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have most trufie cause of a problems of freed

bably ignorant of the decrees issued in his name ;---these Spanisla juntas have proved a disgrace to the name of government ; and are sarely the most unfit assemblies that could possibly have been formed to support the cause of a people, wishing to assert their independence, and to enjoy the blessings of freedom. At the present moment, these stupid slaves, instead of using the means of awaken. ing and calling forth energies indispepsibly requisite for the recovery of such inestimable blessings, are pursuing the most effectual means to stifle those energies. The foundation principle, FREEDOM OF DISCUSSION, is their abhorrence ; and the only enlighteued print in the country, conducted on the principles of patrio. tism, has been suppressed. The miserable junta, baving neither the ability nor the inclination to pursue those measures necessary to the regeneration of their country, are now in a state of disunion, and the British ambassador, it is confidently reported, is endeavouring to form a new government, and to place at its head as regent, the Archbishop of TOLEDO,-a wealthy prelate whose character for superstition, may render him a fit instrument for engaging in a project so dear to the ambassador, the restoration of the ancient government of Spain, and the re-establishment of the authority, temporal and spiritual of the pope of Rome!

The “ illustrious house of BRAGANZA," our Portugueze ally, likewise engaged the assistance of the British government. Wretched and degraded, as in every respect was the old govern- . ment of Portugal, we entertained some hopes that her princes would, after witnessing the tremendous events of the past twenty years, have been accompanied in their transportation to their Brązillian territories, by a small portion, if not of extraordinary wisdom at least of common sense! But the same system of civil and ecclesiastical despotism which has so long been the bane of the mother country is carefully adopted in her colonies. An edict has been recently issued from the court of Rio Janiero annihilating even the rudiments of freedom; by which edict not only all publications are suppressed unauthorised by a police, under the immediate orders of the court, but even any notices of intended publications ! Thus the example of that dark and horrible tribunal the inquisition, which, praise to the Aliniglity, is falling to ruins wherever the arms of France are triumphant, is by the Brazillian court servilely followed. The regency at Lisbon, carefully preserve the same despotic system !-Such is the cause in Spain, and in Portugal, which Britons are fighting to support; and success to which was toasted with the utmost enthusiasm by the merchants, bankers, and traders of the metropolis, and by ministers, and ex-ministers with their respective partisans, at the jubiles meeting held in honour of a BRITISH

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and PROTESTANT King, at the commencement of the 50th. year of his reign! . The expedition to HOLLAND has been another principal object which has employed the attention of government during the past summer. The magnitude and expence of the preparations, are almost unparalleled in the history of expeditions: in this, as well as in their other nieasures, ministers had the armies, the navies, and the treasure of the country at their command. The objects of the expedition were the possession of the island of Walcheren, as introductory to the attainment of superior objects, the possession of the city of Antwerp, and a considerable portion of the French navy. The dispatches of the commander in chief bave proved to demonstration the ignorance of those who planned the expedition of the obstacles they had to encounter, from the pature of the countries to be invaded, the disposition of the inhabitants, and their state of defence. Never was there an expedition in which the expectations of the contrivers, and of the public, were more severely disappointed. The loss sustained in warfare is comparatively small, but the ravages of disease have destroyed the major part of the army; . several thousands of the sick have been sent home to their own country; but the latest accounts state that the epidemic, and the consequent mortality were not at all diminished. We remain at present in possession of the island ; and government having advertized to contract for one thousand oxen, to be delivered there, ap pear resolved to keep possession so long as they are able. If, however, the enemy do not shortly compel our forces to evacuate the island, it will, judging from present appearauces, prove the grave of most of them. • We do not deem it necessary to recapitulate the lesser events of our campaigns; those on the coast of Sicily or elsewhere. They have all one characteristic:-British resources unprofitably squandered, and British blood prodigally spilt, may be inscribed on all our plans, and on every part of our operations!

PEACE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND SWEDEN. , The Revolution in Sweden by which another of the regular sovereigns of Europe has been deposed, and happily without bloodshed,

is another of those events of which the present age has been so fruit. - ful, and which naturally gives rise to many important reflections. It

was our intention to have presented our readers with some account of the events which led to this Revolution-Of the Robbery of the rights of his subjects committed by the father of the late King Of his melancholy fate-And to have compared the new constitution with the old: but as the latter lias not yet been published in this

country, we are unwilling to remark on imperfect reports, which are not the niost favourable to the rights of the people. Ou this part of the subject we therefore, for the present, only remark in general, that the mere deposition of a sovereign, is, like the change of an administration, of trifling consequence, unless it be followed by an entire change of system, in which the RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE shall be recognised and secured.

The more immediate occasion of the recent revolution, was the wretched system pursued by the late sovereign ; his frantic eagerness to signalize himself as one of the “ deliverers of Europe," anai of consequence, his exposing himself to the enmity and vengeance of France and Russia. The reason assigned for concluding a peace with Russia, by which Sweden is sadly dismembered, is otticially stated as follows: The exhausted state of the country, occasioned * by the perverse measures adopted and obstinately pursued by " tine late government, which did not warrant a hope that it would -* be possible for his present Majesty to obtain a favourable peace. « The King's endeavours to induce his Russian Majesty to lower his “demands, having proved fruitless, he directed his ministers to sign * a peace, by which valuable possessions are severed from Sweden. * In so doing, his royal Majesty has merely consulted the urgent * wants of the realm, speedily to obtain tranquillity and repose af. « ter a destructive war, which had exhausted all its resources !" Had the late King amidst the storms which have convulsed Europe, and which are chiefly to be attributed to the frantic measures of its " regular sovereigns," who formed coalitions, not only to entail slavery on their own subjects, but to crush the rising freedom of independent states, Poland, Francé &c. to partition one king. dom, and to dismember others :-had the late King of Sweden, instead of being seized with the general delirium, endeavoured to preserve to his subjects the blessings of peace; had he instead of proclaiining himself unfriendly to Denmark, united with her sovereign in maintaining a dignified neutrality, it is highly probable, that by such conduct he would have preserved his crown, if he had not preserved a neighbouring kingdom from British rapacity and pillage. The Revolution in Sweden, and the degrading peace with Russia, to which the new government is compelled to accede, affords an awful warning to corrupt ministers and weak sovereigns, how they sex"haust the state of a country by perverse measures obstinately pur

sued” for the attainment of unjust and unattainable objects, which measures are sure to end in the disgrace, if not the ruin of the parties. Is The Swedish Revolution enforces another important lesson

The necessity of a free and pure representation of the people. History proclaims in every page, that in proportion as a people are enlightened, and as they interest themselves in the preservation of their liberties, in that proportion they are free and happy; and that ignorance and indifference, venality and servility, are the parents of those numberless abuses by which a people are enslaved, and which unreformed, must terminate sooner or later in Revolution! Spain once had her CORTEZ~Sweden had her SENATE; in both the people enjoyed a considerable portion of their rights. Their sovereigns by degrees deprived them of those rights. May the calamitous şituation of these countries, and the fate of their unhappy sove. reigns, teach those lessons of wisdom to surrounding nations and their rulers which such awful events are so peculiarly calculated to enforce!

CABINET ARRANGEMENTS.. The correspondence and explanations of Lord CASTLEREAGH and Mr. CANNING, in vindication of their conduct which terminated in the late scandalous violation of the laws of God, and their country, afford little to interest or amuse the public. It appears that Mr. Canning “ so long ago as Easter, represented to the Duke of “ Portland, the insufficiency in his opinion) of the government as “.then constituted, to carry on the affairs of the country, under all “ the difficulties of the times, and requested that unless some change " was effected in it, be might be permitted to resign his office." It farther appears that Lord Castlereagh was the ninister for whose removal Mr. Canning was desirous. What the particular objection was to his lordship, is not even hinted; but we cannot help suspect. ing that it was not on account of any “ insufficiency,” as he was cer.' tainly, as a statesman, on a par with the prime mipister, the Duke, of Portland, who seven years ago resigued his place as a cabinet minister on account of his age and infirmities, although to serve the purpose of a party he was, five years afterwards, placed at the head of administration : and with respect to the rest of the cabinet, Lords

LIVERPOOL, HARROWBY, CHATHAM, CAMDEN, &c. their ta·lents are quite on a level with Lord Castlereagh's. It is therefore

to be suspected that Mr. Canning had some ambitious purpose to serve in the cabinet, and that by the proposed removal of Lord Castlereagh, he intended to strengthen his own particular interests. With respect to any objection to his lordship on account of his trafficking in East India patronage, and seats in parliament, Mr. Cauning has taken particular care in his explanation to prevent any suspicion on that head. The right hon. gentleman, indeed, feeling for the honour of his colleague in the borough-bartering affair brought before parliament, consented to the postponement of Lord Castle reagh's dismission, “ from a consideration of the particular circumstances under which his lordship stood ju the house of Commons,

ebüdtry, we are unwilling to remark on imperfect reports, which are not the niost favourable to the rights of the people. On this part of the subject we therefore, for the present, only remark in general, that the mere deposition of a sovereign, is, like the change of an administration, of trifling consequence, unless it be 'followed by an entire change of system, in which the RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE shall be recognised and secured.

The more immediate occasion of the recent revolution, was the wretched system pursued by the late sovereign ; his frantic eagerpess to signalize himself as one of the " deliverers of Europe," and of consequence, his exposing himself to the enmity and vengeance of Fravce and Russia. The reason assigned for concluding a peace with Russia, by which Sweden is sadly dismembered, is officially stated as follows:-" The exhausted state of the country, occasioned " by the perrerse measures adopted and obstinately pursued by “ tine late government, which did not warrant a hope that it would "be possible for his present Majesty to obtain a favourable peace. “ The King's endeavours to induce his Russian Majesty to lower his ! “ demands, having proved fruitless, he directed his ministers to sign " a peace, by which valuable possessions are severed from Sweden. "In so doing, his royal Majesty has merely consulted the urgent * wants of the realnı, speedily to obtain tranquillity and repose af" ter a destructive war, which had exhausted all its resources !" Had the late King amidst the storms which have convulsed Europe, and which are chiefly to be attributed to the frantic measures of its "regular sovereigns," who formed coalitions, not only to entail slavery on their own subjects, but to crush the rising freedom of independent states, Poland, France &c. to partition one king. dom, and to dismember others :-had the late King of Sweden, instead of being seized with the general delirium, endeavoured to preserve to his subjects the blessings of peace; had he instead of proclaining himself unfriendly to Denmark, united with her sovereign in maintaining a dignified neutrality, it is highly probable, that by such conduct he would have preserved his crown, if he had not preserved a neighbouring kingdom from British rapacity and pillage. The Revolution in Sweden, and the degrading peace with Russia, to which the new government is compelled to accede, affords an awful warning to corrupt ministers and weak sovereigns, how they “ ex"haust the state of a country by perverse measures obstinately pur" sued” for the attainment of unjust and unattainable objects, which measures are sure to end in the disgrace, if not the ruin of the parties. Já The Swedish Revolution enforces another important lessonThe necessity of a free and pure representation of the people. History proclaims in every page, that in proportion as a people are enlightened, and as they interest themselves in the preservation of

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