The Uses of Experiment: Studies in the Natural Sciences
Experiment is widely regarded as the most distinctive feature of natural science and essential to the way scientists find out about the world. Yet there has been little study of the way scientists actually make and use experiments. The Uses of Experiment fills this gap in our knowledge about how science is practised. Presenting 14 original case studies of important and often famous experiments, the book asks the questions: What tools do experimenters use? How do scientists argue from experiments? What happens when an experiment is challenged? How do scientists check that their experiments are working? Are there differences between experiments in the physical sciences and technology? Leading scholars in the fields of history, sociology and philosophy of science consider topics such as the interaction of experiment; instruments and theory; accuracy and reliability as hallmarks of experiment in science and technology; realising new phenomena; the believability of experiments and the sort of knowledge they produce; and the wider contexts on which experimentalists draw to develop and win support for their work. Drawing on examples as diverse as Galilean mechanics, Victorian experiments on electricity, experiments on cloud formation, and testing of nuclear missiles, a new view of experiment emerges. This view emphasises that experiments always involve choice, tactics and strategy in persuading audiences that Nature resembles the picture experimenters create.
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Scientific instruments models of brass and aids to discovery
Glass works Newtons prisms and the uses of experiment
A viol of water or a wedge of glass
EXPERIMENT AND ARGUMENT
Galileos experimental discourse
Fresnel Poisson and the white sport the role of successful predictions in the acceptance of scientific theories
The rhetoric of experiment
REPRESENTING AND REALISING
Justification and experiment
THE CONSTITUENCY OF EXPERIMENT
Extraordinary experiment electricity and the creation of life in Victorian England
Why did Britain join CERN?
HALLMARKS OF EXPERIMENT
From Kwajalein to Armageddon? Testing and the social construction of missile accuracy
The epistemology of experiment
Andere Ausgaben - Alle anzeigen
accepted apparatus appeared argued argument authority British Cambridge century chamber changes chapter charge claims cloud colours concept concerned construction Crosse demonstration detailed discovery discussed early effect electrical empirical established evidence example existence experiment experimental explain fact Faraday field Figure force Fresnel further Galileo glass History important instruments interest involved ions issue justification knowledge laboratory laws light lines logical London magnetic material mathematical matter means measurements ment method missile Morpurgo natural Newton object observation optical original particles particular phenomena philosophers physics position possible practice prediction present Press prisms problem procedures produced published question rays reason reference relation replication rhetoric role Royal scientific scientists seems sense significance social Society successful suggested techniques testing theoretical theory tion trials University University Press Wilson
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