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CORTES.

1590

mate. In order to guard against any ACCOUNT OF THE SPANISH inconveniency arising from that contingency, and for the purpose of keeping always a moderate sum in An order has been issued in the the treasury, it may be necessary to name of FERDINAND VII. respectborrow a sum equal to the amount ing the convocation of the cortes, of the principal of the public debt, which is represented as being “ the which will be reimbursed during the most important object that can or year, and which will exceed three ought to employ the supreme junta.” millions of dollars.

The executive council of Spain A general return of the troops of seems at last to be convinced of the the United States, composing the necessity of this measure, which military peace establishment; shew- has been so repeatedly urged as ining the strength of each regiment, dispensible to the salvation of the and corps including recruits.

country. A short explanation of General and subordinate field offi the constitution and duties of the

cers ............... Spanish cortes, will shew the imporCorp of engineers .........

tance of this ancient Spanish senate. Regiment of artillerists ...... First regiment of infantry ..... 595

It is not generally known, but it Second regiment of infantry ... 576

is a fact of gicat consequence, and

highly honourable to the intelligence Total military peace establishment 2839 and spirit of the Spanish nation,

A general return of the troeps of that the representatives of the comthe United States, composing the mons formed a constituent part in additional military force, shewing the supreme assemblies of that kingthe strength of cach regiment, in- dem a century before they were adcluding recruits.

mitted to that rank in the other EuGeneral staff officers ....... 2 ropean nations. Zurita mentions a Regiment of light dragoons .... 416 convention of the cortes in the year Regiment of light artillery .... 424 1133, at which the procuradores de Third regiment of infantry .... 346

las cindades y villas were present. Fourth do.

653 Fifth du. do. ...... 692

The cortes was composed of the Sixth do do. ......

501 nobility, the clergy, and the repre

501 Seventh do do. ... ... 203 sentatives of the cities. They were Regiment of riflemen ....... 466 the depositaries of the legislative go

vernment, the executive being conTotal additional military force : . 3793 fided to the King, under the inspec

The troops composing the addi- tion, however, in some provinces at tional military force, are doing duty least, of the justiza, or supreme at the different posts and garrisons judge, who, like the ephori with the indiscriminately with those of the

e Lacedemonians, was the protector military peace establishinent.

of the people, and the controuler of Those of them who have been re- the

the prince, cruited south of Pennsylvania have "E

From Gil Gonzales de Avila, who been generally detached to New gives the writ of summons to the Orleans.

town of Abula, in 1390, we learn Those raised north of Pennsylvania

that bishops, dukes, marquisses, the are on duty in the States in which

masters of the three military orders, they were recruited.

as Condes and Ricos Hombres, were A. Y. NICOLL,

required to attend the cortes. The Assistant and Inspector. cities sending members on that ocInspector's Office, Washington City,

casion were 48 in number, and their May 26, 1809.

representatives 125. These places

do...

commissioned more or fewer members officers of his household, as well as to discharge their important func- the members of his council. The tions in that assembly, according to cortes looked with a jealous eye their rank and dignity, which appears upon the military authority, and in to have been nearly in proportion to order to control it raised troops untheir population.

der its own immediate orders, and There was one regulation which, nominated the persons who were to in modern times at least, would be command them. In the year 1503, extremely embarrassing: no law an act of the cortes is on record, could pass without the assent of conceding to the King permission every individual of the cortes. Its to appoint officers for a body of powers were prodigiously extensive; troops destined to be employed in without its permission no tax could Italy. be imposed, no money could be We are told that the cortes of Arcoined, and no war could either be ragon were vigilantly attentive to commenced or terminated. It go- all the ceremonies sanctioned by anverned all the inferior courts, re- tiquity, in their proceedings, and dressed all grievances, and inspected the following remarkable fact is every department of public adminis- stated in support of the allegation : tration. The King could neither ~" According to , the established prorogue or dissolve it, and its ses- laws and customs of Arragon no sion continued during forty days. foreigner had liberty to enter the For several centuries prior to the hall in which the cortes assembled. 14th it met annually, but subsequently Ferdinand, in the year 1481, ap. to that period biennially. Those who pointed his Queen, Isabella, regent applied for relief to the cortes did of the kingdom, while he was abnot approach that assembly as lowly sent during the course of the camsupplicants, and humble petitioners, paign. The law required that a rebut they demanded its assistance as gent should take the oath of fidelity the birthright of freemen.

in presence of the cortes; but as IsaIt is well known that until the bella was a foreigner, before she time of Ferdinand and Isabella, at could be admitted the Cortes thought the close of the fifteenth century, it necessary to pass an act, authorithe kingdoms of Leon, Castille, and sing the serjeant-porter to open the Arragon, were not united. From door of the hall to allow her to enthe silence of the historians of the ter.” two former, as to the powers and duties of the cortes, during the four- . teenth and fifteenth centuries, we

FAMILY OF BONAPARTE. are under the necessity of resorting to the annals of Arragon to supply

NAPOLEON, Emperor of France and the deficiency, but it is probable King of that we shall commit no material

JOSEPH BONAPARTE, King of Spain.

Louis BONAPARTE, King of Holland. error in supposing that these con

JEROME BONAPARTE, King of Westtemporaneous establishments were phalia. similar in the extent of their powers Eucene BEAUHARNOIS, step-son to, and privileges.

Napoleon, Viceroy of Italy. The cortes of Arragon not only

Infant daughter of EUGENE BEAUopposed the attempts of their kings HARNOIS, Princess of Bologna.

Joachim Mùrat, brother-in-law to, to increase their revenues and extend

Napoleon, King of Naples. their prerogatives, but they claimed

Cardinal Fesche, uncle to Napoleon, and exercised for some time the ex- Archbishop of Lyops and Primate of the traordinary power of appointing the Confederation of the Rhine.

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VASSAL KINGS OF BONAPATE'S CREATION. much additional evidence to enforce the • King of Bavaria.

reasonings of the writer.] King of Wurtemberg.

If we seriously attend to the Spirit King of Saxony. SOME OF THE FRENCH NOBILITY CREA

hapine and Venality, of Fraud TED BY BONAPARTE.

and Corruption, which continue to C. M. TALLEYRAND, Prince of Be- diffuse themselves, and to propanevento, in the Kingdom of Naples.

gate, not only Lurury and Avarice, • Marshal BERNADOTTE, Prince of Pon

but every Kind of Immorality, we te Corvo.

shall never think the Instruction · Marshal BERTHIER, Prince of Neuf

too often inculcated that puts 48 chatel (Switzerland.) Marshal MARMONT, Duke of Ragusa

on our Guard against so great an (Dalinatia.)

evil, especially as tending to sap Marshal' Juxor, Duke of Abrantes the Foundation of our liberty, and (Portugal.)

consequently of our Constitution ; .. Marshal SAVARY, Duke of Rovigo

a few Considerations on which may (Italy, near Venice.)

at present perhaps be not unneces. Marshal Davoust, Duke of Auerstadt.

sary! Marshal AUGEREAU, Duke of Castiglioni (in Italy, near Mantua.)

To govern a society of freemen by Marshal BESSIERES, Duke of Istria a constitution, founded on the eter(Last of the Venetian Gulf.)

nal rules of right reason, and direca Marshal KELLERMAN, Duke of Valmy. ted to promote the happiness of the • Marshal ARLICHIS, Duke of Padua whole, and of every individual, is (near Venice)

i the noblest prerogative which can Marshal CAULINCOURT, Duke of Vicenza (near Venice.)

* belong to humanity; and if a man • Marshal Duroc, Duke of Friouli may be said, without profaneness, to (north of Venice.).

imitate God, in any case, this is the Marshal Victor, Duke of Belluno case. But, sure I am, he imitates (near Venice.)

the devil, who is so far from promos Marshal SOULT, Duke of Dalmatia ting the happiness of others, that he (Gulf of Venice.)

bo makes his own happiness to consist Marshal LEFEBRE, Duke of Dantzic.

Marshal MoNcEY, Duke ot' Cornegli- in the misery of others; who goano (in Italy, near Parma.)

verns by no rule but that of his pas. Marshal MORTIER, Duke of Treviso, sions, whatever appearances he is (near Venice.)

forced sometimes to put on; who * Marsbal MASSENA, Duke of Rivoli endeavours to corrupt the innocent, (near Turin.)

and to inslave the free; whose busiMarshal NEY, Duke of Elchingen ness is to seduce or betray; whose (Germany, Circle of Swabia.) Marshal LaSNES, Duke of Montebello ple

1. pleasure is to bring into contempt; (Italy) killed.

and whose triumph is to torment. Mons. CAMBACERES, Duke of Parma Odious and execrable as this cha(Italy.)

racter is, it is the character of every Mous. LEBRUN, Duke of Placenza prince who makes use of his power (Italy.)

to subvert, or even to weaken that Mons. LACUL, Count Sessac.

constitution, which ought to be the Møns. CLARK, Count Huenberg.

rule of his government. When such

a prince fills a throne with superior POLITICAL CORRUPTIONS DAN. parts, hiberty is in the utmost perit;

nor does the danger diminish in proGEROUS TO LIBERTY.

portion, if he happens to want them. · [The following Reflections are extrac

Men, friends to his favourite mode ted from a pamphlet written in the year of government, and enemies to the 1771. We need scarcely remark, that constitution, will be always at hand the events of the past forty years afford to supply his defects; for, as they

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are the willing instruments of a toriety of the fact oblige as to say, wicked prince, they are the ready that these important conditions, withprompters of a weak one. They may out which liberty can never be sesink into the mass of the people, cure, were almost wholly neglected, and disappear in a good and wise immediately after the revolution. reign, or work themselves into pow- The claim of right declares indeed, er under false colours; but their “ that elections ought to be free; race will continue as long as ambi- “ that freedom of speech and detion and avarice prevail in the world, “ bates ought not to be impeached and there will be bad citizens as long " or questioned out of parliament; as there are bad men. The good " and that parliaments ought to be ought therefore to be always on “ held frequently.” But such detheir guard against them, and, what clarations, lowever solemnly made, ever disguise they assume, whatever are nothing better than pompous veils they cast over their conduct, `trifles, if they stand alone; producthey will never be able to deceive tive of no good, and thus far prothose long, who observe constantly ductive of ill, that they serve to the difference between constitution amuse mankind, in points of the and government, and who have vir- greatest importance, and wherein it tue enough to preserve the cause of concerns them the most nearly, neithe former, how unprofitable soever ther to be deceived, nor so much as it may be at all times, and how un- amused. These were rights, no doubt, popular soever at some.

to which the nation had an indispuThe design of the revolution being table claim. But then they ought to establish the peace, honour, and to have been more than claimed, happiness of the British dominions since they had been so often and so upon lasting foundations, and to lately invaded. procure a settlement of the religion, Aud, indeed, they could at all and of the liberties and properties times be claimed, if we look to the of the subjects, upon so sure a foun- perpetuity of free governmeut in Bridation, that there might be no dan- tain. Few men, even in this age. ger of the nation's relapsing into the are so shamefully unacquainted with like miseries at any time hereafter; the history of their country, as to this being, I say, the avowed design be ignorant of the principal events of the revolution, and the nation and signal revolutions which have having engaged in it on a confidence happened since the Norman æra. that all this would be effectually One continual design against liberty performed, the design of the revolu, has been carried on by various mea tion was not accomplished, the be- thods, almost in every reign. in nefit of it was not secured to us, the many, the struggles have been viojust expectations of the nation could lent and bloody. But liberty still not be answered, unless the feeedom triumphed over force, over treachery. of elections, and the frequency, integ- over corruption, and even under oprity, and independency of parliaments, pression. The altars of tyranny were sufficiently provided for. THESE have been demolished as soon as ARE THE ESSENTIALS OF BRITISH raised; nay, even whilst they were LIBERTY. Defects in other parts of raising; and the priests of that idol the constitution can never be fatal, if have been hewed to pieces; so that these are preserved intire. But de- I will affirm, without the least apfects in these will soon destroy the prehension of being refuted, that constitution, though every other part no people have so good a right as yf it should be so preserved! How- we have to raise in our minds the ever it happened, the truth and no- honest ambition of emulating the virtue and courage of our forefathers, this fruit, and will continue to bear in the cause of liberty; and to in- it, as long as we are careful to fence spire a reasonable fear, heightened it in, and trench it round, against by shame, of losing what they pre- the beasts of the field, and the inserved and delivered down to us, sects of the earth. To speak withthrough so many mixtures of differ- out a figure, our constitution is a ent people, of Britons with Saxons, system of government, suited to the of both with Danes, of all three genius of our nation, and even to with Normans, through so many our situation. The experience of difficulties, so many dangers, so ma- inany hundred years has shewn, that ny revolutions, in the course of so by preserving this constitution inmany centuries..

violate, or by drawing it back to the It will appear, upon due consi- principles on which it was originally deration, that our liberty cannot be founded, whenever it shall be made taken away by the force or fraud to swerve from them, we may secure alone of those who govern; it can- to ourselves, and to our latest posnot be taken away, unless the peo- terity, the possession of that liberty ple are themselves accomplices; and which we have long enjoyed. What they who are accomplices cannot be would we have more? What other lisaid to suffer by one or the other. berty than this do we seck? And if we Some nations have received the yoke seek no other, is not this marked out of servitude with little or no strug- in such characters as he that runs gle; but, if ever it is imposed upon may read? As our constitution us, we must not only hold out our therefore ought to be, what it selnecks to receive it; we must help to dom is, the rule of government; so put it on. Now, to be passive in let us make the conformity, or resuch a case is shameful; but to be pugnancy of things to this constituactive is supreme and unexampled tion, the rule by which we accept infamy. In order to become slaves, them as favourable, or reject them we of this nation must be, before- as dangerous to liberty. 'They who hand, what other people have been talk of liberty in Britain, on any rendered by a long course of servi- other principles than those of the tude; we must become the most British constitution, talk imperticorrupt, the most profligate, the nently at best, and much charity most senseless, the most servile na- is requisite to believe no worse of tion of wretches, that ever disgraced them. But they who distinguish humanity; for a force sufficient to between practicable and impracticaravish liberty from us, such as a ble liberty, in order to insinuate great standing army is in time of that the true scheme of our constipeace, cannot be continued, unless tution is of the impracticable kind, we continue it; nor can the means, are open and avowed enemies to it, necessary to steal liberty from us, and of consequence to British liberbe long enough employed with ef- ty, which cannot be supported on fect, unless we give a sanction to any other bottom. They affect'a their iniquity, and call good evil, great regard to liberty in general, and evil good.

but they dislike so much the system If liberty then be that delicious of liberty established in Britain, that and wholesome fruit on which the they are incessant in their endeaBritish nation hath fed for so many vours to puzzle the plainest thing ages, and to which we owe our in the world, and to refine and disriches, our strength, and all the ad- tinguish away the life and strength vantages we boast of; the British of our constitution in favour of the constitution is the tree that bcars little, present momentary turns,which

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