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ductive employments. While this was This junta ought to have recommende going forward,' I was at a great distance ed, and to have secured, the observance from the principality (of Asturias), but of the laws of our sovereign, and of the when I was engaged on the frontiers of central junta, to have attracted respect Portugal in iny inilitary duties, I heard to our tribunals and magistrates. But the language of complaint; suspending, what has been their conduct? Some of however, my deterinination under the our laws they have neglected, others they idea, that it might originate in envy or have openly abrogated. They have conresentment. Without rejecting these re- cealed the public orders, and intercept presentations, or entirely admitting their ed not only the correspondence of indicorrectness, I waited till circumstances viduals, but the official intercourse of should explain what at that time I could the state. In fine, misapplying the power not comprehend. But as I approached with which they were invested, and misnearer to the province, my fears were in- directing the authority which ought to creased, and, at last, I was obliged to have been employed in defence of the surrender the hope that they were ima- nation, they exercised that arbitrary ginary or deceptive. .

sway with which they ought not and In truth, persons of every class, from could not be entrusted. the lowest to the highest, told me of the Inhabitants of Asturias, I am confienormous abuses of that power which dent that you will be thankful for this ought to have been directed to different effusion of my sensibility, after the evils objects; and these statements were jus- you have endured. I promise myself tified by the consequences. The junta every thing from your dignity, fidelity, blazoned forth, that this distinguished and fortitude, recorded in the annals of province had been the first which raised your country from the most remote pethe cry of liberty, and yet, at the same riods of our history. You are the firstinstant abandoned its highest obligations, begotten of an ancient monarchy, and and, as if the war had been already ter- the vast empire of Spain was once reIninated, turned its attention to trifling stricted within the boundary of your objects connected with local characters mountains. Asturian soldiers, I expect and circumstances, interrupting the re- every thing from your valour; and it higular course of business, and occasion. therto you have accomplished little, it ing delays and mischief even to the par- is because the opportunity of serving ties concerned in these affairs. Repre- your country has not been afforded you sentatives who were ignorant, naturally I will enable you to participate in her devoted their minds to frivolous matters. glory. I will lead you to the field of The preference given to certain regi- honour. ments connected with the junta, which The commander-in-chief of the northhad no right to priority, excited disgustern provinces of Spain concludes his adin the others, and the misapplication of dress with stating the powers entrusted money in such channels, shewed that it to him by the supreme junta, and the was not intended to supply the public application of those powers, by which necessities, but to exhibit a certain ar- he dissolves the subordinate junta of bitrary authority and injurious partiality, Asturias, as unworthy of the authority which disappointed all the purposes of with which they are invested, he trauspublic good.

fers their functions to the following perYes, beloved Asturians, although you sons :-El Conde de Aguera, president; have hitherto been preserved, almost Don Ignacio Florez; Conde de Toreno wholly, from the calamities of war, I (who has succeeded to the title of father have perceived, that from other sources and was known here as Visct. Materose, you have suffered a thousand distresess, one of the deputies of Asturias); Don and to relieve your afflictions I have ar- Andres Angel de la Vega Infanzon (the Tived at your capital. By persons the other deputy of Asturias, lately resident most intelligent and impartial, by re- in London), secretary with the power of presentations from public bodies the voting; Don Gregorio Jove; Don Mamost respectable, and by my own ocu- tias Menondez; Don Francisco Urdonez, lar observations I have discovered, that secretary in case of absence; Don Juan those abuses to which I have adverted, Arguelles Mier; Don Fernando de la pot only exist, but many others in a Riva Valdés Coalla. greater degree affecting your safety and EL MARQUIS DE LA ROMANA. tranquility.

Oviedo, May 2, 1809.



1. Whoever shall endeavour to sow SPANIARDS !---The enemy of humani- distrust of the supreme central junta, Žy, Napoleon Bonaparte, knows that he and overthrow the actual government by cannot conquer Spain by force of arms, popular insurrections, and other vile and observes with pain and shame, that means, is declared guilty of high treason, his numerous armies and most warlike unworthy the name of a Spaniard, and troops find their sepulchre in our penin- sold to the tyrant Napoleon. sula; and therefore to attain his unjust 2. As such he shall suffer the punishends, he has recourse to seduction and ment of death, and his effects shall be intrigue; and by dint of bribes, and pro- confiscated. mises, which he will never fulfil, endea. 3. Whoever shall hold any language vours to sow divisions and discord. For with a view to weaken the hatred we tbis purpose he avails himself of infamous ought to feel towards the French aremissaries, who pervert the understand- mies, who are composed of infamous ing, stifle public spirit, and create dis- robbers and assassins, and come solely trust between the supreme central junta, to plunder us and sacrifice us, shall be which is the aim at which he ever points, instantly arrested, tried, and suffer the because he cannot seduce it. There are punishinent he may have incurred., no means, however detestable and vile, 4. Whoever denounces cruninals of which he does not employ, his object this class to the tribunal of public secubeing to destroy public tranquillity, hyrity shall be competently rewarded on means of his agents; that the partizans, conviction, and his name shall be conwhich to our misfortune, he has among cealed! us, may deliver us into his hands to be 5. The present proclaination shall be tořn to pieces; that on us and our fa- affixed at the accustomed places of the milies may be exercised those horrors town, and inserted in the periodical which are customary among the swarn journals. , of robbers and assassins who compose The MARQUIS DE LA ROMANA." his armies. Such are his ends, Spaniards, Corunna, July, 10. and such are his means.

The tribunal of public safety is inces- Address from the Junta to the Spanish santly employed in discovering, punish- Nution, on the anniversary of the ing, and exterminating that infamous Battle of Baylen, July 19. " race of spies, traitors, and bad Spaniards, SPANIARDS, who endeavour to deceive and ruin us. A year has now elapsed since you None shall be pardoned, and the inex- gathered the fair fruits of your first orable sword of justice shall be lifted heroic exertions. It is now a year since alike against the powerful and the weak. you gained the memorable battle of Already in other parts some culprits, Baylen, and laid the first and principal convicted of treason, have sustained the stone of the edifice of Spanish indepenpunishment due to their crimes. Others, dence. On a day so solemn our hearts among whom were public functionaries, must expand with hope, and indulge in have been received to imprisonment for the delightful impressions of satisfaction offences of less magnitude. There are and joy. in the prisons other guilty persons whose Europe had seen us a month before processes are carrying on with all speed; give the signal for war, without having and with due activity the evil-disposed, either soldiers, armies, arms, or ammuand the friends of Napoleon, will be de- nition; then we saw a great part of our livered over to the punishment they me- territory in the possession of the enemy, ‘rit. The most pernicious of all are those our strong places occupied by his troops, who, to disunite us, scatter calumnies the communication between the proagainst the present government; for this vinces cut off, and the enemy supported is the sure way, by destroying the na- . by his discipline, his experience, and tional representation, disuviting the pro- the moral force of twenty years of vicvinces, perplexing our relations with the tory, the bravery of our sublime resoAmericas and foreign courts, and intro- lution might be admired, but no pros ducing anarchy, to make the enemy perous issue could be expected. The master of the peninsula, and effect our first events consequent, on this deplordestruction. To avert this evil, which rable situation were unfortunate, and is doubtless the greatest which can befal Andalusia, invaded by the most warlike a Spaniard, I have decreed as follows. of the French divisions commanded by

General Dupont, must, in case of dis- sweetly sounds the noble name of Baylen aster, have buried under its ruins, the in the ears of a Spaniard. hopes of the nation, then fixed on that At hearing this, all this wretched alone.

rabble fled precipitately like thieves Apparently weak to restrain this tor- driven out from a house they are plune rent were the veteran national troops dering. No care was taken, no provithen assembled, as if by a miracle, in sion made for the future regulation of that province, and the valiant volun- a capital they called their own. The teers, who roused by the voice of patrio- echo of the name of Baylen confounded tism, hastened to their banners. For them, and without leaving them any 13 years the former had not made war, other thought than that of saving their-a and the latter had never seen it. All selves by flight, snatched the government minds were suspended between hope from their usurping hands and transferred and fear, anxiously waiting the event of it to ours. Memorable 19th of July! that struggle which for the time it lasted, If our revolution has assumed in the and the consequences it involved, formed political order, the majestic and august the most terrible crisis of our movements character corresponding to the move and designs. The morning of the 19th ments of a powerful nation; if notwithbroke; the arinies were in motion ; the standing the reverses which we have clamour of war agitated the air; unani- since suffered, we have never been mity and foresight animated the chiefs, abandoned by dignity or hope ; if that' intrepid valour shone in the soldiers, and hope has redoubled the sacrifices and the most happy and virtuous emulation efforts of the most magnanimous people in each of the corps which composed upon earth, to thee is it owing, thine is oyr army. The battle was fought, and the glory, thine the praise. .. those ambitious Titans, fulminated by A year ago divided Spain was viewed our inimitable artillery, were precipi- with indifference by some, with comtated from the summit of their insup- passion by others, and by many (0 portable pride to the degradation of Shame!) with contempt ; degraded and captivity. The shouts of victory re- enfeebled within, overpowered without, sounded in the districts of Baylen and the lords of the two worlds were nearly Mengebar, and were re-echoed by the sunk in the ocean of French ambition : summits of the Sierra Morena; in an and seemed about to disappear from the instant they filled all Andalusia, and political system of Europe. But what gave new life and joy to all the inhabi- prodigies in the course of a year! you tants of the peninsula, 0 Andalusians, have awaked from thedisgracefullethargy that exultation, that unexpected joy in which you lay; you have overturned which then filled your hearts, -and the the throne of arbitrary power which splendour which thisgreat event reflected consumed you; and you have made prion your peninsula, followed closely on soners of war a whole French armny, conthe uncertainty and consternation in cluding your first campaign, contrary to which you were. But you had not suf- all expectation, in the most brilliant fered French oppression ; you had not and fortunate manner. - In this year, known their insufferable pride, their in which will be eternally memorable, you sensate vanity; you had not heard them have reunited the state then divided boast that it was impossible to beat them; into as many fractions as provinces, and you had not seen thein enthrone their assailed by a cloud of disasters, accu. wretched king, whom they carry about mulated over your heads as if to defy with them like a puppet on the throne human assistance; you have shewn destined by us to be hereafter the seat yourselves more interesting and respecof innocence and justice, and not of table in adversity than great in good iniquity and infamy, You had not seen fortune. The precious fruits of this them, in fine, dispose of and abuse all sublime constancy are the powerful public things, pervert the weak, insult alliances by which you are supported, and persecute the good, exalt the bad, the powerful and better organized armies and announce to us as indestructable by which you are defended, and the disand eternal, their abominable tyranny : confiture of your enemies, who, retiring and all, all this was necessary to have on all sides, only endeavour to preserve conceived the delicious glory and in themselves united. Spaniards, their eifable pleasure of liberty; to know how feebleness and confusion offers us an opportunity to renew, at the same pe- innocent states. And there was it that riod, on the same day, the immortal his pride has been abased, his armies success of Baylen.

thrown into confusion, and he himself Proceed then, bravely forwards, and compelled to repass the river, flying froin act in concert with the noble efforts of the Austrian star which has now obscured your warlike allies. Do you not per- his own. Every battle which is fought ceive that heaven, wearied with so many there, every man who falls, each drop horrors, points out the path of fortune of blood which is there shed, is a tribute, to the nations who struggle for justice? Spaniards, is a tribute paid to your liDo you not hear the shouts of victory berty and your vengeance. Can you resounding from the confines of Italy, from desire greater good fortune, greater hothe banks of the Vistula, from the isles nour? Placed in the first rank, and of the Danube? They were the most raising in this great contest the banner warlike divisions of the tyrant, cham- of hostility and extermination against pions, the ministers of his ambition, the France, redouble your efforts.-Rememcompanions of his crimes. There was he ber Baylen, and suffer no nation to wrest himself animating and directing destruc- from your hands this splendid preration, and arming the death blow at the gative. liberty and the existence of a hundred


ON THE MEANING OF THE son, and Nath. Bacon, two very pithy , TERM ALLEGIANCE.

and ingenious writers.“ A bargain's

a bargain,” said they ; “ he who To the Editor.

“ breaks it himself cannot complain SIR,

“ of any infraction that may be made I perceive by the accounts lately “ by the other party; it is a knot published respecting the deposition " that you cannot untie at one end of the King of Sweden, that the Ba- “ without loosening the other also." run de Mannenheim stepped forth in No man contributed more to the the diet, and after recounting the Revolution than Samuel Johnson, grievances alledged by the people by his Julian the Apostate, his Hisagainst the late King Gustavus, pro- tory of Magna Charta, and his Adnounced a formal renunciation of dress to James's Army, which induhis ALLEGIANCE; which proceeding ced them to lay down their arms. was approved by the other members He proved that James had broken of the states then assembled. This the compact, and consequently had circumstance greatly elucidates those absolved the people from their alle primitive institutions on which allgiance; and the convention parliathe free governments of gothic ori- ment adopted his very words in their gin were constructed; and conse- famous declaration, “That King quently leads us to a just concep- “ James II. having endeavoured tu tion of the Revolution of 1688, re “subvert the constitution of the specting which Mr. Burke has re- “ kingdom by breaking the original tailed so many errors in his famous “ contract between king and people, publication on French affairs. It “ and by the advice of jesuits and shews that there was ab initio in these “ other wicked persons, having viogovernments, a compact between the “lated the fundamental laws &c. prince and people, which if broken “ hath abdicated the government." by one side, absolved and emanci- To abdicate the government, is to forpated the other; as was well said feit the government. The conferat that period of time (I mean the ence which is given at length in Revolution) by the Rev.Samuel John- Rapin, folio edition, Vol. II. p.787. between the two houses decides this present to other collateral circumpoint, and the Scotish parliament stances in proof that compact is the actually used the word forfeited in- ground work of our government, I stead of the other.—~There were, shall confine my present remarks to however, many at that time, who illustrations of the institution called would not allow that the crown could allegiance, premising that a similar be forfeited: they were tories, and renunciation to that made so lately contended for divine right, which they in the Swedish diet, was also made held of course to be indefeasible; the in England on two important occawhigs on the contrary deriving the sions. The first was at the deposiregal right from compact, consistent- tion of Edward II, who most unquesly maintained it to be defeasible. 'tionably broke the compact we are Now this question was, if properly treating of. He was crowned by the considered, a question of fact and Bishop of Winchester on the 24th, of not of theory and speculation; and February, 1308; and the form of the amongst the many evidences that oath is given in Rapin, folio edition, concur to establish this fact is this Vol. II. p. 389. as follows. construction of allegiance; and sure- “ Bishop of Winchester. Sir, will ly it is very important that not only “ you keep and confirm by your our ancestors, but that all the other " oath to the people of England, gothic nations likewise, considered “ the laws established by the pious this institution of allegiance as com- '“ Kings your predecessors, and parprising that very compact between“ ticularly the laws, customs, and prince and people, which was re- “ liberties granted to the clergy and jected at that time as a chimera by“ people by the glorious Saint Ed. the tories, and upon which their an- “ ward your predecessor?" tagonists the whigs grounded the “King. I will and promise it." right they asserted, and actually! There is no occasion to copy the did carry into execution, of putting remainder of this solemn ratification James's forfeited crown on the head of a clear and express compact beof King William. The tories of that tween prince and people; only I day considered William as an usur- wish to observe that the laws called per; and by the same rule our modern Saint Edwards are the fundamental tories, if they were consistent, would laws alluded to in the declaration hold George III. to be one likewise, of the convention parliament which for he stands in William's shoes. James II. is there asserted to have But if James did commit forfeiture violated. Edward II. having been or defeasance, if by breach of com- deposed in a legal and regular way pact he divested himself of the crown, for this wicked violation, Sir Wilthen might another be lawfully and liam Trussel, having a power of proconstitutionally invested with it, and curation from parliament for the there is no usurpation, or conti- purpose, pronounced to him these muance of usurpation in the case. words, which are more full, though Now, sir, as I really wish the King to the same purpose as those of the of England to be considered as hold- Baron de Mannenheim. “I Wiling his crown by a better title than “liam Trussel, procurator of the continuance of usurpation, I was real-“ prelates, earls, barons, and peoly gratified to find a reference to “ple in my procuracy named, hathose old primitive notions respect- “ ving for this full and sufficient ing the nature of the connection be- power, do surrender unto you Edtween prince and people referred to "ward late King of England, the in the late transactions at Stock- “ homage and fealty of the persons holm; and, without digressing at ” aforesaid, and do acquit the same

VOL. 91.

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