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Official value, L.352,103,355

But how much it is underrated in the official returns, the following refer-
ence to official documents will shew. It is here, however, proper to re-
mark, that this value is exclusive of freights and charges, (about one-third
more,) and exclusive of the imports from, and exports to, foreign islands
conquered and restored. These imports were nearly L.50,000,000.
1797-1803, declared value of Imports, Sugar, Cotton,
and Rum, only,


Ditto, by official value, every


Difference, or under-estimated about one-half,

British Produce and Manufactures exported.

Official value. Declared value.

L.120,772,916 L.210,830,420 Declared value still underrated, because a convoy duty was paid, and the estimate given in low accordingly. The real exports in value were onehalf more than the value given by the official scale. Sugar imported into Great Britain. Cwts. Gaz. av.

Value. 1793-1827 127,6 19,864

L.2, 4s. 2d

exclusive of imports into Ireland. From 1793 to 1821, the imports from
the East Indies, included in the above, were 2,878,628 cwt. value L.7,006,904.
Including freights and charges, therefore, the value of imports from the
West Indies from 1793 to 1827 inclusive, certainly exceed 1.600,000,000,
and the exports L.300,000,000.
TRADE_British North America.




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TRADE-East Indies and China.

Imports. 1760—1785

L.41,634,128 1786-1826

220,86 7,614





Official value, exclusive of freights and charges; the real value was a great deal more.

The value of our Colonial Trade is best shewn by the following official reference.

Foreign and Colonial Produce exported.

1785-1793 official value
9 do.


9 years

L.48,823,569 124,661,370!!

Sugar net duty

Goods, India and China, 13 years, 1827



My Lord Duke, it is it must be ate destruction of Great Britain. He -knowledge, wise laws, civilisation, told him firmly, and he told him capital, and industry, not terror, ty- truly, that on the shores of the Briranny, and oppression, which pro- tish Channel he might assemble in duce the invaluable commerce, more hostile array Europe at his back, but valuable far than the mines of the that “ there would be the limits of precious metals in Mexico and Peru, his enmity” against Great Britain. just adverted to. You may also rely “ But to secure this object,” said he, upon the following truth, namely, deprive her of her colonies, or renthat the oppression and ruin of the der them useless and unproductive master will never tend to advance unto her, and with this accomplishthe African savage, and barbarian ed, you BREAK DOWN HER LAST WALL, in the scale of civilisation ; and YOU FILL UP HER LAST MOAT !” How as a British warrior and a British nearly have we with our own hands, statesman, I would conjure your and by our own acts, accomplished Grace to remember the counsel that which Bonaparte attempted, but which Talleyrand gave to Bonaparte, attempted in vain! when the latter sought the immedi

I am, &c.

JANIES M‘QUEEN. GLASGOW, 7th January, 1830.



England, to melt over the footsteps As you consented in so flattering of Julie and St Preux. Soon we are a manner, to insert my desultory re to ride by steam, drive by steam, miniscences of Miss O'Neill, l-am plough by steam. Heaven preserve emboldened to commit to your kind- us! What shall we not do by steam ? ness the complaints of an old-fashion- Such things are perfectly alarming. ed mortal, on what are called the im. Changes, which one would have provements of modern times. I dare thought it must have taken centuries swear, that if you publish my lucu to bring about, are effected in the brations, your readers will call me compass of one short life. I often an illiberal old fellow; but, dear Mr ask myself whether I stand upon Editor, only consider how startling my head or my heels.. Why, I remust be the effect upon a quiet aged member Norwood a gipsy-haunted gentleman, of such

rapid changes as forest, and have been robbed on I have lived to see in the world. In- Finchley Common! I have made vention succeeds invention with such my will before going a journey, and haste,

it seems but yesterday since the so“ That unbelief has scarce a space to

litary waggon-like coach was three

weeks between London and Edinbreathe.”

burgh! Oh, that ever I should have The face of society and of nature has lived to see the day, when libraries actually been less changed through and night-lamps for the studious are all the centuries that have elapsed provided for our coaches, and their since the Norman Conquest, than in doors proclaimed by advertisements this. Innovation is making gigantic to be wide enough to admit a fashstrides, and things, that but to dream ionable bonnet! I sometimes think of, would have seemed insanity to that I must be near my latter end, our grandsires, are to us become the and could almost die, out of sheer ascommon elements of every-day ex tonishment. But, as my essay is toistence. Already we wash by steam, lerably long, I must not write a print by steam, hatch eggs by steam, lengthy letter. Believe me, then, manufacture in every possible way with much esteem and respect, by steam. Steam-boats startle the

Dear Sir, waves and rocks of the Swiss Can Your faithful, though amazed servant, tons, and convey the fat dames of



The picturesque will soon vanish what yet remains to us, in some reentirely from the dwellings and from mote and happy Goshen, of our prithe scenery of England. Look at meval architecture. How beautiful yonder tight square mansion, higher are all its forms,-how congenial to than it is broad, with a very low py the painter's art! Its very humblest ramid for its roof, the bright slate of work is as much embued with an which crowns the red brick walls,even imaginative spirit as its noblest. How as Mrs Firkin's bonnet of blue forms admirably an old cottage, with its the capital to her scarlet pelisse! pointed gables, twisted chimneys, and You behold, alas ! a fair sample of carved porch, harmonises with the nine-tenths of our present houses. varied outlines of nature! I allow In the meantime, the venerable re that its colouring, mellowed by time, lics of our forefathers' taste and mag its vines and mosses, which make it nificence are daily removed, to make appear rather a spontaneous producway for the upstart excrescences of tion of the earth, than a structure modern meanness. Possessed with raised by man, contribute in no small a rage, alike to create and to destroy, degree towards its picturesque effect. we multiply deformity, and blot out But then one may ask, can even Time, all beauty, until scarce an object re the beautifier, consecrate yonder teamains to reward the indefatigable caddy of a cottage, or, except by an rearchings of a Syntax. Turn to entire process of decay, prevent its


stiff proportions from injuring the sor, rising in the majesty of

proporsurrounding landscape ? An old mar- tion, and girt with the double belt of ket-cross still pleases the eye from a its kindred and coeval towers;" and distance, even through its coat of pa- then turn to behold the finest edifice rochial white-wash; but nothing short which the taste, the wealth, the geof an absolute pall of ivy could ren nius of our age can construct for its der bearable the square brick column monarch. Advancing higher still

, let with a pine apple at the top, to make us compare the religious edifices of room for which the noblest oak in our forefathers with our own.--A Caour vicinage, which had been for cen thedral !-What a stupendous piece turies the village play-room, and the of work is a sathedral! The mind traveller's hospitium, was destroyed can scarcely grasp it. The gorgeous root and branch. If we rise to the richness of detail; the noble simplidomestic architecture of antiquity, city of effect; the infinite variety of we shall still find the same broken decoration; the wonderful unity of outline, and variety of form, repeated purpose; the lavish invention, which on a larger scale-ever beautiful seems to riot in its own exhaustless ever harmonious; while the "hovels and spendthrift profusion, crowning of a larger growth,” namely, the every column with a different wreath, country mansions of our own day, in and enriching every window with preserving their resemblance to the new tracery–who can behold these modern cottage, do but magnify the wonders without exclaiming, “ There defects of a vicious system, and glare were giants in those days 1" Truly upon the eye,-ever frightful-ever the march of mind is not that of imaout of place. How well does the gination. A poverty of creative geo nobleman's house of Queen Eliza- nius characterises all our edifices, and beth's time crown some rising ground, of no kind more than our churches. and peer above its coeval woods! Copies of Grecian, copies of Dutch, The projecting buttresses, and irre- copies of Saracenic architecture meet gular gables, finely vary its lights and our eye-but always copies; and by shades, and forbid that any front of their minute proportions (especially it should be ever one glare of sun in the attempted Gothic) they forfeit shine, as is the citizen's


all the excellence which a faithful with windows in a blaze,

imitation would possess. Even the Beneath a July sun's collected rays.”

last century puts ours to shame, for, And here let me observe, in order though I camot admire the mixture to vindicate the wisdom, as well as

of impure Grecian, and heavy Gerthe taste, of our ancestors, that these man, which came over to us with the same gables are of real unromantic House of Hanover, still there is a soservice in our variable climate ; for lidity about the buildings of that

pethey break the violence of the unruly riod, which bespeaks a more sterling winds, which rock old November generation. In that day, men yet upon his cloudy throne, and temper

built for their sons, grandsons, and the heat of summer, by opposing so great-grandchildren-we only build many surfaces to the action of the for ourselves; yet in this we cerelements. They also give great sta- tainly shew wisdom—that making bility to the building, which, being our edifices hideous, we also make broken into separate portions, can

them perishable. The principal feanever decay all at once. The ruin ture (if it have any feature) of the of one part may still leave another present style of architecture, is a serhabitable; while, if one rafter in our

vile adherence to the Grecian school. single-jointed roofs were to give way,

We err greatly in this, for there is I would risk very little upon the nothing classical about us. The new safety of any head in any part of the gateway into Hyde Park (beautiful, dwelling beneath, unless indeed (as I allow, in itself,) is a perpetual samight very well be) the skull were tire on the forms that trip or lounge thicker than the walls. If you would through it. Women in seduisantes, know the superiority of ancient pa

and men in moleskin trowsers, make laces over those of modern date, go

but a bad basement to the battle of and survey that mighty pile which the Lapithæ and Centaurs. lives for ever in the description of

The architectural vagaries of China Burke, as“ the proud Keep of Wind- would assort better with the genius

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of the place. But if we wish to con- gilt clock and vile Grecian ornasult the genius of our cloudy clime, ments on the western tower— Westwe should adhere to the dark and minster Abbey still remains one of solid towers, the massive pillars, and the grandest objects that can fill the vaulted roofs of Saxon or Gothic eye and soul. Who can behold it, origin. The loveliest Grecian tem- and not feel that he stands in the ple, could it be transported hither by presence of a fragment of an earlier Aladdin's lamp, from its own Athe- and a colossal world? When we look nian groves, would less embellish at structures such as this, the mind our metropolis, than be itself dis- enquires with astonishment--who figured by its new situation. It were the architects of the era that should be backed by cypress trees, produced them ? How could they or by a cerulean sky, not by sooty die and leave no name behind ? Was, elms and a November fog. Above then, Imagination, in the lusty youth all, a Grecian edifice should be erect of Science, a dower as common as ed where it could be kept clean. A the light and air ? Did there exist a Gothic building may bear to have master-mind, the Michael-Angelo of its frowning aspect still further dark- its compeers, to create and harmoened by the smoke of a city—but nize the elements of grandeur and the sooty hue is destructive to the of beauty ;-or, were the very buildbeauty of a classical structure, one ers touched with fire from Heaven? of whose greatest charms is purity Survey throughout Britain the broken of colour, and whose native tints shreds, which barbarians have sufferthe hand of Time alone can success ed to remain, of a period which they fully enrich or vary; for example, call barbarous—the cathedrals—the which has suffered least from the castles-the ancient houses—the application of London blacking carved work in stone, and the carved Westminster Abbey, or St Paul's ? work in wood-must it not have reThe latter, with its sculptured loops quired thousands-yea, tens of thouof dingy flowers, looks like a lady sands--of minds as well as of hands, in an old court dress that wants to have devised such glorious speciscouring ;-the former resembles a mens of human power? Is the mould giant of the preadamite world, clad in which such intellects were cast, in a majestic robe of darkness--and utterly broken? Or what mean the who but a churchwarden_would hideous and flimsy fabrics reared by think of white-washing it ? Believe the descendants of such wondrous me, by the comparison of the two beings ? solution of the riddle has buildings, I intend no disrespect to been sought in the influence which the ghost of Sir Christopher Wren, the Roman Catholic religion exerwho, notwithstanding his diminutive cised at that period. Each indiviname, had the spirit of an eagle. St. dual, concerned in the erection of Paul's is, undoubtedly, a fine fabric, a sacred edifice, felt that he was even from its size-for, without a working out a part of his own salvapun, size is a great constituent of tion, and hence the mighty result resublimity. Were its proportions less sponded to the mighty motive. Beexquisite than they are, still their sides, it may be suggested that the very vastness would command as fables of superstition were favourtonishment; for the same shape which able to the production and growth disgusts in a pig, looks noble in an of a wild and exuberant fancy, and, elephant. Seen from afar, the dome above all, that the habit of moneyof our metropolitan cathedral rears getting had not as yet confined the itself aloft, the Chimborazo of Lon- thoughts to one mean track. Men ladon's congregated spires;-yet few boured for another world rather than could feel, on a near view, the same for this; and, if the tree be indeed sensation of awe which a sight of known by its fruits, there was in the Westminster Abbey is calculated to devotion of that time a fervour and inspire. Notwithstanding all that sincerity, which, whether our own later ages have done to injure the displays at the present period, it may effect of this magnificent pile,—the be as well not over curiously to enwretched church immediately in quire. These reasons, however, do front, wherewith men have dared to not, I confess, satisfy my mind as to cramp its wide circumference-the the causes of the amazing superiority

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