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might easily be shewn that the ima- most important truths, there is a tengination and the natural affections all dency in the subject on which it is lead us to religion.
employed to open it up to those Thus, then, if that were true wholly, very truths. Again, from the matewhich is only true in part, that Intel. rial, turn to the moral world. In its lect leads men to Immorality and to structure are many things that perIrreligion, there are other parts of our plex us. But, search it as we will, nature leading opposite ways; or ra the more we search it, the more we ther let us say, if there be one incli- find this clear and great law estanation of Intellect to dissolve moral. blished in it,—that good follows to ity and religion, there are principles the doer of good, evil to the doer of of our nature which will reign over evil; an observation giving infinite Intellect to incline it to them. If weight and awe to the moral law in religion prevail with us, so too will our own minds, and leading our it incline to Political Obedience, thoughts to a Moral Ruler. The loconsidering governments as appoint- gical inference from the world is ed, and reverencing the moral order morality. which they actually maintain. Thus There is, then, an argument on there is ground of expectation, of be each side. Are they balanced ? It lief, that in the absolute, or general appears to us difficult, on the arcultivation of our nature, including guments themselves, to say that the Intellect, the result will be good. one or the other preponderates. Both
But, secondly, the nature of the are in themselves tendencies unliworld tends to the same result. For mited. But which seems, in the hiswhat is the subject of the Exercises tory of the world, to have prevailed ? of Intellect? The World, Natural, In ancient times, among the Greeks, Moral, Visible, Invisible. Let Intel- the prevalence of their philosophy lect, then, survey the Natural World. was to virtue. In modern times, the It is possible, certainly, to read cau tendency of civilisation has been to ses and effects wondrously connect- virtue. What may be said, generally, ed, and yet to see them, and notbing of the historical argument, is this,
But it is also possible to see that if the nation has been moral more. It is possible for our under- and as it has been moral—Intellect standing, pursuing, and examining has been moral also. It has obeyed, stupendous order in worlds on worlds has taken the colour of morality. In -stupendous care in the formation Greece it seems to have been moral of an elephant or an insect—to be- far beyond the practical morality, and lieve in the design, a designer. The to have taken a moral lead. Let us study of the works of wisdom, pow. see then if there be any thing else to er, goodness, does not seem unfitted, guide us in deciding on which side surely, to draw our mind to the con the conclusion lies. Look, then, what templation, the acknowledgment of the progress of nations has been, in wisdom, power, goodness! Such men any time. It has been a progress in as Newtonand Linnæus, are incident- intellectual attainment and developeal, but august, teachers of religion. ment. One great cause of this has Lord Bacon says, as every body been man's contest with his condiknows, that a little philosophy makes tion. He has laboured to conquer men atheists, leading them to rest in physical nature—to make himself as second causes, but much philosophy much as he might master of his lot, brings them back to religion. It seems to overcome disorder and mischief, the first untaught mind steps direct and attain repose in his social condifrom the effect to God; to the half- tion—to subdue the greatest obstacle taught mind, philosophy has raised to his welfare, evil in his own heart. up an interposition of second causes, Now, by these efforts, have arts and which it cannot get over; the taught sciences been evolved, knowledge of mind—taught by divine philosophy the existences and laws of nature, -steps in its might through and over and hence command of her powers. the second causes, to the same end Another cause, or the cause of anoor origin. Thus, if there be a ten- ther mode of man's cultivation,-in dency in the affection which accom some countries more than in others, panies Intellect, of pride, and self in all in some degree,-has been the (lation, to close up the mind to the native impulse of his feelings produ
cing the arts which adorn and exalt agriculture, commerce, navigation, life externally, by so shaping its ma war, wealth, the administration of terials, circumstances, and forms, that the laws, the government of nations, Imagination may rest upon it, may the economy of public wealth, educadwell in customary life ; namely, in tion, religion, remain matters of parstateliness and magnificence of its amount, and indisputable public decorations, such as sumptuous ar concern—the means of their own chitecture; exalting it internally, by several support and advancement. those arts which embody and bring Therefore, as the question might into agnition to the senses its highest prove one difficult to argue on its emotions. Necessity has not prompt- proper merits, what has now been ed, nor required such arts, but the na said of the history of the human tive vigour of the soul has given them mind, and of the manner in which birth.
its condition and constitution, while Such are two of the great origins it simply obeys them, carries it forof intellectual cultivation,—first, the ward into boundless fields, acquisiameliorating of man's condition, tions, conquests, and triumphs of inwhere he comes to be almost under tellect, must certainly be received in the necessity of ameliorating it, by place of an argument of the question deliverance from physical and from on its merits, -as an indication from moral evil; secondly, the yearning of Nature herself,—that is, as indithe soul after its own exaltation, in cation from the wisdom in which the midst of its terrestrial existence. nature is framed, and therefore as a
Which of these two causes would law to human reason,—that the high we, which are we able to put away? cultivation of the intellectual faculNeither.
ties should be persevered in,-and For the first constraint upon man to that if it has, as in some measure it know, is, we have seen, independent has, injurious consequences, it should of his pure desire of knowledge. But be confided that the good consequenon the knowledge thus compelled, ces are greater far, and that the mothe desire feeds and kindles. Its ral welfare of man is to exist in the materials are thus spread out before midst of his intellectual light. it; its acquisition has begun; it has The next question that arises, is, tasted; and then its own native no How far man should go in Intellect? bility breaks forth.
Here, a very little reflection shews If this be the true history of what us, immediately, that this point also has happened, shall we not be led to is decided. If man is indeed destisay, that the question never comes to ned to such an intellectual life, if be proposed to our mind, whether it his hope and his strength be undoubtshould cultivate its faculties or not? edly in these pure and high endowThat this cultivation is involved with ments of his rational soul-in these conditions of its existence—is inevi- works achieved—in these kingdoms table-a destiny laid upon it? We won—then there remains no reason cannot conceive it proposed to the to doubt, that he is to push these deliberation of those with whom conquests to the utmost,--to repel the decision remains. For it may as far back as he can the boundary indeed be made matter of argument, of ignorance and of darkness. not unreasonably, among philoso Supposing, then, that this too is phical enquirers, whether the opera- admitted. Hitherto we have been reation of such and such causes upon soning concerning the highest enquihuman nature and society be friend- ries. Hitherto we have not asked, ly or unfriendly to human wel- what is to be the lot, the avocation, fare. But how, pray, can it be a the instruction of the inferior orders question to mankind ? To those to of a people, of those who build in whom the powers belong, with whom themselves the deep wide base of soit rests to cultivate their powers or ciety, but of those who form its statenot? They are under the influence ly, its embellished, and its crowning of causes, impelling them to proceed, heighths,-of those, whom their birth which they will not attempt to resist. bids aspire, not in ambition of outThese are they with whom the great ward life only, but in ambition of conflict of society with natural evils thought and of the soul,-—of those to reststhey to whom manufactures, whom their wealth gives Leisure
Power, -- LEISURE, the happy, if well-mankind to seek well-being and wellused privilege, of appropriating, at doing, is, or is not, the proper way for the choice of their own discretion, another portion of the same species according to the best, highest, purest, to seek the same results, can, we apwisest suggestion of their heart and prehend, be none. They are the same understanding, the measures of the nature, the same soul, on the same swift span of mortal existence,-of earth,—under the same God, the stamping on hour, day, month, and same author, disposer, ruler, guide. year, as it fleets by, acts of self- They are from one origin—for one chosen virtuous endeavour, bright end. Let it be granted, then, that labours of useful and yet noble this solemn Being of Intellect and thought,-meditation, clothed in Will, capable of Happiness and Fancy's hues, and yet instinct with Misery,--of Knowledge and Ignofeelings the deepest and most solemn: rance, -of Good and Evil,—that is, Power,—not that only which is com of moral good and evil; and who, camand over the actions, the obediencé, pable in all parts of his constitution the service, the will, the happiness, alike of either of these alternathe welfare and virtue of others, but tives, is yet called to one and not to power also for themselves inwardly, another, is called to Happiness and -power which is the command over Moral Good, called therewith, and all the means of knowledge, of living thereby, and therefore to Knowledge instruction as it is best given,-ac- also, and as little to Ignorance as he cess to all the treasure-houses, use of is to Misery or Guilt that these the accumulated wealth of learning, Three are in connexion and harscience and art, which seas divide mony, and reciprocal dependence, not, which shores remove not from and those Three-then we hold that the sufficient object of its sufficient these are words without meaning, desire-to which not only all volumes or they are truths of the whole of all languages, but the Book of race, of that nature which is identiNature and Life is equally with them cal in one and in another throughoutspread,—the cities and manners out the habitations of the globe. of men open to be seen and known, It is a question not partial but uni-and the sages of the earth, where- versal; not superficial but profound; ever they breathe to meditate wis- not of a division of the surface dom, can be sought as companions but central; emanating in every diand friends—of those we speak, who rection alike, and radiating to the to whatever rank, to whatever fortune whole circumference. What proposal they may have been born, to the high- of a doubt, pray, would it be to say, est, to the lowest, to the amplest and does natural love, as of the mother most flowing, or to the narrowest and to her child, produce, in some orders, most constraining, are yet all called a moral purity and elevation of by the gifts indulged to their spirit, to thoughts and wishes, in others viintellectual riches and rank—of those tiate and depress them ? Does it prowho thus estated, and taking their duce in some hearts effusion of teneasier or more difficult way to the derness and sympathy, softening and possession of their heritage,--become opening them? Does it harden others the teachers and lights of the world, and steep them in gall? Is one soul --become its separated, it may be created under one law, one system said, consecrated order, and priest- of laws-another under another ? hood of knowledge.
Does the beating of the heart propel Now, we maintain, that in speaking the blood in one living frame, and of such minds we have, in fact, treat- does that blood convey with it heat ed the only question, or, we should and life ? And does the same mighty rather say, the only portion of a very pulse in another shut up the healthextended question, on which there ful circulation, or send in its place a is room for doubt. For, it may be stream of ice and death? Does this doubted, on the whole of his consti atom of matter fall by gravity ? And tution and condition possibly, what have we to seek some other law to is the proper way for man to attain account for the fall of this next? well-being and well-doing. But this These are truly the questions we ask, being once determined, -then, whe- when we enquire, whether in one huther the proper way for one portion of man being, or class of human beings,
intellect is given as a power friendly for useful ends. We do not withto morality, a power made rightly to hold from the inheritors of a noble influence the will, which must there name, any of those feelings with fore receive its food, knowledge, that which imagination delights reverentit may perform its ministry: Whe ly to invest the history of an illusther in another it exists as a power trious house, and if he be not undangerous and hurtful to morality, worthy of his lofty lineage, each sucacting injuriously upon the will
, cessive representative of an ancient from which therefore its celestial family. We have reason to respect food is to be withheld ?
the nobility and the gentry of our Let it be thought what kind of con native land ; for they of old have tradiction any other conclusion would been distinguished by a proud and be in practice-what sort of pros- fearless patriotism. But we venerate pect a nation would present, that virtue-we admire genius—we reshould divide itself into the struggle, spect intellect, from whatever nook that should attempt in this manner “its fulgent head starbright appears?' to pull asunder its higher and its --and as it is, after all, by mind alone lower portions, and thus intellectually that the high-born can maintain their to dismember itself; of which the right unquestioned to those feelings higher orders should seek with the with which we are willing to regard utmost passion and avidity, and the them and their high estate; so by utmost ambition of all their powers, mind alone can the peasant lift himlight to themselves, and at the same self up to the level of the peer, and time endeavour to maintain the dark gain to himself a name that shall ness of the lower? How could they rank in the roll with the proudest attempt it? How could they wall in names that grace the ancestral glories the overflowing waters ? "If there of even a regal race. It is plain, that were initiations in science, in temples there is but one line we can draw, guarded with fearful ceremonies and that which encompasses all. Thus, vows, there might be some hope to then, if it might be a question, whekeep the secret of knowledge. But ther the walks of knowledge should our temples are open. Our books be abandoned altogether, and ploughare not written in a sacred Brah ed up, it can be none, who shall minical language, unknown to the into them. What practical question, vulgar, the patrimony of the holy therefore, can we ask? Not, whether caste. They are not written in hie we shall withhold, but whether we roglyphic characters, of which the shall seek to impart. Not what we secret and sacred key is covered be shall keep back, but what we shall neath the mantle of the priests. They be most diligent to extend. If we are in a language which all speak, in shall seek to impart? In the first letters which are no longer a mys- place, Yes,--because we believe that tery. The world of knowledge is knowledge is good for the human thrown
open ; and the question is soul; and we desire, we who may not with those who have it, whether be somewhat or far higher in society, they will impart, but with those who we who may have some or great have it not, whether they will re influence, power, deliberation for ceive?
others, to diffuse Good. We wish it, If it were possible to confine it, in charity to those less favoured than where should the line be drawn ?
We wish it, in patriotism, Are our orders so distinguished that that the solid welfare of our country we can define, this shall be the right may be built as wide as its shores. of one; this of another; we will We wish it, in self-interest, that we carry down this part of knowledge may not feel the reaction upon ourthus low, and this thus low, and no selves of forlorn vice, the untamed lower ? Far from it. It is the beauty and fierce ignorance of those among of our social state, that all its various whom our lot is cast. If we shall ranks, although essentially distinct, seek to impart? Yes. That we may yet all seem to blend into each other, bind all together in one bond; that constituting, in their union, an harmo we may be one brotherhood. To nious whole. We give to wealth its impart? Yes. That we may receive. due tribute of respect, when gained That chill penury may no longer reby honourable means, and employed press or freeze-that in open day
all the plants may rejoice in the sun, nothing great at least. But neither and give back their beauty to his is it without risk to do nothing—to light--that Genius may spring up leave every thing alone. Certain it where it has been sown—that our Mil- is, that the old world has greatly and tons may not rest mute and inglori- suddenly changed. One thing is ous—that as we have much to do in true, that injurious and corrupt science,—that, as although much has" abuse will not stand before an enbeen done by thoughtful and erudite lightened people—nor ought it. The men, far more remains to be done- instruction of the people will give a that, as all sciences are imperfect, tenfold, but not a turbulent weight some even yet in their infancy—that to public opinion. The danger is, as the human mind, which at one not from knowledge or reason, but moment of discovery seems to have from the concurrence of particular accomplished every thing that lay changes of opinion with particular before it, and absolutely to have causes of political ferment, which finished its work, at the next looks may or may not happen. The ground back on all it has attained, and seems of security, when the people are into have done nothing-seeing in all structed, will be the same, as when its hitherto labours only the prepara
It has been confessed, that tion and rudiments, the unformed Intellect has causes of disturbance; beginnings of that last work to which but that they are tempered and subit is created, and which still lies dued by morality. Let there be sufbefore it, almost as it were unat- ficient causes of the morality of the tempted; so that one sage says, “I people, and intellect will not hurt have learnt a little," and another them; let there not be, and intellect says, “ I know that I know nothing” will not be wanted to make mischief. that, in this condition of human That more danger is to be feared science, and looking upon knowledge from an imperfectly educated popuas our dearest birtắ-right, our pridelation than from one brutally ignoand our power, we may have all aid rant, we have never been able to in acquiring it, and may be robbed bring ourselves to believe; but even of no powerful hand that can help to if there were, that would be no arguconquer.
ment against general Education. For But will not this raise up a power it can become good only by degrees; of knowledge and thought in the com- and during the period of transition monalty, in large portions of them from darkness to light, during the at least, which in the higher there is gloaming, let the power that is in now nothing to counterbalance ? Let wisdom maintain the state. it be so-for it is good. The higher It is, however, most material, in any must advance themselves-perhaps question of Education, to know of they need compulsion, incitement to what kind of Education we speakdo so. Perhaps they are negligent whether of the very highest, or of that and indolent. But then they have which is merely secular. The kind every, advantage— leisure, means, of instruction which writers on the ambition, duty. The others will not Education of the People generally advance too far. They have a heavy mean, is merely secular, that is, of burden to carry with their know- the second order; and yet they often ledge. Let not men—the men of reason, as if it were to produce the this great and free country-fear the effects proper to the very highestultimate effects of knowledge. It is unlimited effects on human happia great power poured in, and will ness and virtue. This introduces produce some commotion; but will great confusion into the whole argusettle and find its way to its proper ment—is most unphilosophical—and, places. The immediate effects are moreover, justly offensive to those not the ultimate. At first a degree who believe that such effects can be of emotion is excited; which be- produced only by religion. longs not to the matter, but to the We confess, that this is a subject on times—the novelty, the suddenness, which it is difficult to speak; but the generality, namely, the act of that difficulty shall not hinder us diffusion. But the lasting impres- from expressing our opinion before sions are those which belong to the a Public, so capable of judging whematter. Nothing is without risk ther it be right or wrong, whether