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MERCE, &c.



PART I. FOR 1811.

London :
By whom Communications (Post-paid) are thankfully received.


(Price Fifteen Shillings half-bound.)

Printed by J. ADLARD, Duke-street, West-Smithfield,


1858. Selita is,

** Communications on useful, practical, and matter-of-fact, sub1$, are earnestly solicited from all our Correspondents, and from all Persons at Home and Abroud, who have opportunities of making Ordinal observations or of collecting original fucts.

The late Volumes sufficiently bespeak the kindness and attention of the Friends of this Magazine, and the Editor, Sir RICHARD PHILLIPS, believes the ai no period since he began this work in 1790-6, has it gou more general satisfaction to its Readers, nor printained a muie unequiucal ascendency over all rivals than atu ing the last two or three years. Its sule has in that, as well as 2012 (very former period, cilula a regular periodical increase, and tie circulation is at this time equal to that of any Literary Journal 3. Europe.

Communications may be addressed, free of carriage or partage, .69 No. 7, Bridge-street, or to him at No. 5, Buckinghamn (uier

MONTHLY MAGAZINE. No. 209.) FEBRUARY 1, 1811. [1 of Vol. 31.

4: locg 19 there who write are ambitious of making converts, and of giving their opinions a Maximum of

Iseseoce 300 Cetebrity, the molt extenfively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greated Effect the Curioáty of the who read either for amusement or Indruction.- JOHNSON.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. For the Monthly Magazine, partners or bead clerks, and the pupils N o question is so common as, (the fashionable city-name for shop-boys

whence come the inhabitants of and apprentices) are domesticated there, the Reæ kouses built in the suburbs of the population of the city remains nearly ladoa

the same, and is probably not affected Sothing can be more rational than to the number of a thousand souls bv sach an enquiry; at least one thousand the affectation and extravagancies of bus per annuin liaving been finished this class of citizens. in the suburbs of London during the last The sober and more respectable city frirty yearsyet every new house is taken families have their country-houses at and occupied before it is finished, or its distances varying between four and ten walis dry! This rate of increase being miles from St. Paul's. These are prola tines greater than it was between bably ten thousand in number; but as the death of Elizabeth and the accession their houses are not an integral part of er the Hanoverian family, the causes the metropolis, they form, of course, no En be deserving of investigation, not part of the population of the forty thouel as matter of curiosity, but with re- sand new houses built within forty years lerence to their connection with the sci- in the suburbs. Even these teii thou. Euce of political economy.

sand families diminish but slightly the As the new houses are generally of resident population of the inetropolis, regeable size, and may be taken at because they generally dwell in their te zumber of eight souls to a house, town-houses in the winter season ; and, in the propulation of the metropolis is as- summer, these are occupied by junior etired, from the occupation of the partners, clerks, or shopmen. new buildings, to have increased in the I refer to seven causes chiefly, the age present age upwards of three hundred gregation of the houses and population thousand souls. So rapid an increase of of the suburbs of the metropolis. ishab-tants is not therefore to be ac. 1. London is not only the ancient mecounted for on ordinary principles; and it tropolis of England and Wales, but it is obviously involses a variety of consi- now the new metropolis of the added derations.

kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland; and It is not unusual to account for the moreover, of our increased colonies in all Sccupation of the new streets, by advert parts of the world. In the reign of Elia as to a change of manners among the zabeth, it was the metropolis of about utizens and the trading classes. It is seten millions of people, but it is now the said, and with truth, that the houses of metropolis of an aggregation of twenty trade do not satisfy the citizens of our millions. It is not therefore to be won. Gars, and that, to avoid the smell and dered, without referring to other causes, bude of the shop, the dwelling-house that London has increased to treble its Thust be at a distance. Doubtless, from size since that time, and that the popu. this cause, many capital houses at the lation within ten miles of St. Paul's. mest end of London are occupied by bills should be four times greater. All the maswfacturers called hankers, by bank. colonists consider London as their home: directors, by upstart monopolists, and it is the focus of their correspondence feccessful speculators in various branches and interests; their fortunes are remitted ci trarle. These, however, are not nu. to it; and here they find pleasanter Deroos, probably they do not exceed five means of spending them than among their baadrer families; and, as their houses of native wilds, whether in Scotland, trade are generally occupied by junior Ireland, Yorkshire, or other districts. floxmily Mac. No. 209.


These persons, with their families, form, tenements, either on annuities, on the beyond a doubt, a considerable portion bounty of government, or by their labour of the new population of the suburbs of in various departments of the arts. London; probably they occupy at least 6. The sixth class of independent five thousand of the largest new houses : residents in the suburbs, are an increased I shall remark, by the bye,, that ibey number of persons who have made fora also form a considerable portion of the tunes of various amounts in trade. idle inhabitants of Bath, Cheltenham, These occupy at least two thousand of Cliftoni, Brighton, and other fashionable the new houses, of all sizes. watering-places.

7. The enormous increase of the army 2. The increase of our government and navy, and the consequent increase establishments, the treasury, the cus- of officers living on half-pay, and on pentoms, the excisc, army, navy, and tax- sions, leads to the occupation of at least offices; and of our great trading com- iwo thousand houses in the immediate panies, the Bank, the India-house, and vicinity of London, not only for the others of bill-brokers, bankers, and pri- advantages of society, but for the convate estáblishments, furnishes at least venience of receiving their annuities, and three thousand competent occupiers of improving their interests with administhe new houses. None of these esti- tration. blishments, or occupations, provide Hence, from these seven causes, we board and lodging for their clerks and have no difficulty in accounting for the their families; hence all houses from occupation of part of the recent forty forty pounds to one hundred pounds per thousand new houses, by the families of annum, in new and pleasant streets, are

5000 Colonists, and persons who have made eagerly taken by this class, and they are

their fortunes in the East or West constantly on the increase in their several

lodies. departments.

3000 Clerks in public offices, in banking3. Persons who live upon annuities

houses, &c. derived from the increased public funds, 3000 Annuitants of the funds and stock and from the numerous stock companies

companies. created in the metropolis within the last

3000 Artists of luxury. twenty or thirty years, are a large class

2000 Emigrants of all nations. of new metropolitan housekeepers.

2000 Retired traders.

2000 Officers of the army and navy. They feel a local interest and attachment; they are, besides, in geveral,

20,000 Families. natives, or old residents of London; and they prefer receiving tbeir interest in Having thus accounted for the auga person to confiding it to any agent. mented population of twenty thousand These occupy at least three thousand houses, it is easy to conceive that as of the new-built houses, at rents at from many more are greedily taken by trades fifty to two hundred pounds per annum, men and others, who purpose to obtain

4. The general increase of the metroa living out of those by trade and labour polis, by adding to the mass of luxury, of various kinds. There will be bakers, has increased the number of artizaus, butchers, fruiterers, grocers, publicand persons employed on objects of lux- houses, barbers, taylors, shoe-makers, ury, such as painters, engravers, jewe hatters, carpenters, smiths, bricklayers, ellers, embroiderers, authors, designers, schoolwasters, lawyers, apothecaries, architects, and uthers of like description; physicians, and all the varieties which and these require three thousand compose the industrious and enterprising small babitations among the new build part of a community, supporting themings in the retired streeis arvund the men selves out of the wants of the twenty tropolis.

thousand independent families, and also 5. Another distinct large class of re on the mutual wants of each other. " sidents, in the immediate environs of To what extent this increase of a me." London, are French, Dutch, Spanish, tropolis can be advantageously carried, German, Italian, and other emigrants it is inipossible to anticipate. Ancient who, during the late wars and revolutions, Rome was said to be sixty miles round;. have fled to England, as a place of se- and London is not yet more than twenty. curity, and who, by the alien laws, are To equal ancient Rome, it must include attached to the metropolis. I estimate Stratford to the east, and Brentford on those to amount to about two thousand the west; Ilanıpstead and Highgate on fanilies, and they live in the smaller the north; aud Clapham and Camber.


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mell on the south; between which places able that the town should be more com. and London, there now are open spaces pact; but it is desirable in regard to larger than London itself.

health, that it should spread itself to the I confess I have my doubts about the neighbouring villages. It is however alleged size of ancient Roine; and I sus. worthy of consideration, whether the ina pect there never existed so large and po. terior of the town does not draw more pulous a city as London, or as London attention, and there can be no doubt buc will be, within seven years, when the new good streets near the centre of business, strects and squares are erected which would be preferred like Finsbury Square bave lately been planned on every side of and Chatham Place, to similar streets in the town. Twenty thousand houses are remote parts of the town. A grand mall, already projected in various situations; on the plan of the Adelphi, might be and, judging from the demand for new built on the south side of the Thames, kouses, and the uniform success which from London to Westiniuster-bridge: kas attended building-speculations for Smitisfield might be converted into an several years past, I entertain no doubt elegant square, and some elegant streets that they will be completed and occupied built in its neighbourhood, on the present wilbin the period above-named. If we scites of disease and misery. A grand retain our foreign colonies, and the con. cross strect, from Blackfriar's-bridge to tinent of Europe continues to be dis. Pentonville, with good collateral streets. turbed by revolutions and military con- is much wanted. In short, most of the quest, as it has been for the last twenty old streets in the centre of the towi), years, I have no doubt but in another are as worthy of building-speculation as wenty or thirty years, the fields and scites in the suburbs. Cross streets are roads between London and the above every where wanted; and half a dozen mentioned villages, will be filled with squares northward of the city, would houses, and the population increased answer as well as Finsbury Square : Sr. from three quarters of a million to a Martin's-le-Grand should be pulled down, million and a half. This is the necessary and Aldersgate-street carried straight; consequence of increased empire, of ins' and of equal width, to meet Newgate sular security, of civil and religious li- street, at the area which terminates berty, and of public confidence.

Cheapside. Bartholomew Close might: It is idle to talk of limiting the extent be converted into another elegant square; or size of the town by law, unless you and Charterhouse-square would be a dea could prevent colonists, aliens, and an- sirable residence, if connected with the noitants, from coming to dwell among town by Aldersgate-street; as would St. us. Whether the increased population John's-square, if united by a good street should be provided for by improvements, with Smithfield-square, It is impolitic and in the internal parts of the town, or senseless to carry the town to Highgate, whether by indefinite enlargement, is Hampstead, and Clapham, when so bad however a question worthy of consider- a use is made of its internal parts; where ation. Already the town is found to be whole districts consist almost of waste of inconvenient size for social and ground, or are occupied by beggary and tradling purposes; the foreign or country wretchedness. trader, who has many calls to make, finds I have often maryelled at the want of bis time and labour wasted in going from concert and general plan with which the one end of so large a town to the other. extensive suburbs are raised, after read. There bas long ceased to be any common ing the lamentations of writers in regard interest between the remote parts of so to the neglect of all plan, in rebuilding the immense a city: the inbabitant of Mary- city after the great fre. We see street on le-bone is a foreigner in Wapping; and street rising every where, without any 50 is the inhabitant of Spital Fields, in general design; every undertaker builds Westminster. There are thousands who ing after his own fancy, and to suit the have arrived at old age in one half of patch of ground of which he is the masLondon, who never visited the other ter. Perhaps it is now too late for parbalf; and other thousands who never saw 'liament to prescribe the plan of future a ship, though London is the first port in erections; or rather, in this free country the world. Of course, these are beings of magnificence must yield to convenience, very different habits and characters; and and a fancied public good, to private they possess eren a varied pronunciation interest. and peculiar idioms. For convenience of In conclusion, I shall observe, trade and association, it would be desire that great cities contain in their very


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