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only in language, not in signification,) from being either a public cemetery or a common place of execution. Now, if this be a genuine interpretation, it certainly does seem highly improbable that Joseph of Arimathea should have selected such a spot to be appropriated as his tomb: but we have already stated our reasons for supposing that the church of the Sepulchre does embrace the tomb of Jesus; and it will therefore be clear to our readers why we hesitate in making the scene of the Crucifixion quite contiguous.

There is indeed one mode, and we are almost inclined to adopt it, which would reconcile these differences. It is possible that “ the place of a skull” may signify neither a cemetery nor a place of execution, but may have derived its singular appellation from another cause. Some writers have explained it by presuming the rising ground to have borne a resemblance in its form to that of a human skull; and Mr. Jolliffe mentions a tradition now universally prevalent on the spot, that the head of Adam was discovered there, which might also have given this name to the place. * On the probability of such a discovery we have nothing to offer, but false tradition may confer a name as easily as well authenticated story. The antiquity of the tradition is, nevertheless, required to make it available.

We may, then, sum up this matter by observing that those persons, who receive the first interpretation of the word Golgotha, will probably find it very difficult to allow both the claims of the Christian church; while they, who imagine to themselves some more accidental origin for the name, will do 'no violence to probability in assenting to them, and will certainly derive some support from the passage in the gospel of St. John. We have said but little on the value of tradition as it concerns the place of the Passion; not that we, in any case, altogether disregard it, but because it must be of inferior importance to that which relates to the tomb. In the latter instance, tradition would have had the confirmation of a visible object, viz. the tomb in the rock, open to general inspection; and the natural desire to visit a spot so closely connected with our religious belief must, in all times, have been powerful and active. In the former instance, no such visible object could have remained to mark out the spot of the Crucifixion, and consequently the tradition respecting it must always have been deficient in this strong testimony.

* The similarity of the derivation of the Roman capitolium from the words caput Toli will naturally strike the reader, even though he may esteem it fanciful.


Our opinion as to the third point, arising from this inquiry, is of course deducible from what has been already said, and has, in fact, been interwoven with it.

Mr. Jolliffe proceeds to describe other remarkable places in Jerusalem, now assigned as the scenes of different events in the Gospel-history. Some of these may be received as true sites, with little hesitation, while others can be regarded only as depending on the tales of monastic fiction.— The description of the Mount of Olives is not uninteresting, although in the list of its antiquitics the mixture of fable is sufficiently evident:

• After passing the bridge thrown over the bed of the rivulet, a few paces brought us to the garden of Gethsemane, where the Messiah prayed in agony, and the sweat fell from him in drops of blood. Here too was the scene of Judas's treason. This spot, scarcely half an acre in extent, is partly enclosed by a low wall, and contains eight venerable olive trees, which are said to have been growing at the time of Christ's entrance into the city: they have certainly the marks of extreme age; but Josephus expressly states, that all the trees, which were in the neighbourhood of Jeru. salem, were cut down by Titus, for the purpose of embankments. * At the summit of the mountain is fixed the scene of our Saviour's last appearance on earth, and his ascension into heaven. The impression said to have been made by his foot is engraven on the surface of the rock, so as to preserve a record of the Messiah's attitude when he bade adieu to this lower world. It appears from thence, that Christ's left hand was towards Jerusalem, which lays west of the mountain, and that his face was consequently directed to the north. The view from this elevation is grand and extensive, comprehending the valley watered by the Jordan and the entrance of that river into the Dead Sea, which appears like a vast plateau of burnished silver.'

A pleasing delusion to the traveller in Palestine, who may think that he sees olive-trees coëval with the foundation of the Christian faith on this Mount, must, we fear, be dispelled, or at least greatly shaken, by a reference to the passage in Josephus, to which the author alludes in this extract:

• * Bell. Jud. lib. v. cap. xii.'

6.+ It is difficult to read with the gravity, which the subject should inspire, the minute statements and their accompanying reflections, in some of the early voyages, descriptive of this miraculous occurrence. Yet, unless to such as are inclined to deny the fact of the Ascension altogether, there is surely no great outrage to probability in supposing that those who witnessed it, anxious to perpetuate à memori of the event, may have marked the surface with some rude representation of the impression of a foot, though time has rendered the resemblance indistinct.'

« Titus"

« Titus" (says the historian) “began to take compassion on those that remained out of the people; and, being desirous to save out of the common danger something at least of what still remained, began to rebuild fresh mounts, though surrounded with difficulties in getting materials for them: for all the wood near the city had been cut down for the former mounds, and the sol. diers were obliged now to fetch other stuff, a matter of fourscore and ten miles off,” *

Let us hope, nevertheless, even under this discouragement, that some relaxation may be made in the most literal and strict application of this passage; and that the “gratissimus error mentis" may not be forcibly dissolved, to the visitor of the garden of Gethsemane.

The antiquities and curiosities of Bethlehem have little to interest the traveller, or the reader of travels, beyond the general admonitus locorum, which must necessarily have so powerful an effect on such a soil. To those, indeed, who can believe that a figure of a star, in a wall of the Franciscan convent,

corresponds precisely with the point in the firmament where the heavenly planet became stationary, when it had conducted the wise men from Jerusalem,” matter of admiration and astonishment cannot be wanting.

We will close our notice of this volume with some account of an excursion made by its author to the river Jordan, and the Dead Sea; by which some erroneous notions, often broached, are corrected, and a plain statement is substituted for more marvellous description.

The width of the river Jordan at its embouchure into the Asphaltites is described as from two to three hundred feet; and the current as so violent that a very expert swimmer found it impracticable to make his way across. It enters the northern extremity of the Dead Sea, which takes a southsouth-eastern direction, visible for ten or fifteen miles, when it disappears in a curve to the east. Mr. J. conceives that the breadth, at the point at which he reached it, did not exceed five or six miles: but be observed it evidently increase in breadth to the southward. +

* See Court's translation of Josephus, folio, p. 698. – The ground-plan of the antient city, in this old-fashioned volume, will throw some light on the question of the extension of Jerusalem on the sides of Sion and Moriah. There seems to be much reason for deeming it correct in the main.

+ Pliny (Hist. Nat. lib. v. c. 16.) makes the whole length one hundred miles, and the greatest breadth twenty-five.- Josephus, Bell. Jud. lib. iv. c. 8. considerably reduces such an estimate. According to him, the length appears to be about seventy-five miles, and the width about twenty.

. Among

Among the fabulous properties attributed to this lake, the specific gravity of the water has been stated to be such as to be capable of supporting the heaviest material substance. I found it very little more buoyant than other seas, but considerably warmer, and so strongly impregnated with sulphur that I left it with a violent head-ache and swollen eyes. I should add, however, that where I made the experiment the descent of the beach was so gently gradual, that I must have waded above a hundred yards to get completely out of my depth, and the impatience of the Arabians would not allow sufficient time for so extensive an effort.

"The Vicomte de Chateaubriand, following the general opinion, had described the waters as preserving their serenity even amidst the agitations of a tempest." Son eau, d'une amertume affreuse, est si pesante, que les vents les plus impetueux peuvent à peine la soulever?" A personal examination induced this eloquent writer to correct the preceding statement. In fact, a light breeze is more than sufficient to ruffle the surface: the protection of the mountains renders any very violent Auctuation unfrequent, and not the density of the fluid.

* The banks of the Jordan, which were formerly the haunt of lions, at least if the expressions in Jeremiah are to be understood literally, have long ceased to be infested with any such visitors, and we gathered the reeds from its shore without the slightest molestation. The current, as it enters the Dead Sea, is much discoloured, but the general appearance of the lake is that of the most brilliant transparency. As we approached the margin of the water, a strong sulphureous odour was emitted, but a few paces distant it was scarcely perceptible. I have filled a large bottle with the fluid, with a design to make the experiment recommended by Pococke, as soon as we reach the coast. The taste is peculiarly harsh and bitter. Certain travellers have attributed to these waters the same powerful effect on birds, which Virgil ascribes to the lake near the promontory of Misenum. (Æn. vi. ver. 239.)

• Though unable to negative such report by ocular observation, I feel strongly inclined to question its accuracy: there were several impressions on the sand of birds' feet, some of which appeared as large as the claws of an eagle or vulture; we did not, however, distinguish any with the formation peculiar to water-fowl. If hereafter the Turks allow this sea to be navigated, future travellers may eventually arrive at many very interesting discoveries. It is not, perhaps, impossible that the wrecks of the guilty cities may still be found : we have even heard it asserted with confidence that broken columns and other architectural ruins are visible at certain seasons, when the water is much retired below its usual level; but of this statement, our informers, when closely pressed, could not adduce any satisfactory confirmation. Strabo reckons up thirteen towns, that were overwhelmed by the lake Asphaltites. The author of the book of Genesis enumerates only five, and of these Sodom and Gomorrah are alone stigmatized as peculiarly the objects of the Almighty's vengeance." Then the Lord rained upon


Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven.” (Genesis, xix. 24.)

While- this description agrees with those that are to be derived from more antient sources, it rejects many of their fabulous inventions; such as the floating of animals, mentioned by Pliny, and the result of the experiment made by Vespasian, to ascertain the extraordinary buoyancy of the water by casting into it persons with their hands tied behind their backs to prevent them from swimming, who floated on the surface. * No mention, moreover, is made of the changes of the colour of the water, which, as Josephus states, took place three times in each day. This latter assertion, indeed, if stripped of its paradoxical air, and taken under certain limitations, might not be at variance with the general order of nature, but simply producible from the effect of light and shade, as regulated by the different degrees of the sun's elevation, and the bearings of the mountains adjacent. Prince Radzivil declares that he saw this effect, and attributes it to some such natural causes acting on water thus impregnated.+

Mr. Jolliffe adds his testimony to the evidence of preceding modern travellers, that the adjoining territory now presents an appearance of frightful desolation. So it did in the age of Tacitus and Josephus; of whom the former, referring to the conflagration of the cities which once occupied the site, observes; “ vestigia manere, terramque ipsam specie torridam, vin frugiferam perdidisse. Nam cuncta sponte edita, aut manu sata, sive herbá tenus aut flore, scu solitam in speciem adolevere, atra et inania velut in cinerem vanescunt.(Hist. lib. v. c. 7.) – The passage in Josephus relating to the same phænomenon is very

similar; « 'Εςι δε κάν τους καρπόις οποδιών αναγεννωμένην, δι χρόαν μεν έχεσι τοις έδωδιμοις ομοίαν, δρεψαμένων δε χερσιν εις καπνον αναλυονται και τέφρην.” (Bell. Jud. iv. 8.1) easily be imagined that any intelligent traveller, more espe

* Taciti Histor. lib. v. c. 6. --- Plin. Nat. Hist. vii. 15., and xxviii. 7.

in Tacitus bears the closest resemblance to that which has been already cited from Josephus. — The effects produced on the head by immersion in the water are described in the travels of Radzivil, in a similar manner to that of the present author : “caput gravi pestiferoque odore vehementer inficit.

+ Hierosolymit. Peregrin. p. 95. See notes in Brotier's edition of Tacitus, on Hist. lib. v., where this passage is cited.

# It may be observed that Tacitus has evidently copied Josephus in many instances ; although no where, as far as we recollect, mentioning his name. The two writers must have been cotemporary, but with a sufficient precedence of age in the latter to have rendered such copying practicable.

It may

The passage

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