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out to be the miller's daughter, who had rescued the knight a second time by assuming his resemblance during his fight. A scene occurs between Henry Warden and Eustace, in which the former communicates to him the conversion of Mary Avenel, which is described with great force and truth of character. The emotions of Edward also, when he heard that Moray had rewarded Halbert's services with the hand of Mary Avenel, shew the pencil of a master. The processionof the monks to the market-place of Kennaquhair, in order to surrender the abbey, the interposition of Henry Warden in behalf of Eustace, and the high-spirited conduct of the Euphuist in discovering himself to save the venerable abbey from plunder and sacrilege, are well imagined. There is something comic in the ludicrous detection of the coxcomb's birth, which explains also the emblematic token given by the White Lady to Halbert, and by him shewn to Sir Piercie; for it turns out that the maternal ancestor of this refined courtier was old Overstitch of Holderness, a tailor. We need not hint to those of our readers who are skilled in the denouement of romances and novels, that Mary de Avenel is led to the altar by Halbert Glendinning, and that Sir Piercie weds the buxom daughter of the mill,

We have thus endeavoured to do justice to the romance now under our examination. We are not insensible to its beauties: but we have so valuable an interest in the inventive genius of this author, and we anticipate such rich supplies of future amusement from his pen, that we could not forbear to point out what we believed to be real blemishes both in its plan and its execution; ardently hoping that the ghosts, and kelpies, and white ladies, will hereafter give place to groupes more worthy of his taste and talents. These are weeds which will flourish in a coarser soil, and are ill-exchanged for the exquisite creations on which his fancy has heretofore been occupied.

Grandia sæpe quibus mandavimus hordea sulcis,

Infelix lolium, et steriles dominantur avenæ..
Pro molli viola, pro purpureo narcisso,
Carduus et spinis surgit paliurus acutis."

Virg. Eel. v. 36.

ART. IX. The History of New South Wales. 8vo. PP. 470.

145. Boards. Hamilton. Со 'ONCERNING New South Wales we have repeatedly con

versed with our readers; and the accounts of Collins and of Hunter in particular, with the “ Picture of New South


Wales" by Mann, attracted and deserved a copious commentary. We retain our doubts of the wisdom of trying at so great a distance so expensive a plan of colonization. А criminal population, moreover, does not form the cheapest raw material of settlement. If the disbursements necessary to transport, to protect, and to re-educate grown felons, had been employed in patronizing the voluntary removal of the adventurous and industrious poor, it is likely that agriculture and the simpler arts would have been more speedily introduced, and more skilfully practised, than on the present system; when persons unused to such occupations are, by military superintendance, compelled to attempt them, and are suffered, after seven or fourteen years of involuntary apprenticeship, to withdraw their incipient utility. Examples of prudence, economy, and good conduct, of docility to instruction, of skill in the mechanic arts, and of reverence for property, these are the elements of germinating civilization and durable prosperity: but extravagance, intemperance, anger, idleness, and ignorance, which characterize almost all convicts, can tend only to render their own maintenance a perpetual burden, and their children an anarchic mob. At least as many unproductive persons, whose labour contributes in nothing to the progress of the public property, must reside in a colony of thieves, to perform the office of watchmen and superintendants, as there are productive labourers in the whole community.

Still, in the case before us, the first difficulties are conquered; the means are provided of growing up from within a purer and a better generation ; and it is now desirable to allow gratuitous passages in his Majesty's vessels to any adventurous settlers who may be willing to attach themselves to the colony. Many divisions of labour are still without their appropriate agents; the rewards of industry and the profits of stock are very considerable; and, in the course of a life, an affluent fortune may be acquired in New South Wales from a small or negative beginning. To any such speculative emigrants, the present history will be a welcome guide; since it compiles in an abridged form the principal facts concerning the country, and subjoins some recent modern information not previously before the public in all the desirable detail.

The island of New Holland, which is equal in extent to the whole of Europe, lies between 101° and 431° south lati


* For these and other articles on the subject, our readers may refer to M. R. vol. ix. N. S. p.198.; xxvii. p.242.; xli. P.323., xlii. p. 1.; Iviii. p. 62.; lxviii. p. 1., and lxxviii. p. 349.


tude, and between 1104° and 1537° east longitude: but, having been imperfectly explored before it was settled, the station of colonization appears to have been unfortunately chosen. The highest point, accessible to shipping, of the largest navigable river, is in general the place to be selected for the metropolis, or primary sea-port: but the great rivers of New Holland probably flow south westward, directly from the mountains at the back of our colonies; so that we placed ourselves as it were in the Peru, instead of being seated on the Orellana, of the region, which has obviously a geographical structure not unlike that of South America, though its parts trend reversely.

New Holland was discovered by Quiros, a Spaniard, in 1609, and was visited at different places by many Hollanders, viz. Zeachen, Edels, Vandiemen, Vannuyts, Dewitt, Carpenter, Pelsaert, and Tasman, the latter of whom was employed by the Dutch East-India Company to make a survey of the coast in 1642. It was not until 1699 that King William employed Dampier in a similar examination : but Captain Cook, in 1770, first ascertained the insular and vast character of the country. In 1786, the colony was founded which forms the subject of this book.

The anonymous compiler has divided it into thirty-three chapters; which narrate successively the arrival in New South Wales of the first colonists; describe Botany Bay and the contiguous natives; next Port Jackson; and then the removal of the settlement to Sydney Cove. The reading of the King's commission, the establishment of a court of justice, and the instruction to take possession of Norfolk island, as a retreat in case of emergency, are detailed. Governor Philip's excursion to the Blue Mountains is related, with the consequent hostilities with the natives, and the examination of Broken Bay. Internal incidents take their turn; and the works at the settlement, the diminution of the public ration, the distress of the colony, and the apprehension of famine, form interesting and instructive difficulties. The naming of Paramatta, the arrival of Governor Grose, the allotments of land to settlers, and the intercourse with the New Zealanders, fill another amusing series of chapters.

The government of Captain Paterson and the arrival of Governor Hunter, the discovery of coal, the census of the population, live stock, and lands in cultivation, have statistical value. An amusing detail succeeds of the coasting enterprizes of Mr. Bass and Lieutenant Flinders. A chapter on political economy records the prices of commodities, the scarcity of a regular currency, and the foundation of the Sydney Gazette, the impression of which

was frequently suspended for want of paper. From this Sydney Gazette are extracted many of the new materials of the ensuing chapters, such as the account of the races. The arrival of Governor Bligh, his arrest by the resident military commander, the intervention of Lieutenant-Governor Foveaux, of Governor Paterson, and of Governor Macquarie form a sort of civil war, which terminates in the trial and degradation of Colonel Johnston. The parliamentary report of 1812 concerning the state of the colony, the consequent new regulations, and the courts instituted, are described. A general account of the natural productions, and an inland tour of the Governor and of Mr. Evans, who passed the Blue Mountains, form the concluding information. As this excursion is the greatest addition to the extant knowlege of the country that is contained in the volume before us, we extract the official report of it:

On the 13th of May, 1815, Mr. Evans commenced his tour of discovery; and on the 2d of June, finding his provisions would not enable him to proceed farther, he began to retrace his course back to Bathurst, where he arrived on the 12th, having been absent thirty-one days. In the course of this tour, Mr. Evans has been so fortunate as to travel over a vast number of rich and fertile vallies, with succession of hills well covered with good and useful timber, chiefly the stringy bark and the pine, and the whole country abounding with ponds and gullies of fine water ; he also fell in with a large river, which he conceives would become navigable for boats at the distance of a few days' travelling along its banks. From its course he conjectures that it must join its waters with those of the Macquarie river; and little doubt can be entertained, that their joint streams must form a navigable river of very considerable size. At a distance of about sixty miles from Bathurst, Mr. Evans discovered a number of hills, the points of which ended in perpendicular heads, from thirty to forty feet high, of pure lime-stone of a misty grey colour. At this place, and also throughout the general course of the journey, kangaroos, emus, ducks, &c. were seen in great numbers, and the new river, to which Mr. Evans gave the name of the Lachlan, abounds with fish; although, from the coolness of the season, he was not able to catch any of them. In the course of this tour, Mr. E. also discovered a very unusual and extraordinary production, the proper or scientific name of which cannot at present be assigned to it. It possesses much of the sweetness and flavour of manna, but is totally different in its appearance, being very white, and having a roundish irregular surface, not unlike the rough outside of confectioners' comfits, and of the size of the largest hail-stones.

Mr. Eyans does not consider it to be the production of any insect, tree, or vegetable of the country; and from hence the most probable conjecture appears to be, that it is a production of the same nature with that which is found in Arabia, and there called “ wild honey," and supposed


to be a dew. Where this substance was found most plentiful, Mr. E. saw the kangaroo in immense flocks, and wild fowl equally abundant.

• The natives appeared more numerous than at Bathurst; but 80 very wild, and apparently so much alarmed at the sight of white men, that he could not induce them to come near, or to hold any intercourse whatever with him.

• At the termination of the tour, Mr. Evans saw a good level country, of a most interesting appearance, and a very rich soil ; and he conceives that there is no barrier to prevent the travelling farther westward to almost any extent that could be desired. He states that the distance travelled by him on this occasion was 142 measured miles out; which, with digressions to the southward, made the total distance 155 miles from Bathurst ; – he adds at the same time that, having taken a more direct line back to Bathurst, than that by which he left it, he made the distance then only 115 miles ; and he observes that a good road may be made all that length without any considerable difficulty, there not being more than three hills which may not be avoided.

From the entire tenor of Mr. Evans's narrative of this tour, it appears that the country over which he passed has even exceeded the country leading to and surrounding Bathurst, in richness, fertility, and all the other valuable objects for the sustenance of a numerous population.'

Much remains to be done for this growing colony. In the first place, the opposite or south-west coast of New Holland, or Australasia, as Mr. Pinkerton has proposed to name it, should be carefully surveyed; and a settlement founded there also, with a communication through the interior. The available capacities of the country cannot be appreciated, and called out in their proper order, without at least a rough survey and a rude map of the inland region. In the second place, oriental settlers should be encouraged to domesticate themselves there. They would exemplify, and thus teach, the use of various local productions which to the Europeans vegetate in vain. In May, 1800, as Col. Collins mentions, soine propositions were received from the Bengal government, respecting the transportation of Indian convicts to New South Wales. This measure was not allopted, from the want of any permission to that effect from the British government: but the time is surely come when such convicts would be found eminently useful: they might be formed into task-gangs; and their labour might be let by contract for limited periods to the several established settlers. This would be a means of cheaply stocking the country insensibly with a more various and mixed population ; some of whom would no doubt introduce and perpetuate habits of life more adapted to the region and climate than patives of Britain can be expected to carry out.


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