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tured articles in payment for his la- step to civilization, morality, and edubour that the English manufacturer cation, exert all his energy to give was heretofore accustomed to re employment to the bulk of the peoceive; and hence the article made by ple, and insure an adequate reward this ill-requited workman can be of for their labour. : While one human fered cheapest in the market. The being languishes in inaction and miwealthy consumer is thus enabled to sery, he will stoop to raise him from obtain it at a lower price; but the his abject situation, and do all that question is, if, by the demand for la

lies in his power to give him the means bour in England, and by the active of providing for himself: If he canemployment of every individual, the not absolutely realise the benevolent recompense obtained by the labour and amiable wish of Henry IV., that ing class here is greater than that every peasant may have his chicken which is obtained by the same class in his pot on Sunday, he will at least in France, whether this is to be con endeavour to render him independ. sidered as a benefit or an evil ? The ent of the charity of others, and rerich man, no doubt, pays more, lieve him from absolute want; he or, to speak more correctly, before will ask, not at how low a money the Free Trade system came into ope- price the luxurious sons of affluence ration, used to pay more,-for the can purchase foreign silks, or piersame quantity of labour in England glasses, or French wines; but his than in France; but we would hum- chief, if not only solicitude, will bly submit it to the consideration of be, to ascertain whether the loom of the Economists, whether this did not the native manufacturer is at work; produce a great social and political whether the spade of the labourer is advantage, by promoting the more employed in digging the ground ; his equal distribution of wealth among constant enquiry will be, not whether all the members of the community. luxury revels in palaces, but wheInstead of looking at institutions ther plenty and content bless the which affect this object as faulty, we cottage of the poor? cannot help regarding them as the Whatever obloquy, therefore, may means of diffusing inestimable bless- be thrown upon that system under ings among the mass of the people. which Great Britain had arrived at Is that law wise, is that law humane, a pitch of unexampled prosperity; is that law friendly to the interests with whatever contempt the wise of the industrious poor, which would statesmen of the present day may throw one part of the population out speak of these measures, which all of employment, and produce a gluttended to foster national industry, of labour, and a consequent diminu- the time is not probably far distant tion of the earnings of industry, to when a fatal experience of the evils enable the rich consumer to purchase resulting from an opposite line of pomore articles of luxury from a fo- licy will produce in the public mind reigner ? The truth, however, is, a full conviction of their wisdom and that the self-styled Economists of utility. The laws which protected England regard the poor merely as particular manufactures, and prohianimals to be driven to death; their bited the free importation of corn, aim is to get out of the poor the gave employment to the general body largest possible quantity of labour

of the people, and security to the for the most scanty, remuneration capital whích put their industry in

which they can be made to sub motion. These laws gave to every sist. In the vaunted system of those man a full scope for the exertion of renowned philanthropists, the work his skill, or the application of his ing classes are set down as animated property to any pursuit or occupamachines, from the use of which it is tion which held out to him the prosound policy to draw the greatest mise of the greatest return of profit; amount of profit at the least cost. exacting froin him in return no conBut the real friend of the industrious dition, except that he should consent poor, the enlightened and humane to share his advantages with his feladvocate of the lower orders, the low-citizens. These laws secured man who has the happiness and im- profitable employment to the poor, provement of his fellow-creatures and restrained the rich from seeking sincerely at heart, will, as the first enjoyments to be derived from fo

upon

suggestions of speculative theorists, being fertilised by your industry, will and sanctioning alterations affecting yield from an equal quantity of work in a serious degree the interests and a more abundant supply of the neproperty of particular classes. А cessaries of life than you can secure judícious Minister will be always by continuing your present employ: extremely slow and cautious in ment. In this manner the public will adopting changes, which cannot fail enjoy the benefit of cheap silk, while to affect particular interests; a wise you will derive, from a new and and considerate Statesman will op- healthy occupation, a full compensapose all innovation until it has been tion for the losses which you would so generally and so unequivocally otherwise have sustained from the demanded by public opinion, that to change." resist any longer would be inexpe If the adherents of Free Trade had dient, if not unsafe; his conduct under reasoned and acted in the manner such circumstances should put it into just suggested, they would have turnhis power to say to the injured indivi- ed aside much of the opposition dual, or class, with an honest con which their measures have encounscience, “ I have protected your par- tered; for the fair opponents of Free ticular interests as long as I could; Trade ground their objections to the but I can no longer contend against system more, perhaps, upon the effect the united voice of the community: which it must have upon the social I therefore give you warning, to condition and interests of individumake the best preparation you can als, than upon any general principles against the moment when the change of public policy. They have no obthus called for must be carried into jection to cheap commodities in effect." And in every instance where themselves; they only object to this such a measure may be practicable, advantage to the wealthier classes, ample compensation ought to be when purchased, as it must be, at the made to every individual whose in- expense of the working portion of terests or property might be affect- the community. It may be inconsisted by such a change.

ent with the theories of the Political For these reasons we are disposed Economists, that a rich citizen's wife to think, that the promoters of the should be called upon to give a peck changes which have been recently of wheat for a yard of silk fabricated effected in our commercial policy, in Spitalfields, which she might get have stopped short of the point at from France for half a peck; but if which they ought to have aimed. To this substitution of French for Engthe silk-weavers, for instance, they lish silk goods should have the effect might, and we think should, have ad either of depriving the Spitalfields dressed the following language : weaver altogether of his

employment, “You are now engaged in a manufac or cause a reduction of his wages in ture which can be upheld in this his own branch of industry, while no country only by high protecting du- opening for his labour should preties and prohibitory restrictions : the sent itself elsewhere, we take upon public at large can buy silk goods, ourselves to contend, that the admisof foreign manufacture, fifty per cent sion of foreign silks, when attended under the price at which you can af- with such consequences, is an odious ford to sell commodities of the same and intolerable act of cruelty. It afquality: it appears to us impolitic fords us but little consolation to reany longer to prevent the public flect, that the sleek and pampered from having access to this cheaper citizen should save the value of half market. We are aware that this a peck of wheat in the purchase of change will be attended with the ef- the splendid robe which enfolds her fect either of driving you altoge- ample frame, when we know that this ther from your present employ- advantage is obtained at the expense ment, or of reducing your wages of withholding this quantity of food fifty per cent, in order to compete from the hungry family of the lean with your foreign rivals; but we will and hard-working weaver. enable you to embark in a new It must, indeed, be conceded to branch of industry: we will put it the Free Trade Economists, that the in your power to transfer your la- French manufacturer receives only bour from factories to fields, which, half the food and half the manufac

tured articles in payment for his la- step to civilization, morality, and edu• bour that the English manufacturer cation, exert all his energy to give was heretofore accustomed to re employment to the bulk of the peoceive; and hence the article made by ple, and insure an adequate reward this ill-requited workman can be of- for their labour. : While one human fered cheapest in the market. The being languishes in inaction and miwealthy consumer is thus enabled to sery, he will stoop to raise him from obtain it at a lower price; but the his abject situation, and do all that question is, if, by the demand for la- lies in his power to give him the means bour in England, and by the active of providing for himself: If he canemployment of every individual, the not absolutely realise the benevolent recompense obtained by the labour and amiable wish of Henry IV., that ing class here is greater than that every peasant may have his chicken which is obtained by the same class in his pot on Sunday, he will at least in France, whether this is to be con endeavour to render him independsidered as a benefit or an evil ? The ent of the charity of others, and rerich man, no doubt, pays more, lieve him from absolute want; he or, to speak more correctly, before will ask, not at how low a money the Free Trade system came into ope- price the luxurious sons of affluence ration, used to pay more,—for the can purchase foreign silks, or piersame quantity of labour in England glasses, or French wines; but his than in France; but we would hum- chief, if not only solicitude, will bly submit it to the consideration of be, to ascertain whether the loom of the Economists, whether this did not the native manufacturer is at work ; produce a great social and political whether the spade of the labourer is advantage, by promoting the more employed in digging the ground; his equal distribution of wealth among constant enquiry will be, not whether all the members of the community. luxury revels in palaces, but wheInstead of looking at institutions ther plenty and content bless the which affect this object as faulty, we cottage of the poor? cannot help regarding them as the Whatever obloquy, therefore, may means of diffusing inestimable bless be thrown upon that system under ings among the mass of the people. which Great Britain had arrived at Is that law wise, is that law humane, a pitch of unexampled prosperity ; is that law friendly to the interests with whatever contempt the wise of the industrious poor, which would statesmen of the present day may throw one part of the population out speak of these measures, which all of employment, and produce a glut tended to foster national industry, of labour, and a consequent diminu- the time is not probably far distant tion of the earnings of industry, to when a fatal experience of the evils enable the rich consumer to purchase resulting from an opposite line of pomore articles of luxury from a fo- licy will produce in the public mind reigner ? The truth, however, is, a full conviction of their wisdom and that the self-styled Economists of utility. The laws which protected England regard the poor merely as particular manufactures, and prohianimals to be driven to death; their bited the free importation of corn, aim is to get out of the poor the gave employment to the general body largest possible quantity of labour of the people, and security to the for the most scanty. remuneration capital which put their industry in upon which they can be made to sub

motion. These laws gave to every sist. In the vaunted system of those man a full scope for the exertion of renowned philanthropists, the work his skill, or the application of his ing classes are set down as animated property to any pursuit or occupamachines, from the use of which it is tion which held out to him the prosound policy to draw the greatest mise of the greatest return of profit; amount of profit at the least cost.exacting from him in return no conBut the real friend of the industrious dition, except that he should consent poor, the enlightened and humane to share his advantages with his feladvocate of the lower orders, the low-citizens. These laws secured man who has the happiness and im- profitable employment to the poor, provement of his fellow-creatures and restrained the rich from seeking sincerely at heart, will, as the first enjoyments to be derived from fo

reign sources, when these could have throwing an overwhelming burden been supplied at home. They minis- upon the shoulders of that class tered to the wants of the needy, ra which has vested its capital in the ther than to the craving desires of the purchase of real property. The thouaffluent : They protected property sands of able-bodied workmen whom and capital engaged in profitable pro- the new system has thrown out of duction, as well as the wages of la- employment, have necessarily. fallen bour. They sacrificed no man or for subsistence upon the poor-rates; class of individuals to the blind envy nay, so great is the reduction which of the multitude; but so long as one has taken place in the wages of lahuman being could be found desti- bour, that a very considerable portute of the means of providing for his tion of the maintenance of the workown subsistence, the state, like an af men constantly employed in the cotfectionate parent, watched over and ton trade is drawn from the parish protected the beginnings of his hum-' funds. It is indeed calculated, that ble industry. But far different is the in almost every district where the course pursued by the Political Eco- cotton trade has been able to supnomists of the present day; in the port itself, half the expense of fabrimidst of wide-spreading misery and cating the wrought commodity is suffering, they persevere, with a cal- defrayed out of the poor-rates. It lousness of feeling, and a disregard thus appears, that an immense tax is of all warnings, peculiar to them. levied upon the owners of real proselves, in the prosecution of experi- perty, in order to pay a premium ments which threaten to destroy for upon the production of cotton goods. ever the prosperity of this once hap- No wonder, therefore, that under ру. land.

these circumstances—with wages reThe Political Economists promised duced to a minimum, and one-half those whom they deluded into the of this minimum taken, not out of folly of countenancing their experi- the capital of the manufacturer, but ments, that other nations would be out of the pockets of the agricultuinduced to follow the example which ral classes--the cotton manufacture we set them, and abolish all restric- should as yet be able to maintain its tions upon the importation of fo- ground. The same observation will reign commodities. But other na- apply to the silk trade, to the iron tions, blind to the advantages which trade, and, indeed, to almost every were held out to them, spurned the other trade. They are now upheld suggestions and exhortations of the against foreign.competition solely by philosophers. The French, the Dutch, the bounty which is raised for their the Prussians, all, in their turn, laugh- support by taxing the owners of real ed at the simplicity of the Free Tra- property. In order that the wealthy ders, when proposing that foreign and monied classes may get their commodities should be permitted to commodities at a cheap rate, half compete with the productions of na the expense of fabricating them is, tive industry; nay, the Americans in many instances, taken out of the went so far as to establish a prohi- pockets of the owners of real probitory system at the very moment we perty. A system thus partial and were relaxing our own. This is the oppressive should by all means be celebrated reciprocity system, for abolished. The agriculturists should, the introduction of which the states for their own sake, make every efmen and philosophers of this coun fort in their power to withdraw this try claim so much credit. Its ad- superabundant population from the vantages, however, are all on one factories, in which they are now, at side- We allow foreign industry to least, partially unproductive, and setcome into free competition with that tle them either as cottagers or coloof our own population; while other nists in some country district, where nations rigidly exclude all wrought they may, by field-labour, replace the commodities which can be manufac whole of the food required for their tured at home.

support. In their eagerness to secure to the It will perhaps be said, that, to efrich and monied classes the advan- fect this object, a considerable outtage of cheap commodities, the phi- lay of capital will be required in the losophers have felt no scruples in first instance. It will be necessary

to build cottages, and provide the ably comes to pass, that at the end means of maintaining their occu: of the year not one ounce of the pants while tilling the ground du- bread which he has eaten is replaced ring one year, at the very least. It by the fruits of his own industry. may also be urged, that this amount With respect to the inhabitants of of capital must be withdrawn from the parish who maintain this pauper the general capital of the country, in unproductive idleness, as well as and that, therefore, the gain in one to the community at large, the efplace will be counterbalanced by an fect is precisely the same as if these equivalent loss in some other dis- loaves, or, in the language of the Ecotrict. A million sterling, for in- nomists, capital, were thrown into stance, laid out in establishing cot the fire. But assume that a different tage-farms, or home colonies, must arrangement had been made for the be abstracted from some other branch sustenance of this indigent labourer of national industry in which it is -suppose that the parish had said to now employed; and, by being thus' him, “We know that ye have no work, withdrawn, it will throw out of work and cannot support yourself by the as many persons in the district which earnings of your ordinary labour; has lost it, as it would give employ we are also aware that by the obliment to in that to which it might be gation of law, and the principles of transferred. At the first view of the humanity, we are bound to find you matter, this seems to be a formidable a maintenance ;

but

upon every prinobjection to the scheme now recom- ciple of honesty and fair dealing, you mended; but when closely analysed, are equally bound to use your best it will, we apprehend, entirely va exertions to replace the food which nish. The question to be disposed we advance for your support. We of, is not, whether it be expedient to will set apart a small allotment of transfer a given amount of capital land for you to cultivate; by an unfrom a branch of industry, in which remitting and judicious application it is now productive, into some other of your industry to the tillage of this department; but whether it be ex- portion of land, you will be able at pedient to render a certain amount the proper season to gather à crop of capital profitable both to the which will more than replace the owners and the public, which is now food consumed by you while proseeither entirely wasted, or at best cuting your task.”' yields but an inadequate return of It should also be always borne in profit. It will at once be perceived, mind, that when a portion of the cathat we speak here of the enormous pital of any country is exhausted by capital which is annually squandered unproductive consumers, the nationin this country in the maintenance al fund for the employment and reof able-bodied but unemployed la- ward of productive industry is in an bourers. The food consumed by this equal ratio diminished; hence the class of persons in a state of idleness, evil effect of maintaining an ableis a pure and unalloyed loss to society. bodied labourer in a state of unproUnlike the food consumed by the in- ductiveness becomes doubled. Supdustrious labourer, no particle of it pose an able-bodied and unemployed is replaced: it is consumption with- Tabourer draws from the funds of the out the most trifling reproduction parish to which he belongs an alThis wasted capital, if properly ap- lowance equivalent to fifty quartern plied, would prove amply sufficient loaves; this quantity of food is not to carry into effect the sort of ar only wasted upon a man who does rangement which is required to give not replace one of the crusts which profitable employment to the whole he consumes, but the amount thus mass of our industrious poor. An abstracted from the aggregate capiable-bodied labourer out of em tal belonging to the inhabitants of ployment necessarily falls upon the the parish, throws another labourer parish for support'; assume that out of employment. Thus it comes from this source he draws annually to pass, that an unoccupied labourer for his maintenance fifty quartern not only consumes in unproductive loaves. Being unable to get employ- idleness the food which he receives ment, he consumes this allowance in from the parish, but by that very act absolute idleness; hence it unavoid-he also deprives another labourer of

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