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helpless misery; and he resigned and a morbid lethargy in the nationhimself, if not to sleep, at least to al mind, which are prognostics of a his own meditations. I had the cu sure decay in all the vital energies. riosity to listen to “ the linen-dra These are alarming symptoms, and per” for about five minutes; but his must have skilful treatment. Prompt vulgarisms, his cockneyisms, his in- and adequate remedies must be aphuman usage of the English language, plied. We shall then bring to the his barbarous jargon of the counter test this most important question, and the Common Council, his tyran- whether we are suffering under an nical caprice in sometimes making w acute disease, brought on by an imdo duty for v, and at others, in ma proper regimen, and aggravated by king u usurp the functions of w, empirical nostrums; or whether we his inordinate affection for the letter are languishing beneath the slow h, and, above all, the absolute no- wasting, and consequent decrepitude, things—the worse than nothings which are to conduct us to the eu
for it was positive balderdash which thanasia of our political existence. I • he retailed, as he would so many believe, and devoutly hope, the for
yards of tape at the corner of Bridge mer is our true condition. I believe Street, Blackfriars-gave me a sur there is a redeeming, power in the feit, which only the aristocratical sanctuary of our constitutional polity, atinosphere of the House of Lords, which, as it has stood firm and uniwhere I speedily took refuge at the ted, “as rocks resist the billows and foot of the throne, could have effec- the sky,” amid the fempests that have tually relieved.
so often beaten against it, so will it
now stand and survive the shock of If we are cursed with many evils this dark hour. I behold in the fa-if poverty is laying close siege to bric, no edifice raised by the talisman the middle and lower ranks of the of the fabulist, or the poet; no struccommunity—if the farmer, the ma ture, rising in splendour, and then nufacturer, the merchant, the ship- vanishing into light air. These are owner, the tradesman, are feelingly not its foundations; these are not its convinced that their condition is al. claims to our homage. I see, in its tered for the worse if one universal face and character, the hoar of most cry of distress resounds through the venerable antiquity. I trace its oriland—if discontent is growing fast gin to the independent and free-born upon unredressed complaints—and spirit, which pervaded, animated, if the elements of civil discord and ennobled our northern ancestors, are ripening as fast into a state of magnanimi heroes, who fought the active revolution, the first explosion battles, and obtained the triumphs, of which whenever, wherever, and of British freedom and British glory. howsoever it may burst forth, will be I see it, under circumstances the the beginning of a struggle which most various, and often the most adhas had no parallel in this country verse,-circumstances which seemed if, I say, this be our situation, and to threaten its existence,-now in there are those who think it is-we the dissensions of opposing factions, have at least one consolation. The now in the extremities of war, causes of our evils are nearly as nu civil and religious,—and now in the merous as the evils themselves; and hostilities of foreign nations, rising such being the case, we can never be to its lofty eminence, protected by at a loss for a remedy. Lord Stan wisdom, watchful of its interests, and hope tells us, it is free trade, and by patriotism, disdainful of fear in nothing else. Lord Carnarvon de
defending them. It is in vain to clares it is the currency. Lord King, carry our wishes and expectations monopoly ; beer monopoly, sugar beyond the confines of our common monopoly, tea monopoly; and lasty, nature. Yet, may we not venture to His Grace of Wellington bids us re- hope, that a system of government so member steam and the wet weather ! consummate in its integrity, so ad
To say England is already a ruined mirable in the adaptation of its sevecountry, would be the language of ral parts, (composed as it is of variimbecility or of faction. She is not ous, and sometimes conflicting, elein her death-throes. But there is ments, and involving in itself whatgreat prostration of strength ; an in ever of excellence can be found in creasing debility in the body politic; the multifarious forms of political
society, shall-under that Providence power, for example, had the Duke of which seems to have watched over it Wellington than Mr Pitt, Mr Percewith peculiar care-so far as perpe- val, Lord Liverpool, or Mr Canning, tuity can be hoped for the works of for breaking in upon the constitution? man, be perpetual ? Fruatur sanè None. The difference lay in the hands istâ singulari Dei beneficentiâ, quæ that wielded it. They had minds cautinam illi sit perpetua!
pacious enough to see all the bearBut, alas ! in all former crises of na ings and dependencies of the meational danger, we had shining lights sure, and wisdom enough to abjure among us, beacons to warn us of our it. The Duke of Wellington, whatperil, and guide us through it, to ever may be his sagacity or wisdom, speak comfort, hope, and confidence had only firmness enough to carry it.
-men-and what higher praise can I concede to him all the merit, such I give them ?-worthy of their coun as it is, which belongs to his firmness, try, and able to defend and support as I would all the glory due to a man it. Are there any such now? Yes! who jumped off the Monument, to Where are they? Not where they shew he was not afraid of dashing ought to be ; but where the force of himself to pieces. But in both cases, circumstances must place them, soon preserve to myself the right of enterer or later.
taining exceedingly grave doubts as to The Duke of Wellington is an ex the discretion of either of the parties. traordinary man,
These military qualities, however, traordinary man, owes his greatness of decision or promptitude, of inflexto what may be called a synchronism ibility of purpose, and of resolute exof remarkable events. Had there ecution, are the exclusive themes of been no French Revolution, Napo- eulogy with his Grace's panegyrists; leon Bonaparte would have lived and as if the Council Chamber were a died, probably, an officer of engineers. camp, Downing Streeta garrison, and Had Napoleon never been Emperor King, Lords, and Commons, the cenof France, the Honourable Arthur tre and two wings of an army taking Wellesley would now be only a ge- up positions for battle. Obedience, neral, with the colonelcy of a regi- slavish, unreasonable obedience, is ment. Were Liverpool, Londonder- the first duty of a soldier; and the ry, or Canning still alive, his Grace rigorous, unquestioned exaction of would be suffered to continue of the it, the paramount necessity with a same opinion he was three years ago, commander-in-chief. There must be that “he must be mad, to think him- but one will in the field, and that will self fit for the office of Prime Minis- (if I may so express myself without
-an opinion which every man profanity) as omnipotent, as irresistin the country, who is not mad, (ex- ible, as the Deity's. But it is at least cept his Grace,) still entertains. Be a novelty in England, to hear these yond all comparison, the greatest martial virtues trumpeted forth as military commander of this, or per- the distinguishing perfections of a haps of
he is equally Prime Minister. It is not less a novel-. beneath all comparison-as a states ty in this country, to find the trunman. I do not look to the decision cheon of a Field Marshal, and the with which a thing is done, but to the sword and epaulettes of Generals and wisdom in which it is conceived. Arm Major-Generals, recognised as talisa man with sufficient power, and what manic qualifications for Cabinet Miis there he may not do, if the only nisters. Do I say, therefore, that bequestion that presents itself to his cause a man has proved himself an mind, is the extreme point to which able soldier, he proves himself, ipso his power can be pushed? Place a facto, unfit to be any thing but a solloaded pistol in the hands of a man, dier? No. But I do say, the sciand if his only determination is to ence of civil polity is not learned by send the bullet through somebody's the same studies that make a profihead, what head may not become the cient in the science of fortification. object of his choice? Between the I do say, that a profound knowledge mere possession of power, however, of the commercial interests of a great and the fit application of it, there is commercial country, is not obtained as broad a distinction, as between the while acquiring the practical art of possession of a right, and the expe gunnery,--that an intimate acquaintdiency of enforcing it. What greater ance with domestic affairs cannot be
cultivated abroad, amid battles and vouchers for this opinion; and I exsieges,—that a deep study of the in- press the opinion without the most tricaté relations which subsist be- remote intention of conveying an imtween trade, agriculture, and manu- putation derogatory to his intellecfactures,cannot be prosecuted in con tual character. I am willing to be. junction with the discharge of garri- lieve, that his Grace is one of those son duties, that elaborate and com men who can think strongly and prehensive researches into the com- acutely, but who have not the power plicated questions of our Colonial po- of marshalling their thoughts, so as ficy cannot be made while marching to produce them in the fair array of and counter-marching,--that the di- words, and in the consecutive order plomatic mysteries of the Foreign Of- of accurate ratiocination. I will even fice (for it has its mysteries) cannot concede, what I should find it diffi. be explored while maneuvring a cult to prove, that his Grace's assersquadron of dragoons,—and lastly- tions are all incontrovertible truths. but above all-that the school for Still, the abrupt, dry, naked, and dogstudying the principles of the British matical mode of their enunciation, constitution, is not that where the ar would not be the less repulsive, or ticles of war are used as a text book. the less adapted to produce convicEngland is not a stratocracy yet, ours tion, which must be the first aim of is not yeta purelymilitary government every orator. Self-evident proposi
-we are not yet ruled by soldiers only tions may be delivered with as much --and until we are, I must continue oracular brevity as the speaker may to think that the system of training, choose to employ: but disputed ones, which gave us our Burleighs, our which are upon their trial, as it were, Clarendons, our Walpoles, our Chat- must shew cause, produce good evihams, our Pitts, our Liverpools, and dence, and establish strong facts, in our Cannings, better adapted for pro- their own favour. I have no doubt ducing STATESMEN, than that which his Grace does reason; and that he qualifies a man to take precedency at arrives at his postulata by a process the War Office or the Horse Guards. which Aristotle or Malebranche,
But to return to his Grace of Wel Locke or Condillac, could hardly lington. I cannot trust myself to de- improve. The entire absence, howscribe what were my feelings, as I ever, of all testimony that he does listened to him this evening: so, in his speeches, would almost a humiliating exhibition, to be made lead one to suppose that some of his by such a man, whose fame, and cha- colleagues reasoned for him, and furracter, and glory, are part and par- nished him afterwards with the afcel of the fame, and character, and firmative or negative results; as a glory of his country. He is so little treasury clerk might be employed to of an orator, or a rhetorician, (arts cover a quire of paper with calculanot altogether without their use in a tions upon the revenue, and jot down popular form of government, where the totals upon a gilt-edged card, eloquence does much when it can which his Grace could carry in his give ennobling form and impression waistcoat pocket to enlighten their to the dictates of an enlarged mind,) Lordships upon the state of our that he might have said with Othello, finances, “ Rude am I in speech,
It is so, because it is so, or because And little bless'd with the set phrase of
I know it to be so, constitutes the peace ;
prompt, decisive, and resolute chaAnd therefore little shall I grace my cause
racter” of his Grace's arguments. I In speaking for myself."
will not call this imperious style (as
if the teacher or the doctrine were Or with Mark Antony;
infallible,) dogmatical; for dogma“ I am no orator, as Brutus is,
tism is very often only the energy of But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man." a superior mind, which, by its gigan
His Grace, too, is as little of a dia- tic faculties perceives at once the lectician as he is an orator. He is conclusions to which the disputants either incapable, or disdainful, of fol must come; and is the spring of a lowing the simplest argument to its tiger compared with the motion of a legitimate conclusions from assumed tortoise. "Neither, will I impute it or admitted premises. I appeal to to arrogance, though certainly to all his reported speeches, as my that offensive quality it bears the
strongest resemblance. I think it suing temperately, yet inflexibly, may be traced, easily enough, to two through all difficulty and all danger, very obvious causes : his Grace's the path of severest duty, I know military education and career, more not. “ Il me semble,” observes Monaccustomed, all his life, to give orders tesquieu,“
ne jugeons than to give reasons for them; and jamais des choses, que par un retour the somewhat late period at which secret
nous faisons sur nous he found himself in a situation re mêmes." It might, therefore, be quiring the knowledge of an art, in merely the reflection of what I should which, though nature can only en- have felt myself,“ had I so sworn,” able us to excel, early and assiduous and then been so forsworn; of what practice will do enough, for all the my own opinion of myself would have common purposes of business. Men been, standing in that same assembly, at sixty do not become orators, be a recreant, where so oft I had proved cause they happen to become Prime myself a champion, that made me Ministers; but Prime Ministers, ne- fancy, while he spoke, I could disvertheless, ought to be, if not ora cern the workings of a fallen nature, tors, at least decent debaters. And conscious of having erred, without they ought to be capable, when the having ceased to respect virtue and nation is groaning under severe and goodness. It is not at the moment general (not partial) distress; when we commit a wrong, but when we every class of the community com- recall it, (for the remembrance never plains; and when every landlord, to dies,) that we are tormented. Mr secure a part of his rent, is compel- Peel' must know, and knowing, he led to indulge in the amiable phi- must feel, and in that feeling he must lanthropy of generously relinquish- for ever stand rebuked, that he caning his claim to the rest; they ought, not now address any hundred memmethinkis, to be capable of taking bers of the House of Commons, withrather a more statesman-like view out awakening silent scorn, in those of the question, than is comprised in he has betrayed, and a pity, nearly assuring us, as the Duke of Welling- allied to contempt, in those who have ton has this evening, that people had the benefit of his treachery. He build fine new houses, and therefore cannot look round upon the former, distress cannot be so great; that peo- and not see their eyes turned upon ple get something for their labour, and himself with an expression of distherefore they cannot be so bad off; dain, such as might blanch the cheek that people do not, to be sure, get a of the most intrepid scorner of the guinea, as they used to do, but they world's opinion that ever strove to get a shilling, and therefore they need outface indignities, which a craven not complain; and that we must be conscience told him he deserved. going on well, because as much is He cannot carry his appeal to the paid in the shape of taxes, by the latter, and not shrink with self-loathconsumers, in 1830, as in 1815; in- ing from their tainted charity ; from crease of population during that the cold, and heartless, and distrustperiod, and the addition of mouths ful countenance, which welcomes by the disbanding, at home, of a large him whose apostacy is his only covearmy and navy, being circumstances nant; and who, while he is used as of too trivial a nature to affect this a friend, is suspected as one who may brilliant discovery.
become an enemy. This is the poli
tical condition of the Right HonourI have been told by several of my able Gentleman in the House of Comparliamentary friends, that Mr Peel, mons; and all he has to countersince he exchanged the proud honour balance its deep humiliation, are the of representing the University of Ox- worthless applauses of a few paraford, for a seat in the House, as the sites and sycophants, who extol the nominee of Sir Manasseh Lopez, is sacrifices he has made as a signal act quite an altered man; and I can well of patriotic virtue. If I know any believe it. Whether, however, such thing of human nature, however, or be really the case, or that I only if they who best know Robert Peel thought he looked like one forsaken speak of him as he is, he is the last by that intrepidity of spirit, and that man breathing to extract an honoursanctity of honesty, which once sup- able consolation, or a dignified acported and exalted him, while pur- quittal, from such compurgators.
The effect of this altered position the country are such as to render in the estimation of himself, of the it necessary, on this occasion, for House, and of the country, was surely them to depart from the course which apparent in the general tone of his has been followed for a long series speech this evening. It was the ba of years, on the first day of each Sesrangue of a man who knew what re sion. For at least thirty years, ever proaches might be dashed in his face, since they had been an Imperial if he presumed to taunt or irritate an Parliament, there had never been opponent; of a man who felt he had such an amendment proposed. (Heré lost his personal influence, the influ there were cries of No, no, from seence of character, and had nothing veral members, and the Chancellor to sustain him but the courtesy due of the Exchequer, I think, put his to his official station, and the respect Right Hon. friend right.) I feel great which etiquette assigns to the ac- pleasure in correcting my assertion. knowledged Ministerial leader, or I meant to say, no such amendment
organ of Government in the House. had been carried. I do not mean to · Hence the gossamer touches of rail make any wilful misrepresentation
lery and sarcasm with which he com to the House; but I mean, that no mences, in allusion to his Right Hon. such amendment had been carried. friend, Mr Huskisson, who, if the For nineteen years out of that thirty, face be any index to the mind, shew no amendment had been proposed ed, by the sneer which dwelt upon Is it possible to conceive any thing his features, that he duly appreciated more inoffensive, more well-behaved the reasons which made his Right than this ? _“I entreat,” and “ I feel Hon. Friend“ willing to wound,” great pleasure in being corrected ;": but yet “afraid to strike.” Hence, and “I do not mean to make any too, his tame, spiritless, and beseech- wilful misrepresentation !" Shades ing entreaties, that they would be of Pitt, of Perceval, of Londonderry, kind enough to vote for the Address, of Canning! Oh that ye could speak, and not depart from the good old and tell the world how you would practice, by tacking an unpalatable have addressed a House of Comamendment to it. Why, in his better mons on such a subject ! though days, in his palmy state, he would the gauntlet you threw down was to have talked to them of the indecency, be picked up by a Fox, a Burke, a of the indignity, of carrying up an Windham, a Sheridan, a Romilly, a Address to the throne, which, by ne Horner, a Grattan, a Ponsonby, a gativing the language of the Speech, Whitbread, a Plunkett, aye,—and in was, in effect, imputing falsehood to those times,--a Brougham ! I might the Sovereign. He, or any Minister even evoke from his living tomb, the in his situation as a Minister, and Right Honourable Robert Peel, who not checked in the free current of was Member for the University of his thoughts by aộiy galling con Oxford, and ask him if he would have sciousness of vulnerable points, carried himself as the Right Honourwould not have sued and entreated, able Robert Peel, who is Member for but fearlessly have described the real Westbury, does ? character of an amendment, or coun Mr Edward Davenport made a ter-address, as a proceeding which statement this evening, which, if it not only went to proclaim His Ma. be correct, or approaching to it even, jesty's gracious Speech a false repre- (for a trivial inaccuracy affects it no sentation of the state of the country, more than a technical informality in and that they, the addressers, had an indictment
purges the criminal, found it necessary to draw up a true though it may let the crime one, but to call upon his Majesty to punished,) shews how profligately dismiss from his confidence those titles have been lavished during the servants, by whose advice he had last seventy years. I say profligatebeen betrayed into an act so dero- ly, because the fact itself is a denial gatory to his royal dignity. Instead of the probability that they can have of this plain, manly, straight-forward, been honestly deserved or bestowed. and constitutional course, the Right “ Lord Bacon,” said Mr Davenport, Honourable Gentleman says this : “ has observed, that a country which “ With respect to the amendment, wished to become great, must take I earnestly expect the House to con care not to let the gentry increase, sider whether the circumstances of since it must follow as a natural con