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of action should be very limited, yet red in feelings and in sentiments, the difference between knowledge This state of things exposes the agriand no knowledge, within that sphere, cultural population more to the

inmay be very great.

fluence of vice and of ignorance. The question of Education in this They need more than they did knowcountry has become more interest- ledge and instruction, and more than ing from the great change that has ever such knowledge and instruction long been taking place, and the end as is of a genial, generous, and moral of which it is not easy to foresee, in kind, supporting their best affections the condition, and consequently in within their own nearest and closest the character, of our population. relations of sons, brothers, fathers, There has been a great extension of and keeping alive, if possible, that the power of commerce, not only in kindness and respect for the higher itselt, including, of course, manufac- orders, which of old the bold peasanttures, but in the commercializing of ry of England, their country's pride, agriculture. Hence innumerable old rejoiced to shew after their own relations are broken up, local attach- homely and independent fashion. ments extirpated; the close, daily, How far, were this subject pursued familiar, loving bond between the into all its bearings, we should have higher and lower dissolved: there- to regret this change, we shall not fore the power of opinion and man now take upon us to say; but to be ners as hereditary, as of one class regretted or rejoiced in, the change binding another, as of immutable demands attention from all who wish vicinage, is undermined and reft. well to the character of the peoFurther, the commercial condition, ple... Advancing wealth, and arts principle, or element in the social multiplying and augmenting their structure is this, that each man traf- power, split the ancient frame of sofics in himself; that is, without dis- ciety. In earlier times, men are all paragement, that in respect of the bound together, high and low, rich first great necessity--maintenance, and poor. They sleep under one roof; out of which nature has forged one they eat at one board. As they go on, of the most felt, seen, and infrangible two things bappen :— The society bonds of society, he freely and abso comes to consist of a much greater lutely chooses,

-one may say he is variety of orders or classes of socieloose to choose, his Relations. For- ties within the society; and, secondmerly, he was in these respects ly, what was done for love is done strongly bound, though still free, by for money. Both are principles of personal and local relations. He division. A patriarch might have would not leave his village-his ser some of his people who were artists vice. His was a state intermediate at need; afterwards there are confrabetween villanage and commercial in- ternities of artificers. Those who are dependence, which are the two ex- thus separated become more and more tremes. Then, relations in which self-dependent. So that in the early was strong, always good feeling, help- time, the contexture and strength of ed greatly to determine, where, and society by personal dependencies was of whom, he should receive mainte much greater; afterwards it depends

Now he estimates it in mo upon other principles, upon a rationney-his labour is worth so much— al estimate of the right and necessity he has it to sell-he takes it to mar of union, upon the sense of common ket. This is the solution of old ties, interest, upon moral views and symof old structure, by the infusion of pathies, on an idea of the obligation the commercial element. Of old the of patriotism, and of civic allegiance. unrooting of a peasant was like the Thus there is a continual dissolving unrooting of a tree. Moreover, the of the old bonds, and a substitute of farming labourer lived in the farmer's new principles of union. If it may house—now in his own, and, in many happen that the bonds are dissolved districts in England, lodges in public faster than the new principles spring houses. Here is the institution of up,--for that period there will be rethe estimate of value for the estimate laxation and impairing of the union of relations; or of value receivable of society. The end of all this is, that in money, for value received, there the spirit which accompanied the is no denying it, by the heart, measu closer union, is in a great measure

nance.

gone,-the spirit of control of opinion steadily to his duty, thus serving his of the higher classes over the lower, employer and the community at the of more intimately shewn and morali same moment, besides making himzing example, of befriending and sa-self, by his property and his respectalutary advice, and further, that cordial bility, a valuable member of society. and endearing spirit that gladdened Besides, what cannot be overlooked, the face of every day's

life, and was by his better manner of spending, exsunshine upon merry England. citing, as a consumer of a higher or

Then, there is a great part of Eng- der, the higher industryof the country. land, nearly a third of it all, where We are at a time when the question, the country labourers are all, without what the character of our commercial any individual or national distress, population is, is of mighty moment, but as a calm, regular, and immutable and is likely to become every day of procedure, paid half their wages out mightier still. The first part of inof the poor rates. This is so wholly struction we are bound to provide is uncalled for, and so flagrant an ab Religion; and that is provided by our surdity, and is so visibly of no use to Establishments, if those who accept the labourer, but simply a device by of the offices fulfil them. It is not which the landlord helps to pay the less than the duty of the minister, farmer's man, for which in all pro- when this is, from the numbers, hubability he is repaid in the shape of manly possible, to know that every higher rent, that there can be no dif- parishioner, every soul within his ficulty in its being swept away, at a cure, is instructed. The Country ofweek's notice, by an act of Parlia- fers much to the senses, if they are ment. And the system itself must open; much variety of occupation; be so blighting upon the character of taking hold, through elementary feelthe people,-though it is real repay-ings blended with the senses, on the ment of labour,-by the mode of it, will. Hence, in such occupations, a being repayment with the aspect of natural virtue. In towns and manualms, and other degrading circum- factories, occupation has often much stances connected with it, that the mischief in it. "Minds are separated first indispensable step to raising the from natural attachments, from the character of the people where it ex- sky, from the earth, from localities. ists, must be to remove it.

The man is more left to what is inThen, with regard to the proper ser- ternal, and is more immixed with vants of commerce in manufactures society. Therefore in himself, and in in great towns and districts, they ge- his social relations, more is to be denerally have great leisure from high manded, and more to be produced, wages,

in prosperous, which we be- that is good. Give him, therefore, lieve are their natural times, though knowledge; make it an occupation; we have seen deep distress, and they quell his inferior by his higher nahave often a command of money. Of ture. We do not enquire so anxiousthem, particularly, it may be said, that ly how he will apply, how he will the modern extension of commerce appropriate it. The peasant hardly has made an era, since it has suddenly needs instruction for an occupation; made them a most large proportion he needs it for the influence of the of the population; and on account of ideas it has imparted upon his mind, them there is occasion for interfering whilst that mind bears them often now, to give instruction, if for no other silently unperceived in itself. In moral utility, for the innocentemploy- the town, we want it for the ocment of time. It is probable that, be- cupation, the possession of the man tween self-respect, and the habit of by it, from moment to moment, from better,among other things of more do- hour to hour. mestic, employment of his leisure, the There is no need of entering at preworkman who from the times, or at sent into any argument on the comall times from the nature of his more parative character of our agricultural skilful work, got wages beyond pre- and manufacturing population. But sent maintenance, would lay the ex this is certain, and it is obvious to all cess by; and instead of spending even eyes, that with great intelligence, and a portion, sometimes a large one, of many estimable qualities, there is the time due to labour, in presently among the latter much moral evil, consuming its produce, would attend which never can be cured by a merely

secular education. Let us not deceive selves members of the Philosophical ourselves by believing that the people Order, declare that the Religion of of any great commercial country will the State ought to be respected; but ever be able to guide themselves safe- what their eyes chiefly regard, is the ly by cultivated intellect. Christia- march of intellect. Others again fear nity alone is the strength of the State. philosophy — fear the diffusion of If the Bible be neglected—we must knowledge-would keep the bulk of not say despised-butifit be laid aside mankind, if not in darkness, cermerely for Sabbath hours, and those tainly now in glimmer and now in perhaps unfrequent, interrupted, and gloom,” and in almost a blind subjecinspired by no very devout spirit, tion to a creed. To neither class and all other kinds of knowledge ele- would we wish to belong; but this we vated to a higher place in men's opi- will say, that no man who desires to nions than so saving knowledge,” promote the interests of his fellowpanegyrised by the most eloquent in creatures, will scruple to declare his the land, as the foundation on which faith, and to uphold it, from the fear, the pillars of a nation's prosperity in this liberal and enlightened age, rest; so that a man belonging to the as we are proud to call it, of being working classes comes to value him- thought a bigot, and no philosopher. self chiefly on account of the acqui- It is the blessed nature of our relisitions he has made, perhaps, in some gion, that it teaches to the unintelbranch of physical science or art, lectual that which lies beyond the faif, by insensible degrees, religion culties of the wisest of the sons of comes to be considered by the poor

The meek and humble cottaman as a thing of secondary import- ger, who has seen only that small ance,-and it is not easy to see how segment of the visible creation that is that can be otherwise, if his whole bounded by the hills encircling his mind, during its leisure hours, is to native valley, and who has read few be applied, with all its faculties and books but One, knows more in his feelings, to knowledgelying out of the simple heart of perfect morality, than sphere of religion, then Education, the highest mind that ever trusted so far from being a blessing, will be entirely to the illumination of its own a bane, and that which men call light reason. will be darkness. Symptoms of some On these grounds, therefore, have approaching evil like this are visible we all along been zealous for the difin the aspect of the times. Those fusion of knowledge among all orwho think that human nature is suf- ders of the people. Into some of the ficient in itself for its own earthly schemes proposed for the spread of destiny, and would rather wish to Education, we purpose ere long to keep religion, that is, Christianity, in enquire; and also into the state of the back-ground, will give a different Education, as it is carried on in our interpretation of these signs. Many highest Universities, and in our humpersons there are, who, wishing well blest Parish-schools. to their species, and electing them

men.

ON THE RECENT ARCHITECTURAL IMPROVEMENTS OF LONDON.

It is commonly supposed that an great degree when they attempt to inseparable connexion exists between give form and pressure to their own literature and the fine arts; but upon conceptions. examination it would seem this is Thé noblest progeny of the arts, an erroneous opinion. They are however, spring not from literature, both, in their highest efforts, the re but are of the artists' own minds. sults of certain occasional states of They come perfect from their imagithe public mind affecting the peculiar nations, as Minerva from the head of endowments of individuals.

Jupiter. Such are the works of In so far as the productions of li- Claude. From what book, or poem, terature suggest topics for the chisel or description, did that elegant and or the pencil, it may be said an al- sensitive student of nature derive the liance exists between the sculptor, subjects of his unrivalled pencil ? the painter, and the writer, and in The Apollo is equally the concepasmuch as the creations of sculpture tion of the artist; and scarcely one and painting furnish matter for the of all the great pictures of Raphael descriptive pen, the connexion and can be said to owe their subjects to reciprocity are indisputable; but still any literary description. The merest there is a want of precision in ascri- hints are all that literature has supbing that connexion and reciprocity plied to him. to any natural or necessary mutual No doubt the intelligence diffused dependence.

by literature assists in exalting and În their highest, as well as in their refining the spirit of artists ; but it is lowest faculties, a distinctive prinei- not essential to them, as the fact of ple peculiar to each is so clear and many excellent artists being ignorant defined, that it may almost be de even of the commonest generalties scribed as an organic difference. In- of literature sufficiently proves. In deed, this distinction is so prominent, the time of Julius II. and Leo X., that it requires some degree of con when the arts had attained a brighter sideration to discover any mutua- ascendency than they have since lity amongst them; the alleged con- done, literature was not so generally nexion being an after thought, formed diffused as it is in our time, when subsequent to, and in consequence art is as much cultivated as it was in of, the occasional aids they recipro- those epochs. cally give to each other. A horse as Claiming, then, an independence developed from the marble by a for art from literature, acknowledsculptor, and the horse of Homer or ging at the same time the reciprocity of Job, have no obvious moral simi- which exists between them, we aslarity. The sculptor may exhibit both, sume, that a taste for the one may be but the one which is the product of cherished without engendering any his own conception, and those which predilections for the other. Indeed, come from the suggestions of others, connoisseurs and dealers in works of will be very different.

art, are in general distinguished for It is a curious fact, long determi- their literary ignorance ; nor does it ned by experience, that there is an appear to be at all necessary that the imitative faculty possessed by many taste to discern the professional professors of the fine arts, altoge- merits of a painting, or of a piece of ther different from the peculiar crea sculpture, should be dependent on a tive faculty which constitutes the knowledge of the history or legend genius of a genuine artist. The fine of the subject, or on any knowledge copies of the great works of the old of literature at all. masters, as they are called, are the We have been led into these reproductions of this imitative faculty. flections by having lately, in a cursory It would even seem that there is a manner, inspected the state and prothird class of artists, consisting of gress of the new ornaments of the those who have the power of em- metropolis, and by occasional conbodying the suggestions of others, versation with some of the most but which power deserts them to a esteemed artists of the day.

VOL. XXVII. NO. CLXI.

B

It appears that, with reference to the that dignity is requisite to the abodes former, a degree of effect is studied, of opulence and nobility. But how which may be questionable in point shall these distinctions be preserved of taste ; and which could never

have distinctions which good taste imhappened had the minds of the archi- periously requires--if all varieties of tects been imbued with a right know the people inhabit the same sort of ledge of philosophical principles. In- structures? Without, therefore, dedividuality is sacrificed to general nying the picturesque effect of the effect--superb colonnaded rows of beautiful terraces to which we have private houses, suggest the magnifi- alluded, or in the remotest degree cence of palaces, as if the edifices impugning the elegance of their had been originally intended for the architecture, we would venture to mansions of kings; and although the ask, if simplicity and fitness would grandeur of this is indisputable, it not have awakened more agreeable yet may be doubted whether there associations, than those feelings of is not a hypocrisy in it abhorrent to dissatisfaction and criticism which just feeling

such inappropriate magnificence canWhen it is considered that all these not but call forth? We shall just regal frontages are but the screens of mention a fact illustrative of our ordinary dwellings, it must be allow. objection to the false taste of giving ed that the effect is disproportioned to rows of private houses

the gorto their purpose-begetting, upon re geous outsides of paląces. THE TERflection, meaner ideas, both of the RACES IN THE GARDENS OF CARLTONartist's genius, and the taste of the HousE ARE IN A NOBLER STYLE OF age by which such things are admi THE CORINTHIAN ORDER THAN EVEN red, than would have been the case THE NEW PALACE ERECTING IN THEIR had the structures been raised in a VICINITY! Can such disproportion style and character more commen

be consistent with common sense, or surate with their use. Doubtless in good taste ? If the properties of we should not be able, but for com taste may be so dispensed with binations of many houses, to obtain merely for effect, could the erection such a number of splendid terraces of private residences with domes and as those in the Regent's Park, and steeples, like cathedrals and churchnow erecting on the gardens of Carl. es, be objected to ? Our objection ton-House; but are not such ornato not to the effect of the thing, but structures at variance with propriety, to the unfitness of that effect—to the and, after all, but an unbecoming illegitimate application of the prinapery of those architectural orna- ciple of public buildings to private ments, which are only fitly appro- houses. priated to public edifices ?

In architecture, more than to any Without insisting on the validity other of the fine arts, we still acof the notion, that there is a propriety knowledge the ancients as our masin all things, which cannot be ne ters; and yet there is neither eviglected without offending taste, we dence nor reason to believe that they would suggest for consideration, committed such solecisms as those whether a simplicity, becoming the upon which we have ventured to anistation, fortune, and vocations of the madvert. The exhumated cities in inhabitants, should not be visible in the vicinity of Mount Vesuvius do their houses ? And, if this be just, not shew one instance of such inwhether we are not cherishing a me- congruous structures. In all the retricious taste, by not discriminating ruins of Rome itself there is not an the exterior splendour of the build example of rows of private buildings ings referred to from the uses to having been erected in the style of which they are applied? If we or public structures. All the remains pament private dwellings so highly, that attract the admiration of posteby what superiority of features shall rity consist of the relics of particuwe characterise public edifices ? It lar structures, but few of them are is admitted, that magnificence, in its of private residences, even of the truest sense, in architecture, is fittest greatest citizens—a fact which justiemployed on national works; that fies us in saying, that no such taste simplicity best becomes the resi as that of which we complain exdence of the common citizens ; and isted anciently in the most gor.

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