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cago, Ill.

T. E. CLIFFE LESLIE, the eminent English Polit Wu. ROSCHIER, Professor of Political Economy at ical Economist.

the University of Leipzig.
HENRY D. LLOYD, Financial Editor of the Chi-M. ROTIE, Professor at Soro, Denmark.
cago Tribune.

F. B. SANBORX, Concord, Mass.
E. LÖNING, Professor University Dorpat, Russia. HIORACE Say, France.
.Join LOWELI, Chestnut Hill, Mass.

J. B. Say, France.
ALFRED BISHOP MASON, Counselor-at-Law, Chi- | LEON Say, Economist, France.

L. SCHWARTZ, Germany.
D. H. MASON, Chicago, Ill.

JULES SIMON, Member of the French Academy. CHARLES DE MAZADE, France.

EDMUND MUNROE SMITH, Professor in Columbia J. R. M‘CULLOCII, the English Economist.

College, New York.
G. DE MOLINARI, Editor of the Journal des Dé- HLAYDN SMITH, Chicago Times.

bats, Corresponding Member of the Institute of L. Smith, London.

A. R. SPOFFORD, Librarian of ('ongress, WashM. MONJEAN, France.

ington, D. C. E. MOXTEGUT, France.

SIMON STERNE, Counselor-at-Law, New York. MICHEL NICOLAS, Professor, Montauban, France. J. STOESSEL, Switzerland. S. N. D. NORTII, Utica, N. Y.

A. M. SULLIVAN, M. P., London, England. M. ORTOLAN, Lawyer, France.

IIENRI THIERS, France. A, OTT, France.

Joux P. TOWNSEND, one of the Vice-Presidents E. PAIGNON, France.

of the Bowery Savings Bank, New York. ESQUIROU DE PARIEU, Member of the Institute A. L'BICINI, Italy. of France.

FRANCIS A. WALKER, Mass. Institute of TechH. Passy, France.

nology, Boston, Mass. JULES PAUTET, French Vice-Prefect.

J. I). WEEKS, Editor of the Iron Age, Expert and M. Poezi, Professor at the University of Mu Special Agent (Tenth Census l'. S.) for Wages nich.

in Manufacturing Industry, Pittsburg, Pa. FRED. POLLOCK, Cambridge University, England. DAVID A. WELLS, the eminent American EconoR. P. PORTER, Special Agent (Tenth ('ensus mist, Norwich, Conn.

C. S.) for Statistics of Wealth, Debt, Taxation IIORICE WHITE, New York. and Railroads, Washington, D). C.


New York. M. RABUTAUX, Publicist, France.

TALCOTT WILLIAMS, The Press, Philadelphia, R. W. RAYMOND, New York.

ERNEST RENAN, Member of the Institute of FRED. II. Wines, Springfield, Mass.

II. B. WITTON, Inspector of Canals, IIamilton,
Louis REYBAUD, Member of the Institute of Ont.

L. WOLOWSKI, Paris, France. LEON DE Rosny, Franco

Tuko. S. WOOLSEY, Professor at Yale College.

The following is a List of the Subjects treated by American Writers :

ATKINSON, EDWARD- Banks, Functions of.

BOLLES, ALBERT S.- Finance, American.
BOWKER, R. R. -Scratching.
BRYCE, T. T. – Products on Paper.
BURCHARD, H. C. - Coinage; Gold; Silver.

JAMES, E. J. - Banks of Issue; Customs Duties; Educa

tion, Compulsory ; Emigration and Immigration; Ex-
cise; Factory Laws; Finance, Science of ; Iusurance;

Labor; Political Economny, History of.
JOINSTON, ALEXANDER - The Articles on the Political

History of the United States in the Cyclopædia.
JOINSTON, JOIN – Scotland.

CARY, EDWARD- Education and the State; Gambettism.

KYOX, JOIIN JAY – Banking; United States Notes; United CLAMPITT, JOHN W.- Bill ; Court Martial ; Military States Notes- Legal Tender Cases-Decisions of the Su

Commissions; Law, Common ; Law, Criminal; Magna preme Court of the United States; United States SurCharta; Police Power of the State.

plus Money, Distribution of, among the States. COLBY, JAMES F.- Privateering; Prizes, Maritime; Suf KOERNER, GUSTAVE - Monroe Doctrine; Outlawry.

frage; Territorial Waters. CONWAY, EUSTACE - Treaties; United States Pension

LLOYD, H. D. — Clearing, and Clearing Houses. Laws.

LOWELL, JOIN - Bankruptcy. COOLEY, THOS. M. - Bar; Corporations, Law of. COWLEY, C. – Knights of the Order of St. Crispin: Na- MASON, ALFRED B. – Proportional Representation. tional Cemeteries; Ten-Hour Law; “Waltham System."

MASON, DAVID H. — Protection in the United States.. CROSBY, EDWARD H. - Petition, Right of; Priority of

Debts Due to the United States and to the States; Pub. lic Policy.

NORTII, S. N. D. – Press, The Newspaper an Periodical: DAVIS, J. C. BANCROFT – Geneva Arbitration ; Treaties

PORTER, ROBERT P. – Debts, National, State and Local. of the United States.

PUTNAM, GEO. HIAVEN – Property, Literary.

RAYMOND, R. W.- Mines.

EATON, DORMAN B.- Civil Administration ; Civil Serv.

ice Reform ; Confirmation by the Senate ; Judiciary, Elective; Patronage; Primary Elections; Promotion; Removals from Office; Spoils System; Term and Tenure

of Office. EBERHARDT, MAX. — Aliens; Bundesrath; German Em


FISKE, JOHN-Great Britain; House of Com ons; House

of Lords. FORD, WORTHINGTON C. - Extradition; Income Tax;

Internal Revenue of the United States; License Tax; Nary; Participation in Profits; Poll Tax; Prices; Public Lands of the United States; Refunding of the Public Debt of the United States; Sinking Fund; Tariffs of the United States.

SANBORX, F. B. - Pauperism.
SMITII, EDMUND MUNROE — Nationality, Law of.
SMITH, IJAYDN - Exchange, An; Fund, Funding, Re-

SPOFFORI), A. R. — Academies; Ballot; Budget; Congress

of the United States; Education, Bureau of; Homestead and Exemption Laws; Interior, Department of the; Justice, Department of; Library of Congress; Lobby; Navy, Department of the; Parliament, The British ; Parliainentary Law; Patent Office; Postoffice Department; Public Lands, Office of; States, Legal and Constitutional

Diversities of'; Treasury Department; W'ar Department. STERNE, SIMON – Cities, Administration of American;

Legislation; Monopolies; Railways; Representation.

GEORGE, HENRY - Chinese Immigration.
GILMAN, D. C. - Universities.
GODKIN, E. L.-Office-Holders, Danger of an Aristoc-

TOWNSEND, JOIIN P. - Banks, History and Management

of Savings.

racy of.

GOODE, G. BROWN – Fisherics; Treaties, Fishery.
GREEN, GEORGE WALTON — Municipal Bonds; Nat-

uralization; Repudiation.
GRIFFIS, WU. E. - China ; Corea ; Formosa; Japan ;

Mongols; Mutsuhito; Riu Kiu; Shimonoséki Indeinni. ty; Shinto; Siam; Tartar, Tartary; Ta-Tsing; Tauism; Tonquin.

HADLEY, ARTHUR T. Over-Production; Postoffice;

Profits; Reciprocity; Speculation ; Subsidies; Trans

portation, Means of; Weights and Measures. HAMILTON, JOHN B. - Quarantine. HOUGI, FRANKLIN B. — Forestry.

WALKER, FRANCIS A. - Public Revenue; Wage Fund;

WEEKS, JOS. D.. - Conseils Des Prud'hommes; Industrial

Arbitration; Strikes and Lockouts.
WELLS, DAVID A.-American Merchant Marine; Distilled

Spirits; Extradition; Fair Trade; Free Trade; Naviga-
tion Laws of the United States; Taxation; United States

Pension Laws and Pension Laws of other Countries.
WHITE, HORACE - Commercial Crises; Money and its

Substitutes; Paris Monetary ('onference.
WHITRIDGE, FREDERICK W. – Assessments, Political;

('aucus System; Instructions; Jury, Trial by; Patents,

and the Patent System.
WILLIAMS, TALCOTT – Apportionment; Party Govern-

ment in the United States; Tammany IIall; Turkey.
WINES, FRED. II. – Prisons and Prison Discipline.
WITTON, I. B. – Dominion of Canada.

ISHAM, EDWARD S. - Corporations, Economic and Social

Relations of.

JAMESON, JOHN A. - Convention, The Constitutional.

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ATH. Oaths have been in use in all coun. on oath: perhaps the oath on the part of wit

nesses was generally voluntary. (Demosth., IIpòs and it is probable that there is no nation which "Apoßov Yevd, c. 16; Karà Kóvavos, c. 10; has any clear notion of a Supreme Being, or of and Meier and Schömann, Att. Process., p. 675.) superior beings, that does not make use of oaths - In the Roman jurisprudence an oath was. on certain solemn occasions. An oath may be required in some cases from the plaintiff, or the described generally as an appeal or address to a defendant, or both. Thus the oath of calumny superior being, by which the person making it was required from the plaintiff, which was a engages to declare the truth on the occasion on solemn declaration that he did not prosecute his which he takes the oath, or by which he promises suit for any fraudulent or malicious purpose. The to do something hereafter. The person who im- offense of false swearing was perjurium, perjury; poses or receives the oath, imposes or receives it but it was considered a less offense in a party to on the supposition that the person making it ap a suit when the oath was imposed by a judex than prehends some evil consequences to himself from when it was voluntary. It does not appear that the superior being, if he should violate the oath. in civil proceedings witnesses were necessarily The person taking the oath may or may not fear examined on oath; but witnesses appear to have such consequences, but the value of the oath in been examined on oath in the judicia publica, the eyes of him who receives or imposes it con which were criminal proceedings. The title in sists in the opinion which he has of its influence the Digest, " De Testibus” (22, tit. 5), makes no over the person who takes it. An oath may be mention of the oath, though it speaks of punishtaken voluntarily, or it may be imposed on a per ment being inflicted on witnesses who bore false son under certain circumstances by a political testimony. — The law in America and England, superior; or it may be the only condition on as a rule, requires evidence or testimony for judiwhich the assertion or declaration of a person cial purposes to be given on oath. A Jew, a shall be admitted as evidence of any fact. - The Mohammedan and a Hindoo may be sworn as form of taking the oath has varied greatly in witnesses, but they must severally take the oath different countries. Among the Greeks a person in that form which is sanctioned by the usage of sometimes placed his hand on the altar of the their country or nation, and which they severally deity by whom he swore; but the forms of oaths consider to be binding. The offense of declaring were almost as various as the occasions. Oaths what is false when a witness is examined upon were often used in judicial proceedings among oath, constitutes perjury. Declarations made the Greeks. The Dicasts, who were judges and by a person under the apprehension of immediate jurymen, gave their verdict upon oath. The death are generally admitted as evidence in judiHeliastic oath is stated at length in the speech of cial proceedings, when properly verified; for it is Demosthenes against Timocrates (c. 36). It does considered that the circumstances in which the not appear that the oath was always imposed on person is placed at the time of making the declarwitnesses in judicial proceedings; and yet it ap- ation furnish as strong motives for veracity as pears that sometimes witnesses gave their evidence the obligation of an oath. Quakers also, in all 120



civil cases, were allowed by the statutem &o the sheriff by the judge. In the latter case the

ercised over the judge by the legislator, or over Wm. III., c. 34, to give their evidence on affirmation; and now the affirmation of Quakers and ceremony is a mere form without any useful Moravians is admissible in all judicial proceed effect whatever.”. The absurdity of this argu. ings, both civil and criminal. — As oaths may be ment hardly needs to be exposed. Ile who adeither voluntary or may be imposed by a political ministers the oath, by virtue of the power which superior, so they may be imposed either on extra. he has to administer it, and the political superior judicial or on judicial occasions. Oaths which who imposes the oath, may cither believe or not are imposed on occasion of judicial proceedings believe that the Deity will punish false swearing, are the most frequent, and the occasions are the and it is quite immaterial to the question which most important to the interests of society. The of the two opinions they entertain. That which principle on which an oath is administered on gives the oath a value in the eyes of him who ad judicial occasions is this. it is supposed that an ministers it, or of that political superior who additional security is thereby acquired for the imposes it, is the opinion of the person who takes veracity of him who takes the oath. Bentham, the oath; and if the individual who takes the in his “Rationale of Evidence,” on the contrary, oath believes that the Deity, in case it is profaned, affirms that, “whether principle or experience be will inflict a punishment which otherwise he regarded, the oath will be found, in the hands of would not inflict, the object of him who enforces justice, an altogether useless instrument; in the the oath is accomplished, and an additional sanchands of injustice, a deplorably serviceable one;" | tion against mendacity is secured. It matters “that it is inefficacious to all good purposes,” and not whether the Deity will punish or not, or “that it is by no means inefficacious to bad ones.” whether he who enforces the oath believes that he

- The three great sanctioris or securities for ve will punish or not: if he who takes the oath racity in a witness, or, to speak perhaps more cor. believes that the Deity will punish false swearing, rectly, the three great sanctions against mendacity that is sufficient to show that the oath is of itself in a witness, are, the punishment legally imposed a sanction. The fear of legal punishment is on a person who is convicted of false swearing, admitted by Bentham to be a sanction against the punishment inflicted by public opinion or the mendacity. But the legal punishment may or positive morality of society, and the fear of pun may not overtake the offender. Legal punishishment from the Deity, in this world or the ment may follow detection, but the perjury may next, or in both. The common opinion is, that not be detected, and therefore not punished. Is all the three sanctions operate on a witness, the oath, or would a declaration without oath be, though they operate on different witnesses in “a mere form without any useful effect whatvery different degrees. A man who does not ever,” because the legal punishment may not, believe that the Deity will punish false swearing and frequently does not, overtake the offender? can only be under the influence of the first two When a Greek or a Roman swore by his gods, in sanctions; and if his character is such that it can whose existence he believed, and who, being not be made worse than it is, he may be under the mere imaginations, could not punish him for his influence of the first sanction only. Bentham perjury, was not his belief in their existence and affirms that the third sanction only appears to their power and willingness to punish perjury a exercise an influence in any case, because it acts sanction against mendacity? All antiquity at in conjunction with “the two real and efficient least thought so. There are occasions on which sanctions, the political sanction and the moral oaths are treated lightly, on which he who imor popular sanction;" and that if it is stripped of poses the oath, he who takes it, and the comthose accompaniments, its impotence will appear munity who are witnesses to it, treat the violation immediately. — Bentham's chief argument is as of it as a trivial matter. Such occasions as these follows: "that the supposition of the efficiency furnish Bendram with arguments against the of an oath is absurd in principle. It ascribes to efficacy of oaths on all occasions. Suppose we man a power over his Maker. It supposes the admit, with Bentham, as we do merely for the Almighty to stand engaged, no matter how, but sake of the argument, that“ on some occasions absolutely engaged, to inflict on every individual oaths go with the English clergy for nothing;” by whom the ceremony, after having been per- and this, notwithstanding the fact, which nobody formed, has been profaned, a punishment (no can doubt, “that among the English clergy bematter what) which, but for the ceremony and lievers are more abundant than unbelievers." the profanation, he would not have inflicted. It | The kind of oaths “which go for nothing” are supposes him thus prepared to inflict, at com not mentioned by Bentham, but they may be conmand, and at all times, a punishment, which, jectured. Now, if all oaths went for nothing being at all times the same, at no time bears any with the clergy, or with any other body of men, proportion to the offense. Again: “either the the dispute would be settled. But this is not the ceremony causes punislıment to be inflicted by the fact. If in any way it has become the positive Deity in cases where otherwise it would not have morality of any body of men that a certain kind been inflicted; or it does not. In the former case of oath should go for nothing, each individual of the same sort of authority is exercised by man over that body, with respect to that kind of oath, has the Deity, as that which, in English law, is ex. the opinion of his body. He does not believe

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