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the force of conventional law, entails pulation has need of, and that, with upon them; and it is almost needless even our present means and knowto add, that no duty of the legislature ledge of agriculture, twice as much of a free country is more obvious in England, and thrice as much in than to examine, with even deferen- Ireland,* could easily be raised. tial attention, any cause of grievance Now the business of Parliament is, -which large bodies of the people to consider how the resources of the firmly and calmly put forth as wor. country may best be made available thy of redress.
for the people's support, for that the If we be right in the view which people have a right to such an appliwe take of the state of the common cation of the country's resources, people in this kingdom at present, we hold to be equally agreeable to there is no subject which can come reason, and to the spirit of the Bribefore Parliament that is not, in com tish Constitution. The means of obparison with it, insignificant. Again, taining subsistence in a country, we say that the people know verywhere subsistence can be obtained, well that the means are within the if the means were granted, is obvicountry to make them all comfort- ously the very first and most imable; and let the Parliament beware portant part of that protection which how it drives them to take their own Blackstone uniformly teaches to be method of acting upon that know the “ right of the people.” Allegiledge. In the first place, it is expe- ance and protection are, he says, redient that the Parliament should take ciprocally the rights, as well as duthe earliest means possible of shew. ties of the magistrate and the people. ing the country that the distress of “ Allegiance is the right of the mathe people is felt, and that they will gistrate, and protection the right of endeavour to remedy it. This is ex the people." pedient, in order to satisfy the peo Having then looked at the actual ple during the time which they ne evil, let us now look at the possible cessarily must wait before any mea remedy. The evil is, that with resure could be sufficiently examined spect to large bodies of the people, and passed into law. Next, it is ab- the means of exerting all beneficial solutely necessary that a measure of industry are taken away ; they want relief should pass-a measure to en- something to work upon, so as to proable the resources of the country to vide for their necessities. Where is be made available for the comfort- this something to be found ? Unable support of the population of the doubtedly in the land. The curse upon country. The disciples of Mr Mal- fallen man was, that " in the sweat thus are provided with an answer to of his brow, he should eat bread;" this, by saying that the country has but it went no further; it is only by not resources for the comfortable the evil contrivances of men themsupport of the population, and, more selves, that even to the sweat of over, that the law of God is, that the man's brow bread is denied. The condition of man inevitably leads to changes in the forms of industry haan abundance of people beyond the ving brought it to pass, that the inmeans of support. From the disse- dustry of men will not exchange for mination of such opinions, theologi- subsistence in the ordinary traffic of cal and political, good Lord deliver the world, there is no resource, but us! We are content to remark, that, that men shall be allowed to raise as things are, nearly as much food is subsistence for themselves, out of raised in these kingdoms as the po- the land ; and we are firmly of opi
The population of Ireland is commonly subject, in the harangues of orators, to the grossest exaggeration. Mr Shiel “ talks familiarly” of “ seven millions Roman Catholics." By the authentic census made under the direction of Mr Shaw Mason, the whole population of the kingdom does not amount to that number. The Edinburgh Review lately sneered at this official return, as unworthy of respect. Within these few days the writer of this article has seen an extract from the letter of a public man, whose researches entitle him, beyond all other men in the kingdom, to speak on the subject, and he describes this census as “one of the greatest possible monuments of human industry and comparative accuracy."
.. entis of the
ppli rces e to Bri ob trr, bed, ori
nion, that this might be done with ground in every part of the kingdom
It appears from one of the Remore usefully applied, both for them- ports of the Commissioners of Woods selves and others, than it is at pre- and Forests, that, having sowed nine sent. It is not necessary for us to and a half acres of ground in the Rego over again the same ground which gent's Park with Mangel Wurzle,they, has been travelled over so recently, in one season, dug up from this small and so ably, by the Quarterly Re- portion of ground 418 tons of vegetaview, in the discussion of the "Anti- ble food for cattle--there were 326 Pauper System.” We refer to that tons of root, and 92 tons of leaves; their paper for abundant practical instan- expenses were L.146, and the crop ces of what may be done by judi- sold for L.748. This may give some cious settlements on lands, which, idea of what might be done, if the previously to such settlements, have people called great men in this been wholly unproductive; and real- country, could be persuaded to turn ly we cannot conceive how any man, their attention to subjects of practiwith a heart within his bosom, can cal, though homely usefulness, inread over such a paper, and not glow stead of dissipating it in extravagant with an ardent desire to see the schemes for the extension of foreign squalid and unhappy crowds, the trade, and the pushing forward of a victims of our manufacturing system, feverish energy, for the sake of the settled in the peaceful, virtuous, and vain glory of upholding a system, or happy competence, which such set- of furthering the ends of political tlements in England might be made jobbing. An excellent suggestion apto afford. Of all the objects which peared lately in the Gardener's Mait can enter into the heart of genuine gazine ; that of having extensive garbenevolence to conceive, there is dens annexed (it is not meant localnone equal to this, of giving its just ly) to parish poor houses. It is very reward to peaceful and honest in- justly stated, that there is no descripdustry, and turning man from that tion of labour, in which all descripferocious and reckless savage, which tions of persons, young and old, extreme want makes him, to a com male and female, could so universalfortable, though humble citizen, en ly be of use, and that with the least joying the present reward of faith- irksome of all kinds of toil—the culfully discharging his duties as a mem tivation of a garden is the delight of ber of the society to which he be- labour. “ God Almighty,” says one longs, and living in the hope of that of the wisest men that ever adorned reward hereafter, with which the humanity, “ first planted a garden, Spirit of God cheers the dwellings and indeed it is the purest of human of those who mingle religious feel- pleasures.” It is, moreover, peculiing with the simplicity of that active arly favoured in this, that while it is industry, which gives a certain sup- the pleasantest of all descriptions of ply of the necessaries of life.
labour, it is, for the gratification of It is hardly credible, except by simple wants, the most profitable those who have had actual experience also ; and therefore this suggestion in the matter, the quantity of sub- of the Gardener's Magazine, is a hint sistence which a small portion of which we think may be improved ground may be made to yield, by the upon with much advantage, in the application of all the labour which highest quarters to which the consiit is capable of receiving with profit. deration of a provision for our poor It would fill the public with astonish- extends. ment if they knew the quantity of There is, undoubtedly, much to vegetable matter, fit for the food of blame in our present system of promen, or cattle, which th market vision for the poor. The good done gardeners around London can raise is not at all what it ought to be, confrom an acre of ground, through the sidering the expense entailed upon application of labour and manure. the country; but let it not be thought There is nothing to prevent the that any patching of this bad system
will answer the end which the pre- suppose that any small number of sent condition of the common peo men should be allowed to keep land ple should make the legislature have waste for the amusement of a few in view. There is nothing more dis- weeks shooting, in the year, while gusting than to behold a legislator that land is wanted for the support of the small wisdom school, whose of the people. Such a proposition mind could never emancipate itself needs only to be laid bare, in order from the small details of parish laws, to be crushed down by unanimous and whose soul must be conversant indignation; and, however it may be with beadles and with overseers, or privately entertained, we hope no with nothing, getting up to stuff some one will be so rash as to dare openly new quirks into the mass of jobbing to put it forth. intricacy which forms the parish poor But it is not the landholders alone laws, and conducting himself with who should be constrained by law to all the gravity of a Solon, while, a better provision for the poor, who mole-like, he grubs about in the holes can no longer live by the exertions and corners to which his intellectual of labour in its ordinary channels ;vision confines him. We hope we the fundholders, who can live so shall have no more of this, but that much more cheaply, in consequence means will be taken for a settlement of the abundance of goods produced of the great question which that of the by machinery, should be taxed for British pauper-system has become, this especial purpose, until the poor, worthy of the British legislature. We under good management, begin to cannot see why establishments of maintain themselves, which, we asagricultural, or horticultural villa- sert, it requires nothing but good ges, may not be adopted, connected management to enable them to do. with the parishes, to which the poor The manufacturers also, or the may be drafted, and where, under consumers of manufactures, should due regulation, they may be made to contribute, by a direct tax on the dwell very much happier than they manufacture, and for this plain reahave hitherto been; and these we son—the goods are now sold at a would have established on lands al- profit regulated by wages which the ready reclaimed and fertile, while workmen receive during only a part the extensive wastes should also be of the year. When periods of stagput in a train to become valuable nation come, the workmen are turnproperty, and afford employment and ed off, and the parish must give them subsistence to multitudes unconnect- such wretched support as they reed with parish management.
ceive. But it would be just that the We know it is asserted by many consumers of manufactures should proprietors of wastes, that if they entirely support the men who are choose to keep their property in that devoted to a particular condition of particular condition, for their amuse life for their convenience; and, therement, they have no right to be inter- fore, manufactured goods should pay fered with in the government of their a tax to support the artisans while own estate. We should recommend out of employment. such proprietors to consider for a There is much more to be said on little what it is which makes the this subject, but we do not like to estates “ their own," and the consi run our speculations out to too great deration may perhaps afford them a length. Our belief is, that some some new light upon this matter. such things as we have mentioned, The lord of the manor has no more must be done for the prosperity, if right than the pauper of the poor- not for the existence, of the state. house, to the land which he un Who can expect the governed to doubtedly does own, except that submit, if the protection which is which the law has given him for the the bond of their submission be not common benefit of the country; and given them as far as it can be given ? there will be nothing unconstitutional Let us then obtain that hold over in the law taking it away, if he be de- them which a salutary guardianship termined to use it adversely to that will give us. common benefit. It is monstrous to
ruv d'ogxia wisc Υευσαμινοι μαχόμισθα τώ και νυ τι κερδιων ημιν
Ελπομαι εκτελεσθαι, ίνα μη ρεξομεν ωδε. This is true, and let the bishops, who at all events will understand the lines, look to it.
BEN, Cutlet's Boy.
MARIAN, Daughter to Flint,
Act I.-SCENE I.-An Apartment at Flint's house. Flint. WILLIAM.
Flint. Carry those umbrellas, cottons, and wearing-apparel, up stairs. You may send that chest of tools to Robins's. Wil
. That which you lent six pounds upon to the journeyman carpenter that had the sick wife?
Flint. The same.
. The man says, if you can give him till ThursdayFlint. Not a minute longer. His time was out yesterday. These improvident fools!
Wil. The finical gentleman has been here about the seal that was his grandfather's. Flint. He cannot have it. Truly, our trade would be brought
to a fine pass, if we were bound to humour the fancies of our customers. This man would be taking a liking to a snuff-box that he had inherited; and that gentlewoman might conceit a favourite chemise that had descended to her.
Wil. The lady in the carriage has been here crying about those jewels. She says, if you cannot let her have them at the advance she offers, her husband will come to know that she has pledged them.
Flint. I have uses for those jewels. Send Marian to me. (Exit William.) I know no other trade that is expected to depart from its fair advantages but ours. I do not see the baker, the butcher, the shoemaker, or, to go higher, the lawyer, the physician, the divine, give up any of their legitimate gains, even when the pretences of their art had failed; yet we are to be branded with an odious name, stigmatized, discountenanced even by the administrators of those laws which acknowledge us; scowled at by the lower sort of people, whose needs we serve!
Enter Marian. Come hither, Marian. Come, kiss your father. The report runs that he is full of spotted crime. What is your belief, child ?
Mar. That never good report went with our calling, father. I have heard you say, the poor look only to the advantages which we derive from them, and overlook the accommodations which they receive from us. But the poor the
poor, father, and have little leisure to make distinctions. I wish we could give up this business.
Flint. You have not seen that idle fellow, Davenport ?
. The law is not over favourable to us;
Mar. You are Marian's kind and careful father. That is enough for a child to know.
Flint. Here, girl, is a little box of jewels, which tủe necessities of a foolish woman of quality have transferred into our true and lawful possession. Go, place them with the trinkets that were your mother's. They are all yours, Marian, if you do not cross me in your marriage. No gentry shall match into this house, to flout their wife liereafter with her parentage. I will hold
VOL. XXVII. NO, CLXI.
this business with convulsive grasp to my dying day. I will plague these poor, whom you speak so tenderly of.
Mar. You frighten me, father. Do not frighten Marian.
Flint. I have heard them say, There goes Flint-Flint, the cruel pawnbroker!
Mar. Stay at home with Marian. You shall hear no ugly words to vex you.
Flint. You shall ride in a gilded chariot upon the necks of these poor, Marian. Their tears shall drop pearls for my girl. Their sighs shall be good wind for us. They shall blow good for my girl. Put up the jewels, Marian.
Dav. There is no time for explanations. I have positive information that your father means, in less than a week, to dispose of you to that ugly Saunders. The wretch has bragged of it to his acquaintance, and already calls
Mar. O heavens !
Dav. Your resolution must be summary, as the time which calls for it, Mine or his you must be, without delay. There is no safety for you under this roof.
Mar. My father
Lucy. (as if watching at the window.) O, miss, your father has suddenly returned. I see him with Mr Saunders, coming down the street. Mr Saunders, ma'am!
Mar. Begone, begone, if you love me, Davenport.
Lucy. Aye, miss, you must go, as Mr Davenport says. Here is your cloak, miss, and your hat, and your gloves. Your father, ma'am
Mar. 0, where, where? Whither do you hurry me, Davenport?
[Exit Marian, with DAVENPORT, reluctantly ; in her flight still
holding the jewels. Lucy. Away-away. What a lucky thought of mine to say her father was coming! he would never have got her off, else. Lord, Lord, I do love to help lovers.
(Exit, following them,
SCENE II.--A Butcher's Shop:-CUTLET. BEN. Cut. Reach me down that book off the shelf, where the shoulder of veal hangs.
Ben. Is this it? ·
Cut. No—this is “ Flowers of sentiment”-the other--aye, this is a good book. “ An Argument against the Use of Animal Food. By J. R.” That means Joseph Ritson. I will open it anywhere, and read just as it happens. One cannot dip amiss in such books as these. The motto, I see, is from Pope. I daresay, very much to the purpose. (Reads.)
“ The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day,
And licks the hand"Bless us, is that saddle of mutton gone home to Mrs Simpson's ? It should have gone an hour ago.
Ben. I was just going with it.