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ways, thou King of Saints! Who shall not fear thee and glorify thy name, for thou only art holy; for all nations shall come ond worship before thee, for thy judgments are made manifest !* . : It is the peculiar prerogative of the Great Governor of the world to punish guilty communities; and although his retributive justice may be sometimes slow, it is always sure. As he op the one hand, not unfrequently suffers individuals who have been the most active in, corrupting, and by that means effecting the ruin of their country, to escape in this world, the punishment due to their crimes, so on the other hand, in the fall of such communities, he permits those who have been entrusted with their guidance, to suffer, sometimes severely, although they may not be so charged with guilt, as their predecessors. A future day of judgment will, however, rectify all inequalities as they respect particular persons, so that not an individual of the whole race of Adamı will be able to complain of injustice. In the mean time, it must be the wish of every good man, that in the revolutions even of the most corrupt states, personal sufs, feriug may be, as much as possible, prevented. It adds to our satisfaction on this occasion, that the Pope has been treated so very differently from most of those uuhappy potentatęs,wbo have fallen into the hands of his predecessors. The old priest, instead of being stripped of his possessions, his liberty, and his life; instead of being driven as a vagabond to foreign countries, is allowed the quiet enjoyment of his estates, and left in possession of an annual ins
come of upwards of 100,0001. sterling. We know nothing of the faith, or the morals of the “ holy father”: should he be infected with those principles of infidelity which have marked the college of cardinals,t he may still exclaim in the language of one of his prede. cessors=“What a profitable fable is christianity!" But if he be a real believer, he may spend the remainder of his days in tranquila lity, and be abundantly thankful that the measure-his predecessors meted to others, has not been measured to him again., May the fa vourite inscription on the tombs of catholics be applicable to the last days of his holiness :--Requiescat in pace!
* Revelations, Chap, xviii, 20. xii 17. XV. 3.4. · + It is a well known fact that Lord Barrington, father of the present Bishop of Durham, when visiting Italy, had frequent opportunities of freely conversing with the cardinals of the church of Rome, who were fond of disputing, with him the truth of christianity: on his expressing to one of their eminences his surprise at finding infidelity so preyalent in the college, his eminence returned the compliment by expressing his surprise that a per: son of his lordship's understanding should be a believer in christianity! .
Dr. Priestley in some of his works informs us, that when he visited Paris, previous to the Revolution, he found infidelity, generally prevalent, and more particularly amongst the higher ranks of the clergy?. Lie .
An important edict has been recently published by the King of BAVARIA, relative to the religion, and religious corporations of his dominions. It is stated to be of considerable length, but the most essential points are the following:- The edict declares--" That aa * absolute liberty of conscience is guaranteed to, ALL the inhabitants % of Bavaria ; --that every person may choose and exercise what
religion he pleases, as soon as he shall have obtained the age of "twenty years, without any prejudice to his civil rights : this " regulation applies to both sexes. The making of proselytes either " by force or fraud is prohibited.” Various other just, and wise regulations are adopted; the whole forming a tolerant code which promises the greatest advantages. These are some of the beneficial consequences of the French revolution; and when it is recollected, that the Bavarian dominions were entirely overspread with the darkness, superstition, and intolerance of popery, the adoption of a code, which for its justice and liberality is far superior to that of certain protestant states, we cannot but express our earest hope that the example of the former will be speedily followed by the latter. Flere
vil It is surely high time that Protestant governments should no longer suffer themselves to be outrun in the glorious career of jus tice, and humanity; that those countries which boast of the free, dom of their civil constitution, should no longer suffer the reproach of intolerance in the affairs of religion. It behoves the members of ALL protestant churches and sects, seriously to recollect, that the most odious part of popery is that persecuting spirit which has made such dreadful havoc with the property, liberties and lives of mankind. Although toleration has, owing to the policy of the ci vil power, made considerable advances, in our own country, there are laws still remaining on our statute books, which are a scandal to religion and humanity. The situation of the Catholics of Irex land, and of the Protestant dissenters of Great Britain, and their exclusion from many civil rights, merely on account of their reli. gious principles, too plainly prove, that we have yet much to learn, even from Sovereigns and States professing the Roman Catholic religion; and that whatever may be our professions, we bave not vet so much imbibed the spirit of the Christián dispensation, as those governments whose statute books now declare, " absolute liber. "ty of conscience, so that every person may choose and exercise " what religion he pleases, WITHOUT ANY PREJUDICE TO HIS « CIVIL RIGHTS. F
o cak dostante,
In a late Review, we entered into some discussion respecting the nature, the justice, and the policy of the Austrian war;* and from the evidence arising out of ihe official documents, published by the respective parties, we inferred that the war on the part of Austria was alike 'unjust and impolitic. The grand Manifesto of the Emperor Francis, which has appeared in very few of the public prints, is inserted in our present number, and forms an important document in the history of the war: it proves that Austria had for some time past been on the watch for a favourable opportunity for renewing the contest; and that the dream of recovering his former dominions, and influence in Europe, and of restoring the old, worthless Germanic Constitution, had been constantly floating in the brain of the Emperor. His conduct, in making vast preparations for war, and, instead, as be suggested, of acting merely on the defensive, invading the territories of a neighbouring Sovereign, the King of Bavaria, against whom he does not appear to have urged any ground of complaint, affords additional evidence, that manner of commencing hostilities corresponded with his pretences; and too plainly proves the infatuation of those councils which have, after a short campaign," of three months, terminated a third war, and prostrated the Austrian Emperor at the feet of his thrice triumphant conqueror. i ?i pori . .?!...!" 5.1
Notes of considerable length on the Austrian Manifesto have apo peared in the official French paper, the Moniteur ; but as arguments of a much more tremendous nature, (the ultima ratio rem gum) have since suspended, and in fact terminated the war, they may now be considered, comparatively speaking, of trifling importance. Our readers may judge of the manner in which these potes. are written by the following paragraph towards the conclusion. . .
“ Behold, these are all the grievances of which Austria complains, on « going to war. The remainder of the Manifesto is only a confession of « its aggression, and an inadequate and fallacious explanation of its hostile « measures and armaments. It would have been more noble to declare, “ I have never ceased, at the bottom of my heart, to be your enemy. I “ have watched for occasions to attack you' with advantage, and surprise « you undefended. I never had any other policy, and I thought I should “be absolved by victory. It was for this reason I took up arms in 1805, 4 when I thought your 'troops were engaged in the expeditions against “ England. You vanquished me, but you did not changé me. - I implored ." your generosity ; I used the only resource of the conquered. You treated « me with a magnanimity which I dared not expect; but in restoring me “ my crown and dignity, I ought to have thought that you gave me the « sentiments which belonged to them. You ought to have expected I “ should be ungrateful. Re-placed in the position from which the fate of “ arms had torn me, I re-adopted the policy of my house. Thus it became
* See Rev. for May, Vol. V. p. lxxviii.
me to do in 1808, what I ought to have done in 1806, and actually did " in 1805. Therefore, when I thought your troops seriously occupied in “ Spain, I took up arms to march against you."
The brilliant successes of the French during the first twenty days of the war, placed them in possession of the Austrian capital. Recollecting the result which shortly followed similar events in the year 1805, we expressed our opinion that the fate of Austria was rapidly advancing, and that from the moment the enemy was in possession of her capital she was in fact subdued. The Emperor, his generals, and armies, were, however, resolved to make one more desperate struggle, not only to check the progress of France, but, as it since appears by the language of the official details, to retrieve their past misfortunes, and to atchieve new conquests. In consequence of this resolution, battles have been fought, which are justly characterised by the Austrian generals, as “the most awful, sanguinary, and “ murderous, that have taken place since the commencement of the “ French Revolution.” Both parties claimed the victory: the result however, too evidently discovers on which side the claim was just. The French armies about the time mentioned by Napoleon for the completion of his preparations, renewed their attacks; and in subsequent victorious conflicts, so completely disheartened the enemy, that a suspension of arms was solicited; which, happily for the interests of humanity, was almost immediately granted. The terms, are, as might naturally be expected, humiliating: the country of the Tyrolese, hitherto the theatre of obstinate conflict, is to be abandoned by the Austrians; the French armies are to remain in possession of the country they have conquered, and two important fortresses are to be placed in their possession. In short, what we predicted with some degree of confidence at the commencement of the contest, is awfully fulfilled ;--the Austrian Emperor is now, after a three months campaign, in which he bras lavished his resources, sacrificed above 100,000 of his subjects, and lost a considerable part of his dominions, entirely at the mercy of Napoleon!
What will be the final destiny of Austria, it is impossible to say, What we offer on the subject is merely conjectural, and our readers will receive it as such. We however, suspect, that the dictates of policy, if not of magnanimity, will suggest to the mind of Napoleon certain advantages wbich may arise from his not only permite ting the Austrian Emperor, or King of Bohemia, or Hungary, (for his new title is scarcely yet settled) to retain his station amongst the sovereigns of Europe, but perhaps, by endeavouring to convert him from an enemy to a friend, render him subservient to his future purposes. May not some compensation for the loss of former dominions, influence, and authority in Germany, be made, by the B
offer of a participation in the division of some remaining old, decrepid, corrupt empire; or to use more statesman-like language, some remaining “ regular government,” devoted by Napoleon to destruction. The fall of the Turkish empire is an event which has been predicted by both politicians and divines : the latter, in particular, have confidently expressed their opinion, that the fate of the false prophet, Mahomet, at Constantinople, will be similar to, and follow in quick succession that of the Beast at Rome. Should the Aus- . trian Emperor be admitted into the councils of his imperial brothers of France and Russia, respecting the Turkish empire, the. terms of such a proof of reconciliation and confidence, may easily be conjectured ;-A treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, agajost the “common enemy;"-a term within the past twelvemonth applied by the respective parties to Great Britain, which within these three months has been applied by Austria to France, and which in all probability, will ere long again be used agreeably to its former application. · The infatuation which has so fatally seized the councils of Austria, has, judging from the language of the public prints, communicated itself to the principal political parties of this country. The writers in the ministerial privts, the Morning Post and the Morning He. rald, more particularly, and in the Sidmouth print, the Times, have ever siuce the commencement of the Austrian war, had their heads totally bewildered with the old, idle dreams of the “ deliverance “ of Europe.” The successes of the French appear to bave bad scarcely any effect in weakening the force of these delusions. The credit of the French bulletins has been warmly attacked; but after perusing the official accounts of both parties, after allowing for that colouring which is usually applied by all writers of military opera. tions, the different accounts are not so contradictory, but that the truth may without any great difficulty be discovered. The attentive and impartial reader will perceive, that the Austrian details con firm, in the most material points, the French bulletins. By the eleventh bulletin it is evident, that although in the horrible conflicts of the 21st. and 22d. of May, the French claimed the victory, they were not victories of that description they were wont to claim ; that they were materially checked in their career, and were disabled from pursuing the enemy: the reason assigned is" the destruc“tion of the bridges, owing to the sudden , rise of the Danube, .“ when the Austrian army was on the point of being destroyed, by “ which dreadful accident all the reserve parks of the artillery " which were advancing were detained on the right bank, as was " also a part of the heavy cavalry, and the whole of the Duke of “ Auerstadt's corps .... that in consequence, the slackening of the “ fire, and the concentrating movement of the French army soon