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missioners for the treaty at Uxbridge; next, during his residence in the besieged city of Oxford whilst the King was pursuing his military measures in other parts; again, whilst the King was with the Scots army, and especially during his confinement at Holdenby and the Isle of Wight.. (Introd.) The historian will refer to this correspondence with advantage, some points being explained in it on which the parliamentary records and other publications of the time are deficient. Sir Edward was an honest and conscientious loyalist, and his letters breathe throughout a sincere and affectionate attachment to his master. No summer-bird, his' note was scarcely heard when the royal grove was filled with songsters in full feather, warbling their monarch's praise: but in the bleak and leafless winter he poured forth his almost solitary voice.

Sir Edward seems to have given his advice most unscrupulously, and it was always of a conciliating nature: urging Charles to throw himself on the affections of his subjects, as the surest protection of his person and his throne. The King was pleased with his frankness, but unhappily disregarded his counsel. On the death of Charles, he joined the exiled prince at Rouen. At the Restoration, in 1660, he was continued Secretary, but resigned it two years afterward, at the age of seventy. He refused a peerage, and, retiring to his seal at West Horsley, in Surrey, died in the year 1669.

A correspondence is given between Charles II. and Sir Edward; and we have also a great many letters, lively, animated, playful, and political, from the Princess Elizabeth, (sister of Charles I.) Queen of Bohemia, to the same minister. We quote one specimen of these letters: The Queen of Bohemia to Sir Edward Nicholas.

· Hagh, Jan: 4, (1654-5.) · Mr. Secretarie, I haue receaued yours of the 29th at my returne vpon Thursday last from Teiling, and this morning I haue letters from Bruxelles, who tell me that my deare Nephue the D. of Gloucester was there vpon new years eue the same day I was at Teiling, but when he came thither or goes from thence I know not. I ame extreme glade the King permitts (him) to see his Sister and me. I hope he will suffer him to stay some time with my deare Neece, it will be a great contentment to her and no hurt to him, and as long as there is nothing tolde to the States of him, they will take no notice of it, this I know is true. I ame sorie for poore Sr Henry de Vic*, for lett the match break or goe on, it is euerie way ill for him : we heare no certaintie heere how

* Sir Henry de Vic, in the early part of Charles the First's reign, had been his Majesty's secretary for the French mission, and also agent to the King of Denmark,


the French treatie with the rebells in England goes, whither it breake or peece. * I ame verie sorie for the Countess of Mortons death t, I pittie Si Thom. Berkley, but most her children. The Queene of Sueden is now at Bruxelles, where she was receaued in great state : I beleeue the Archduke I wisheth her at Anwerp, for she persecutes him verie close with her companie, for you know he is a verie modest man. I haue written to the King some particullars of it which are verie rare ons, but the Prince of Condé is still verie unsatisfied with her and will not come at her. I haue one peece of news which it may be you haue not heard : the resident of Polande tells me that there is a treatie betwixt Sueden and Polande and a perpetual peace, and to assist one the other against the Muscovits : the King of Poland will quit his pretention to Sueden vpon condition that he be recompenced with some lande or Island for his heire, that if they be not chosen to succeed the kingdome of Polande, they may haue some place to them selfs to liue in, for the K. of Polande has no patrimonie of his owne nor can buy anie lande under the croune of Poland : his agent has order to goe for England, to see if Cromwell woulde send some ships against the Muscovits to make a diuersion. the good agent is verie vnwilling to goe, but he must obey his master. Sure Cromwell is the beast in the Revelations that all kings and nations doe worship; I wish him the like end and speedilie, and you a hapie new yeare as s

your most affectionat frend. These materials bring down the correspondence to 1655: but it has been deemed proper, the editor says, to subjoin some unpublished letters to and from the Earl of Clarendon, (when Sir Edward Hyde,) and Sir Richard Browne, in order to throw light on the royal affairs during the interregnum.

The volume concludes with a few state-papers, selected as elucidatory of certain transactions little noticed by the historians of that period.

« * In January the Caviliers were stirring, but in vain; and in the following November, Cromwell made peace with the French. The Ex-Queen of Sweden and the Prince of Condé seem to have been meddling with those affairs, through the diplomatic exertions of the Count de Tott; as may be seen by reference to a letter in Bromley's Collection, page 186.'

«t Widow of William Earl of Morton, Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, and long in great personal favour with Charles the First.'

† Archduke of Austria.' • Š Her Majesty's political gossip in this epistle is highly deserving the notice of the historian. A preceding note shews that the proposed peace between Poland and Sweden was of very short duration.'

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ART. VII. A Voyage up the Persian Gulf, and a Journey over,

land from India to England, in 1817. Containing Notices of Arabia Felix, Arabia Deserta, Persia, Mesopotamia, the Garden of Eden, Babylon, Bagdad, Koordistan, Armenia, Asia Minor, &c. By Lieut. Wm. Heude, of the Madras Military Establish

ment. 4to. pp. 252. il. 5s. Boards. Longman and Co. 1819. IT. T is stated in the preface to this valuable journal that the

author, having been bred in camps from his fifteenth year, now approaches the press without habits of composition, or much stock of literature; and that he can only claim the merit of having recorded faithfully, and unadornedly, the observations made by him in the course of a solitary journey along an unusual track. The first two chapters are introductory, and include some account of the present state of Malabar. In the third, Lieut. Heude embarks at Bombay for Maskat, or Muskat, in the Persian Gulf; where he landed, visited the slave-market, made an excursion into the interior, and re-embarked. The pirates are described, and the isle of Ormuz. * At Busheer he landed again, changed his vessel, and proceeded to Bussora. Karak is noticed as a position important for the protection of a growing commerce frequently in danger from pirates at sea, and from banditti on shore; and it is recommended to garrison both that island and Ormuz. At Bussora, Mr. H. passed several weeks, and terms it a large city, computed to contain 80,000 inhabitants : but it is meagerly described, on the plea that it is well known. Every man, however, has something individual in his point of view; and the cities of the East have so many peculiarities, that repeated delineations are requisite to impress them all. Dr. Colquhoun, the English resident at Bussora, is praised for his urbanity, for his stud of Arabian horses, and for his hospitality in the ready loan of them. The English character is stated to be much respected by the natives.

Chapter IV. includes a very interesting residence of three weeks among the Bedooin Arabs, who inhabit, or rather ride over, the desert banks of the Euphrates. Shat-ul-Arab is the name given to this river from Korna, where it receives the Tigris to the sea ; and up this channel the author proceeded in a boat, which chiefly depended on the tide for its intermitting progress. A sketch is given of Korna, here erroneously said to be situated in the Garden of Eden. It is true

* How different from that Ormuz of which the Venetian poel says:

« Si terrarum orbis, quaqua patet, annulus esset,
Ilius Ormusium gemma, decusque foret."


that the Tigris and the Euphrates were two of the rivers of Paradise: but the other two were the Mygdonius, or Phison, and the Chaboras, or Gihon; and it is nearer to the source of these rivers that the original Eden lies. We select the record of a day or two of this journey:

• Hospitality is certainly the national virtue of the Bedooins of the desert. The poor creatures had very little of their own : they produced it, however, with the smile of welcome; and after awhile, the carpets were extended across the tent for our repose. Fatigued as I was, though drenched to the very skin, I was soon asleep; but was awakened by the heavy load of carpets and cumlins collected for our use, and which, having just arrived, were spreading over us by our attentive host and his family. It was evident they were depriving themselves of their own covering for our accommodation, and would be obliged to sit up for the night: no entreaties, however, could persuade them to the contrary : so after smoking a pipe with the watchers, and filling their chubooks from my pouch, I again composed myself to sleep. Early on the morning of the 25th, I resumed my course, accompanied by the guide that had been furnished us on the preceding day.

25th. At eight A.M. we crossed a rivulet emptying itself into the Euphrates. It flows on the boundary of the original abode of fallen man. Alas! how changed this Paradise! It is now a barren waste, that scarcely produces a scanty crop of the coarsest grain. We halted at twelve for a short time in the open air with Shaik Hubeeb ; resumed our march at one P.M., and put up for the night with an old venerable shaik, who was encamped seven hours journey, or near eight-and-twenty miles, from our former resting-place. The country, throughout the day, which forms part of ancient Mesopotamia, presented only that degree of inferior husbandry which is necessary to the subsistence of a thinlyscattered population. A great proportion of the ground, very probably, lies fallow for many successive years, after which it is ploughed in a very superficial manner; and, with the advantages of rest, and the manure of their flocks, produces the scanty return which is just sufficient for this simple, abstemious race.'

In the fifth chapter, the author reaches the remains of Babylon. He notices the Birs Nemroude, or Tower of Nimrod, who is, no doubt, the Ninus of the Greeks; and he corroborates in every thing the accurate description of Mr. Ricb., Little hesitation can be entertained that this mound is the Tower of Babel, mentioned in Genesis; and it still retains traces of having been destroyed by fire from Heaven, whence the people would naturally infer the hostile interposition of the Deity. Mr. H. also visits the two mounds beside the river, about two miles above Hellah: they are apparently formed of the rubbish of that Babylon which Herodotus had seen, and which seems to have been some miles to the north-east of the T 4


earlier Babel; whether the Euphrates had changed its course, or whether Nimrod's city was founded previously to any great progress in navigation, and on a spot selected for not being exposed to floods. The Mujellibe, which is also described, must have been the Tower or Temple of Belus, mentioned by Herodotus as consisting of seven successive pyramidal stages. In all this survey, Mr. Heude is too much the passive copyist of Mr. Rich; and he has not endeavoured to ascertain whether any traces remain of the fresh channel dug for the Euphrates during the siege of Babylon by Cyrus, or whether the ramparts thrown down by Darius after his capture of the city can still be pointed out. Indeed, it is by no means certain that the Babylon of Herodotus stood on the same site with the Babylon of Cyrus and Darius. The utter desolation described by the Jewish prophets seems to imply a total abandonment of the earlier station of the metropolis. Concerning the Narmalachy, or royal river, something is said at p. 109.; and the author rather strangely ascribes it to Nebuchadnezzar. It united the Euphrates and the Tigris, entering the latter river above Seleucia. The errors of Rollin and Prideaux have been sufficiently exposed by D'Anville.

Of the Takht Kersera or Khezra, (that is, the throne of Chosrocs,) some new particulars occur at p. III.; it is here considered as a part of the ruins of Ctesiphon, is described as having pointed arches, and is stated to be distant eighteen miles south-east from Bagdad. All these stations on the Tigris acquired their importance after the Macedonian conquest: - some change in the arts of navigation had probably facilitated an ascent of the more rapid river.

The sixth chapter details the dangers of the desert, and adds many features to a preceding description of the manners of the Bedooins. In the seventh, is given a history of Bagdad ; and in the eighth a description of the place, which at the season of the author's arrival was a scene of anarchy. Indeed, he witnessed one of those oriental revolutions which transferred, without benefit to the people, a despotic authority into new hands. After having read in the is Thousand and One Nights” so much about the splendid bazars and luxurious magnificence of Bagdad, we are disappointed to find it thus depicted, although a population is inferred of 200,000 persons.

• We have already noticed the period of its foundation, and the derivation of its name: in its present state, (as we have had frequent opportunities of ascertaining by riding round the walls,) it may occupy a space of about seven miles in circumference, part of which area however lies waste, or is filled up by ruins, as if already


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