allowing Minimists, the two Carmilitan orders. them as great a pension as the fi- the Brethren of St. Peter of Pisa, the nances of the state will permit, and Servites, the Brethren of St. John of proportioned to the property where- God, the Trinitarians of Mercy (Svawith the effect of this suppression nish and Italian), the Augustins, the will augment the mass of the national Sylvestrians, the Basilians, the Meadomains

tins, the Regular Minorities, the Cross i Upon the report of our ministers Bearers, the clerks of the Mother of of worship, of justice, and of finances, God, the Bamalites, the Samaschians, we have, therefore, decreed, and do the priests of St. Roche! decree, as follows :


A Concise View of the Constitution of it is our happiness to live should be

England. By George Custance. generally diffused through all ranks 12mo. pp 491.

of society." Before Mr. Custance This work is divided into thirty- had set about the unnecessary work four chapters: the author states it of inflaming the passions of his counto be a compilation from various trymen against France, by terming writers on our civil and ecclesiasti- her “a cruel and vindictive foe." cal government: had it teen merely he should have inquired whether the a compilation, the only question terms “ cruel and vindictive” are would have related to the manner in not, as they respect the late and the which the performance is executed; present war, as applicable, at least. but as the compiler has freely in- to Britain as to France ?. Did not terspersed his own opinions, and Britain, we may ask, at the com

that the rising ge. mencement of the last war, eagerly neration. 66 the higher classes in invade France, and devastate her "schools,” should adopt those opi- territories with fire and sword? Did nions, we deem it our duty, in the not she enter into the present war, present awful circumstances of the professedly to break that treaty which British nation, to examine them with a few months before she had solemnlu that attention the subject demands. ratified ?* At the very time Mr. C.

At the very outset, in the preface, Mr. C. in the Chapter Of Laws in we are sorry to observe that the General, observes, that «i truce-breakers" author so discovers his prejudices, are classed in holy writ “ with traitors: as to excite just suspicion of that &c.” He adds--- A wilful and unjust partiality by which his work is cha- violation, therefore, of public treaties, racterised. " At a time,” he re- will probably bring down upon the of marks,“ when our government is rending nation

rnment is fending nation the righteous judgment threatened with destruction by a

of the Almighty.”—Let Britain hear this

a and tremble ! cruel and relentless foe, how desira- When Mr. C. again reviles France as ble is it that a knowledge of that « our vindictive and cruel foe,” he is reunrivalled constitution under which quested to point out any of her acte


is charging France with being a practice, we have our doubts whe “ cruel and vindictive foe," one of ther the government of America does our principal generals, Lord Welnot impart an equal portion of civil lington, is proclaiming her humani- freedom; and we are sure that it ty and tenderness towards British imparts a much greater portion of prisoners; and the French general, religious freedom to its inhabitants, far from claiming any peculiar de- than the government of Britain, and gree of merit on the occasion, ac- at a tenth part of the expence. The knowledges his conduct to be “ only “ religious tyranny” of Test and pea debt of justice which one brave nal laws attaching to the most lojal nation owes to another."

subjects, which disgraces Britain, is The professed design of the author in America wholly unknown. Why in this work is stated as follows: will writers compel us to make com

“The design of the following work is parisons which so forcibly tend to simply to instruct the rising generation weaken their own favourite positions? in the fundamental principles of that Our author, however, amidst his admirable constitution which equalises high-flown panegyricks, has the can the rights of all, from the king to the dour to acknowledge that " it would peasant; which is venerable for its antiquity, because it was founded upon be the height of folly to deny that freedom, in the earliest ages; which very serious departures from the first many of our forefathers defended by principles of the British constitution their swords; and which every Briton have crept in, although it possesses should be ready to seal with his blood !this peculiarity, that it can legally

It will be seen as we proceed how and peaccably renew itself." We far the author has executed that de- allow that this is an excellence, sign; whether the genuine British although not a peculiar excellence constitution be the subject of his ad- of our constitution; but Mr. C. afmiration, or whether he be not ei- fords us little reason to hope that ther indifferent, or hostile to some our legislators, or that the people of its “ fundamental principles,” and will avail themselves of their constirather desirous that “ every Briton tutional privilege in this respect, as should be ready to seal with his he in the very paragraph quoted, deblood," those innovations, and cor- clares that he does not believe, ruptions which threaten its destruc- " whilst human nature continues what tion !

it is, that it is in the power of any Our author in his extravagant nation to secure a larger measure of and indiscriminate panegyrick on true practical liberty than Britons the constitution of his country, ob- enjoy under their existing constituserves that—“ England is the favour- tion." Now, as we have no reason ed soil which early received the seeds, to suppose that the Almighty will gractually nourished the plant, and ever create" human nature” different has at length matured the ONLY tree from what it is at present, we have, of liberty that has been found to if the position of our author be just, shelter beneath its branches, person- little expectation that a legal and al property, and life, from the scorch- peaceable renovation of our constiing beams of every kind of tyranny.” tution will ever take place. "HuIf, however, the excellency of a con- man nature” as it appears in Mr. stitution is to be judged of, not Custance, scems inveterate against merely by the theory but by the almost every species of reformation towards this country, which for their

'in either church or state, and he « vindictive cruelty" can equal the for- broadly insinuates that those who gery of assignats, and the prohibition of attempt cither are “ seditious per. the exportation of bark! br sons," or " pretended patriots:" bus Ofiar o 1831999 L



as our ideas of " human nature” as motive of gratifying his vånity and ambiit comes out of the hands of its cre- tion; and the obtaining of it would pro

out from bably produce no better effect than to ator, are somewhat different from

increase that self-importance which illthoseentertained by Mr. C. we do not

duced him to add one to the phalanx of despair of the amelioration of our a party. And surely he must be uncountry, and of the world at large. worthy of the dignified name of a senator

From the Preface we proceed to who is so incompetent to act as a public the Introduction, which in our opi- counsellor. How can he with any pronion is the best part of the work. priety consent to a new law, who is igIt abounds with just observations

norant of the old one which it is meant

to alter or repeal? The physician who enforcing the importance of a know- is unacquainted with the qualities and ledge of the constitution on all de effects of the medicines in daily use, scriptions of people.

must be a very unfit person to consult “A competent knowledge of the funda- about a new remedy for any disorder." mental principles of the constitution, is An attentive reader of this work not only an essential accomplishment of cannot but perceive the inconsistenevery English gentleman and scholar, cies, and contradictions which not but is also a desirable acquisition for all ranks of men amongst us, from the highest

unfrequently occur. When the com, to the lowest.

piler'follows his guides, and is the

Gentlemen of rank and fortune are those sound principles and just reaparticularly inexcusable if they remain sonings naturally to be expected ignorant of the laws of their country; from such writers as Blackstone, without a certain knowledge of which, Furncaux. &c. but these are too they cannot properly discharge the duties of their respective stations. For let it be

Soften followed by comments, which

on remembered, that rank, and riches, and we may plainly perceive flow from Jearning, and influence, are all talents a mind shackled by prejudices, poli committed to individuals by a kind Pro- tical and religious. Thus on the vidence for the public good. These great important subjects of laws in general, advantages are not bestowed to enable and the natural and equal rights of their possessors to squander them in ex

men, we have the following statepensive dissipation, or waste their own time in splendid idleness. On the con

ment:-“ The weight of all human trary, where much is given. much will laws rests upon the two laws of revebe required! Persons, therefore, distin- lation and nature ; that is they arç guished by the bounties of Providence, not binding upon the conscience is should enquire how they may best employ suffered to contradict them .... The the gifts with which they are favoured, natural rights of individuals are such for the good of their fellow creatures and the honour of God. The far greater part

as belong to their persons in a state of gentlemen, indeed, must be content

of nature, and which every man is with doing what good they can within

entitled to enjoy, whether out of the sphere of their influence, as private society or in it.... The absolute men. A few, however, will be called rights of Englishmen, usually called upon to appear as public characters. their liberties, are founded upon naSome will be appointed to the magistracy. ture and reason, and coeval with But how can they distribute justice to

our form of government ; and are their fellow subjects without such a knowledge of the laws as they had oppor- usually included in one general aptunities of acquiring, and which it was pellation (viz.) the natural liberty of their duty to have obtained.

mankind .... This natural liberty “Ignorance of the constitution and consists properly in a power of acting laws will be peculiarly disreputable to him as one thinks fit, without any rer who aspires to the honour of a seat in straint but from the law of nature : parliament. A candidate thus disquali- but that every man who is a member fied, can, in fact, desire to fill so responsible a situation only from the low pf, a civilized society, gives up a part

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