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geous capital which the world has huge columns, but it is intrinsically yet seen.
barbarous. It had its origin, we Moreover, notwithstanding the ex doubt not, in those times of peril and quisite beauty of the Athenian tem- dismay, when necessity caused the ples, Aristotle tells us, that the streets public colonnades in Rome to be of Athens were mean and narrow converted into private houses, maa fact which, were there no other king two stories where the original evidence, would serve to shew that architect intended one only should the inhabitants had the good taste be. It is worthy of remark, as to this not to suffer their habitations to cope point, that neither of those two great with the temples of the gods, or the architects, Inigo Jones and Sir Chrispalaces of kings. The Athenian re topher Wren, in their greatest strucmains are still sufficient to attest the tures, committed such an error in justness of this. Among all the rub the grammar of their art, as to make bish of ancient days which fill the one row of pillars serve two stories. streets of Athens, nothing has ever In that grand mansion, the Banquetbeen discovered that could warrant ing-house of Whitehall, the two us even to fancy that the private ci- stories are beautifully and fitly ditizens then attempted to rival, in the vided. Just turn from the Banquetexterior of their dwellings, the sump- ing-house, and compare its simplicia tuous architecture that belongs only ty, majesty, and fitness, as a part of to palaces.
a palace, with the colonnade screen It may be objected to the view of the public offices on the other side herein taken of those ornaments of of the street; and yet that screen is the Metropolis, that whatever was not without its merits, for, admitting the usage of the ancients, it cannot the two-floor arrangement to be lebe denied that these splendid piles gitimate, it is one of the finest pieces are decidedly elegant, and that the of Corinthian architecture which the admiration which they uniformly ex- metropolis can boast of. cite justifies the taste in which they A radical error evidently runs in have been raised. But is there not the minds of all our architects; they something fallacious in this ? There aspire at too much; they study the is a beauty in proportion altogether beauty of proportion too devotedly, independent of fitness or utility; and and neglect the superior beauty of we ought not to allow the influence fitness. We have, in consequence, of that beauty to delude us from the immense piles raised at prodigious becoming graces of the other; nor cost, with scarcely a single building should the drift of our argument be that any man, with a right feeling of 80 evaded. For we do not object to this art, can admire. rows of houses being erected, even Perhaps the least objectionable of the most superb character, to suit we should rather say, the most beauthe improved "delicacy of domestic tiful of all the new buildings—is the comfort, but only to the palazial new Post-office. It has, in the wings, character which is given to them, the two-floor fault certainly, but the We contend, that good taste requires portico is chaste, and very noble ; that each house should be indivi. and no one can fall into the mistake dualized in the row, and that the or of thinking the building is either a naments of the row should become row of private houses or a palace. the character of private houses. It It bears upon it throughout the chais preposterous that columns of racter of fitness, and of an edifice greater dimensions than those of the devoted to public business. In its royal palace should stand between special purpose, it lacks, however, windows on which we see bills an in one particular—it has not a covernouncing apartments to let. It is ed way
receiving the mails ; and that columniar mania that we find the grandeur of the well-proportionfault with.
ed Ionic style in which it has been Besides, it is incompatible with erected would have been enhanced, the right principles of architecture, had the base of the whole building to see two rows of windows between been higher and rusticated. Still, the architrave and the base of a co- however, it is one of the noblest struclonnade, in any and every case. It tures in the whole empire, and reis an expedient to reconcile us to flects credit, not only on the architect,
but on the party by whom he was ly, by the classical simplicity of the instructed, whoever that may have front of Wellesley-house, the new been-report says, Sir Francis Free- mansion of the Duke of Wellingling; and the edifice is worthy of the ton. Always excepting our objecreputation he enjoys for superior in- tion to the bad grammar of two telligence, both in his public and floors between the architrave and private capacity.
the base of columns, this mansion There are some points in the Lon- is one of the finest specimens of don University which also deserve simple dignity we have ever seen. commendation. The portico is de We really had doubted that there cidedly the finest thing of the kind was an architect in England so finein all this country, but it is certainly ly imbued with the feeling of the not faultless. Somehow, there is, in antique, as the gentleman must be all our greatest works, a seeking af- who designed that noble elevation. ter petty conveniences, which ob- It has but one fault, and a few pounds trude meanness into the midst of would remove it. The front having magnificence. Thus, for some truly been raised on an old building, part “ BASE” purpose, the opportunity of of the cornice and superstructure of exhibiting a superb ascent is sacri- the walls are higher than the roof; by ficed, and a cramped and crooked carrying the cornice and superstrucstair occupies the place where a spa- ture round the east corner, and becious flight should have been spread tween the two chimneys, this defect to receive the votaries of wisdom would be concealed, and the beauty and science. It may also be object- of the general effect greatly increased. ed to this grand feature of a building, We have not heard the name of the which promises to possess the sim- architect, but if this rifacimento be plicity that we so earnestly desire to a first work, he will soon rank among see cultivated, that the columns are the most accomplished of his bretoo closely placed together; and so thren. we thought at the first view, but re Earl Dudley has also had an expeated examinations have brought pensive rifacimento, in which some us over to the taste of the architect, pretension to architectural propriety even while we are compelled to ac may be discerned; but though in knowledge that he has better satis- good taste, the whole building has a fied our feelings than our reason. It common-place air, and is really, for is only, indeed, when we compare a noble mansion, below criticism. the extent of the inter-columniations, But my Lord Grosvenor's-oh, Lord! with those in which the windows are We have heard your Lordship talk placed in the body of the building, of throwing bibles and prayer-books that we find any thing like a reason at the heads of bishops, but if we had to think the portico crowded. The a Vitruvius sufficiently heavy, we dome, however, is detestable; the know whose face should be as flat form is ugly, the lantern upon it vile, as the man's in the moon in less time and there is an altogetherness of the than a chip of a chisel. What do grotesque about it, not only unwor you mean, sir, by carving stones, and thy of the building, but constantly putting them up in that style? Why, reminding us of the conical cap of sir, your offence is a sin as great an old-fashioned coffee-pot, or a Kil- against taste as idolatry is against marnock night-cap inflated-Would religion. In the name of blocks and we could say with the efficacy of rubbish, who is Earl Grosvenor's Richard III., “Off with his head !" If architect? He ought not to live. Let there must be a dome, let it be in ac him be instantly stoned to death. We cordance with the style of the por- thought blind windows could not be tico.
carried farther than they have been We were affected with something in the Bank of England; but we had of the same feeling with which we formed too small an idea of the excontemplated the portico of the Uni tent of human absurdity. We, howversity
ever, tolerated them there on account “ The sense of beauty glowing at the requisite, as every body knows, that
of their emblematic fitness. It is not heart”
the Bank Directors should see or in coming up the Green Park late- know any thing of what is going on
out of doors; and it is a settled point gree of ornament of which a concepthat the proprietors shall not see tion so pure was susceptible, withwhat is doing within. But what is out losing its domestic character in the meaning of the stone and lime something more allied to an edifice in Earl Grosvenor's daylights? If for public pleasure. Above all things, the interior arrangements required we admire it for shewing the gracethe windows to be shut up, why were fulness of giving the columns no more not false ones inserted or, where to do than belongs to their proper the shams are, could not niches and station in the building. The barstatues have been ? But it may be barous double floor is not permitted said that it is unjust to judge an un to shew its vulgar face. With the finished work. Not in this instance, exception of the Duke of Buckingfor what his Lordship has done is a ham's residence at Stowe, we have completed part, and is as bad as any never seen, either at home or abroad, thing of the sort can be, and yet, but any building in which the amenity for the indigent blind" between the of architecture was at all so beaupillars, the general effect would be tiful. But it has, as a whole, one so gorgeous as to draw off the atten- enormous fault, the huge visible roof. tion from the unfitness of the archi- It reminds us of an elegant woman tecture. It is but justice, however, under one of those cab-like bonnets to notice, with unreserved approba- too much in size and in fashion. It tion, the beauty of one of Lord Gros- is, however, probable that this is invenor's new squares-Belgrave. It in tended to be amended; indeed, we many points meets our wishes as to cannot conceive that the artist who the fitness of the ornaments for pri- planned a structure at once so revate houses. It is one of the finest fined and appropriate, did not conthings we have yet had.
template the effect of a few statues In the midst of so many fine things upon the different points. We have with which it is not difficult to find over and over again viewed it with fault, the whole being of human ori- respect to the effect of such ornagin and execution, one building, as ments, and every new time became far as respects the architecture, is in more and more convinced that it the most beautiful specimens of the wants but such ornaments to take residential style we have ever seen, away all attention from the mouneither at home or abroad--the Mar- tainous roof. At least we devoutly quis of Stafford's mansion, which was wish the noble proprietor would intended for the residence of the late be at the small expense of tempoDuke of York. We do not know if rarily trying the effect of statues it has yet received a name; but un on those parts which we conceive christened as it may be, it is impos- were originally designed to receive sible to look at the elegant simplicity them. But besides statues on the which invests the walls without ac different wings and porticos, we knowledging its superiority, not only think it would be improved by a few comparatively, if there can be compa- ornaments on the top of those inner rison where there is no similitude walls which rise in the centre above for unquestionably London contains the roof. It is really to be deplored nothing like it-but absolutely as a that so fine a thing should not be work of art. We esteem the archi- made as perfect as practicable. tecture of the mural part as nearly From this unique edifice we turn faultless. We have looked and look- to the new palace, but it is too exed again without being able to dis- tensive to be discussed at the end of cover any one thing, in the evident a paper; and as we therefore propose conception of the architect, between to consider it fully, in all its parts the cornice and the ground, which and particulars, we shall devote an could have been improved. Every entire paper to the subject. First, thing in the elevation of the four because it was rashly condemned fronts appears to have been suggested in design before even the walls were by the profoundest consideration, raised, and, now that they are up, it first, of the use and convenience of is, we do think, still viewed with an the building, and second, of the de- unjust and invidious eye,
TO THE HEADS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.
tion. Of course, if the bounty should Much of what I have said on buy- raise wheat from 40s. to 80s., no ading at the cheapest market, applies ditional wheat would be grown ! in principle to bounties; and, in con These, as I have said, are likewise sequence, a brief notice of the doc the doctrines of Ricardo and his foltrines of the Economists respecting lowers. They insist that if corn rise, them, will be sufficient.
wages and other commodities will Nothing could well be more unsa rise equally, so that the expenses of tisfactory in both fact and reasoning, cultivation will be so far increased than that part of Adam Smith's work as to absorb the whole of the advance which relates to bounties : it gives in the price of corn; and then they the most erroneous definition of the insist that the high price of the latter nature and objects of bounties; and is the sole source of rent, and the in truth it is nothing better than a only thing which can enable inferior tissue of fallacious data and deduc- land to be cultivated. This is equitions. Its author says of a bounty on valent to maintaining that an advance the export of corn, that it cannot in the price of corn cannot yield any benefit the agriculturists, because if additional profit to the farmer, and it raise the price of corn, it will raise that it yields him great additional the price of labour, and in conse- profit. quence, of all commodities equally; It is not necessary for me to speak ergo the real price, or exchangeable particularly of a bounty on the exvalue of corn will not be raised, there port of corn, because this country will be merely a fall in the value of exports none. According to the silver, and the rise in corn will be Economists, bounties, I use the words only a nominal one to the producers of Adam Smith, are liable, in the first of it.* This, which as I have shewn, place, to “the general objection of is likewise the doctrine of the Ricar- forcing some part of the industry of do school, is really too absurd for the country into a channel less adrefutation. If corn be doubled in vantageous, than that in which it price, there will be such a rise of would run of its own accord; and, wages, as will raise the yard of broad secondly, to the particular objection cloth from 30s. to 60s.; the yard of of forcing it not only into a channel printed cotton from 3s. to 6s.; the that is less advantageous, but into dozen of wine from 50s. to 100s.; the one that is actually disadvantageous; pound of tea from 10s. to 20s.; and the trade which cannot be carried on the general taxes and rates of the but by means of a bounty being necountry from seventy or eighty to cessarily a losing trade.” They asone hundred and fifty millions! If sert that bounties operate as a tax on this be true, it can make no difference the community. to the farmer whether the price of It will be seen that the first objecthe quarter of wheat be 20s. or 100s. tion is in reality the assumption that Here is a specimen of science per capital and labour can always find fectly unique.
beneficial employment; it maintains Taking his stand on this, Smith that if bounty do not employ them in argues that if a bounty raise the price one trade, they will employ themof corn, it will not increase produc- selves more profitably in some other.
says, “the nature of things has stamped upon corn a real value, which cannot be altered by merely altering its money price. No bounty upon exportation, no monopoly of the home market can raise that value. The freest competition cannot lower it.” I wish to speak respectfully of one who was evidently an honest, as well as able writer, but when I find him on cardinal points putting forth outrageous errors like this, I am compelled to say that none of his opinions ought to be received without severe scrutiny.
I said sufficient in my last to refute trade in the export of fish, silks, or this. It is opposed to all experience. any other commodity; and England, Every old country finds it constantly by means of a bounty, can gain this a matter of difficulty to provide a trade, without diminishing her exsufficiency of employment for its ports to the foreign nation. Ought population; and it grants bounties to she to do so ? preserve labour from idleness, but The question in reality is-the not to tempt it from one trade to an trade can be bought—is it worth the other. Its object in regard to capital requisite purchase money ? England is, either to protect it from the loss, can obtain it by paying an annual or to widen its field of employment per centage on its amount; will it, I will now state the cases in which on such terms, yield her more gain on bounties are resorted to.
the one hand, than loss on the other ? 1. A bounty is granted to establish In opposition to the Economists, some new trade which could not ex it may be taken for granted, that in ist without. For example, one was all such cases she has as much capital granted to the British and Irish fish- and labour idle as the trade calls for. eries: the object was to give em Generally, the trade is already esployment to those who otherwise tablished at home; the bounty merewould have been in idleness and ly extends it to foreign parts, and want; and to obtain a trade, which thereby gives employment to an exotherwise would not have existed or cess of capital and labour which it would have been monopolized by contains. It only requires a little foreigners. A bounty was granted additional capital at the first, and this on the export of silks; the object little creates the necessary increase was to give the manufacturers a afterwards. All trades, in truth, after foreign trade, which they otherwise they are commenced, create the capicould not obtain.
tal requisite for their extension; capi2. A bounty is granted to protect tal is only increased in this manner. some established trade from destruc- If the silk manufacture had never tion or serious injury. One was been established, the capital engaged granted to the whale fisheries; the in it would never have existed; other object was to nurture a trade which trades may have thrown capital into was in danger of being abandoned. it on the one hand, but it has thrown A bounty was granted on the export more into them on the other. This of refined sugar; the object was to holds good touching any trade which preserve a valuable foreign trade to exists through bounty; it is begun the refiners and sugar colonies. If with redundant capital—with that the linen manufacture, or any other, which, if not so employed, would were in danger of having its foreign probably waste itself and much more; markets taken from it, by foreign com this gives birth to as much more as it petitors, a bounty was granted for its can employ; and thus, to the trade, protection.
the capital which it employs owes its The fact that Adam Smith cen existence. In respect of labour, it sures bounties for being generally increases in every trade even more granted on exportation, and not on rapidly than employment for it; the production, proves that he misunder- Economists declare that its constant stood their nature. A bounty on ex- tendency is to increase more rapidly portation must necessarily be one on than employment. The bounty, thereproduction; its object is to cause fore, if it extend the trade, only emcommodities to be produced which ploys more fully the labour already otherwise could not be, and if they engaged in it, or calls to it idle laare not produced, it is not paid. But bour; and afterwards the trade either when production can thrive without rears the additional labour required bounties, they are not granted ; they by its extension, or employs that only are employed when they are which is not wanted in other trades. necessary for its existence; they are The labour employed by the bounty intended to enable this country to would not exist, or would be idle produce goods which, without them, without it. would be produced by foreigners. It is abundantly obvious to all men,
With regard, then, to the first that if, at the present moment, a case-a foreign nation has a valuable bounty could create a trade, which